joint stock company apush

joint stock company apush


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Asked by 6 months ago
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joint-stock companyCompanies made up of group of investors who bought the right to establish plantations from the king
Virginia CompanyThe first joint-stock company in the colonies; founded Jamestown; promised gold, conversion of Indian to Christianity, and passage to the Indies
JamestownFirst permanent British colony established in New World (in 1607); Located in Virginia
Captain John SmithJamestown's survival was largely due to his leadership; established harsh martial law in the colony to ensure that those who did not work would not eat
John RolfeEased tensions b/t colonists and Indians when he married Pocahontas; discovered a new strain of tobacco; Tobacco cultivations became crucial to Virginia's economy; established the plantation system
PocahontasChief Powatan's daughter; Instrumental in preserving peace in Jamestown
royal colonyColony administered by a royal governor appointed by the king or queen of the mother country; Ex. VA, NY
PuritansProtestants who wished to purify the Anglican Church by breaking away from Catholic practices and barring people from the church who were not commited
Pilgrims (Separatists)Radical Protestants who wished to break from the Anglican Church entirely; Left England to settler in Netherlands but did not approve of the "Dutchification" of their children; enveutally settled in New World to avoid religious persecution
Plymouth Colony (Plymouth Bay)Chosen as the settlement site by the Pilgrims; located in present-day MA
MayflowerOne of the three ships on which the Pilgrims sailed to the New World
Mayflower CompactRegarded not as a constitution but as an agreement; Recognized James I as sovereign leader and all settlers as governing body; Agreed to majority rule
Massachusetts Bay ColonyFounded in 1629 by non-Seperatist Puritans
John WinthropGovernor of MBC; Wished to create "city upon a hill" in which morals were strictly enforced
Great MigrationTurmoil in England caused 150,000+ settlers to migrate to New World; ended with the outburst of English Civil War
Virginia House of BurgessesFirst miniature parliament authorized by London Company in 1619 in British American colonies; representative self-gov't; grant revoked by James I who thought assembly was dangerous and made VA a royal colony
corporate coloniesLed by a government with trading-company charters; Ex. MA, RI, CN
proprietary colonyColony fully governed by governors chosen by private land owners; granted permission by the Crown; are eventually reclaimed by the Crown and made into royal colonies; Ex. MD, PN, DE
Chesapeake coloniesComprised of MD and VI; had characteristics of both the Middle and Southern colonies - slavey and tobacco (South), farmed grain (Middle)
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)Founded colony of Maryland for Catholic haven and profit
Act of Toleration (1649Guaranteed religious freedom for those who asserted the divinity of Jesus Christ (excluded Atheists and Jews)
Sir William (Governor) BerkeleyEnacted friendly policies toward the Indians, eventually leading to Bacon's Rebellion
Bacon's RebellionFreedmen (former indentured servants) had difficulty working and living within the colonies and would often squat on Indian land; after several attacks from Indians, the freedmen requested protection from the gov't (Berkeley); when he refused to send aid and instead enacted policies to help the Indians, the freedmen were outraged; Nathaniel Bacon, an aristocrat and member of the House of Burgesses began mobilizing a militia to protect whites from Indians; massacred Indians and set fire to Jamestown causing Berkeley to flee; after Bacon died of disease, Berkeley crushed the rebellion; SIGNIFICANCE: colonists began to realize how dangerous indentured servants were becoming and upped slave imports
indentured servantIndividuals whose voyages to the New World were paid by others; in return for the free voyage, they would have to work for the provider for a certain period of time
slaveryCaptured or traded from Africa and brought to the Americas along the Middle Passage; considered property of wealthy whites, treated harshly; Essentially replaced indentured servitude
Roger WilliamsMinister from Salem; extreme Separatist who argued legality of MBC and Plymouth b/c both colonies were built on Indian land which the King had no authority over; Strongly believed in separation of church and state, King should have nothing to do with religious matters;
ProvidenceIn present-day RI; Established by Roger Williams on land he purchased from the Indians; Vowed to accepts all settlers regardless of their beliefs
Anne HutchinsonDubbed a heretic and banished from MBC b/c of her radical beliefs in antinomianism
antinomianismEssentially anarchy; Hutchinson's believe that man did not need to follow laws as his behavior has not bearing on his predestined outcome
Thomas HookerA reverend from Boston who led a group into present-day CN where they established the town of Hartford; against the strict policies of Winthrop and the MBC
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)FIRST modern constitution in American history; established a democracy controlled by citizens; modeled CN's future colonial charter and state constitution
Halfway CovenantA form of partial church membership to encourage children and grandchildren of first-genertation settlers to renew piety and abandon quests for material wealth
PatroonshipFavored aristocrats; Granted vast feudal estates to those who would settler at least 50 persons on them; Heavily protested
Society of Friends (Quakers)Official title for the Quaker religion; stronger opponents to authority and Anglican church than the Puritans - often persecuted because they were considered dangerous; believed in "inner light" not scripture or bishop; Asserted that all men were equal in the eyes of God - challenged social order
William PennFounded Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and as an experiment of liberal ideas in gov't while making a profit
New England ConfederationComprised of MBC, New Haven, Plymouth, and CN; joined to fight against Pequots in Pequot War (1636-37)
restoration coloniescolonies that were not founded until after Charles II assumed the throne; EX. NY, SC, NC
Holy Experimenttested religious toleration among many denominations
James Oglethorpefounded GA, the last British American colony established, as a haven for debtors as well as a buffer state to prevent any Indian or Spanish incursions from the South (FL)
mercantilismIdea that colonies existed solely for the benefit of the mother country; provided raw material and resources for England; goal is to export more than import
Dominion of New EnglandMain purpose was to outline and enforce Navigation Laws to protect mercantilist system in the colonies; created by Lords of Trade to unite all colonies after MBC's charter was revoked; prohibited meetings, revoked land titles, prevented smuggling, taxed heavily
Sir Edmond Androsappointed by James II to oversee the enforcement of the Dominion of New England; despised by colonists for autocracy and loyalty for Anglican church
Glorious RevolutionEngland's bloodless revolution in which James II was dethroned and replaced by William and Mary; Andros was subsequently arrested and shipped to England; Dominion and Navigation Laws no longer enforced
triangular tradeIllegal trade b/t colonies, West Indies, and Africa designed to circumvent Navigation Laws; Indies sent sugar to New England, NE sent rum to Indies, Africa sent slaves to Indies, Indies sent slaves to NE, Indies sent rum to Africa
Middle PassageThe journey slaves took across the Atlantic from Africa to the colonies; very brutal, awful circumstances
Great AwakeningFirst mass social movement in American history; religious revival initiated by Jonathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwardscredited with starting the Great Awakening in Northampton in 1734; encouraged the idea of salvation thru good works and emphasized eternal damnation; powerful, logical writer and speaker
George Whitefieldmost influential figure of The Great Awakening; amazing orator who appealed to the Bible; founded methodism in GA and SC
Cotton MatherPuritan minister who supported Salem Witch Trials to decrease prestige of clergy
Increase Matherson of Cotton Mather who became the president of Harvard University
Benjamin FranklinWritings had huge impact on shaping the American character; helped establish the University of Pennsylvania
Poor Richard's Almanackcollection of writings of many thinkers of the day; emphasized thrift, morality, industry, common sense
Phillis WheatleyFirst important African American writer in America; taught to read and write by slave's mistress; abolitionists used her as an example that blacks were not intellectually inferior to whites
John Peter ZengerPut on trial for criticizing the corrupt moral governor; claimed that he was only printing the truth, not libel; jury ruled in favor of Zenger thus giving editors a bit more freedom as to what they could print
town meetingsHeld in New England as a form of local administration
limited democracyAllowing some democratic ideals and practices while revoking others
Sir Walter RaleighEnglish elite who established the Lost Colony of Roanoke in present-day NC
Peter StuyvesantSurrendered New Netherlands after Charles II ordered British troops to remove the Dutch
William Bradford30-time governor of Plymouth, very popular leader; distributed land among settlers to encourage farming
Anne BradstreetEnglish-American writer; first notable American poet; first woman to be published in Colonial America; her writing really resonated with the Puritans
Pequot Warswars fought b/t Pequots and the NE Confederation from 1636-37; despite Puritan victory over Indians, NE fought to ensure security from Pequot attacks in the futures
Old LightsOrthodox and liberal clergymen; deeply skeptical about the emotionalism and theatrical antics of revivalists
New LightsSupported the Awakening for revitalizing religion and used emotionalism to impact their followers
Northwest PassageWaterway from Atlantic to Pacific; sought since the 1600s
St. AugustineFirst Spanish settlement in Florida, 1565
New AmsterdamFounded as a sea port and company town by the Dutch; later renamed New York
MetacomName by which King Phillip went by; Wampanoag chief; declared war on Puritan NE towns damaging and burning many; later executed
WampanoagsTribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
joint stock
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Asked: 6 months ago

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