when is/was gravitational contraction an important energy generation mechanism for the sun?

when is/was gravitational contraction an important energy generation mechanism for the sun?


S
Asked by 1 year ago
9.9k points
In the late 1800s, Kelvin and Helmholtz suggested that the Sun stayed hot thanks to gravitational contraction. What was the major drawback of this idea? A) It predicted that the Sun could last only about 25 million years, which is far less than the age of Earth. B) It predicted that the Sun would shrink noticeably as we watched it, and the Sun appears to be stable in size. C) It is physically impossible to generate heat simply by making a star shrink in size. D) It predicted that Earth would also shrink, which would make it impossible to have stable geology on our planet.A) It predicted that the Sun could last only about 25 million years, which is far less than the age of Earth.
When is/was gravitational contraction an important energy-generation mechanism for the Sun? A) only during solar minimum B) only during solar maximum C) when the Sun was being formed from a collapsing cloud of gas D) right after the Sun began fusing hydrogen in its core E) when the Sun transports radiation through the convection zoneC) when the Sun was being formed from a collapsing cloud of gas
What do we mean when we say that the Sun is in gravitational equilibrium? A) The hydrogen gas in the Sun is balanced so that it never rises upward or falls downward. B) The Sun maintains a steady temperature. C) This is another way of stating that the Sun generates energy by nuclear fusion. D) There is a balance within the Sun between the outward push of pressure and the inward pull of gravity. E) The Sun always has the same amount of mass, creating the same gravitational force.D) There is a balance within the Sun between the outward push of pressure and the inward pull of gravity.
What two forces are balanced in what we call gravitational equilibrium? A) the electromagnetic force and gravity B) outward pressure and the strong force C) outward pressure and gravity D) the strong force and gravity E) the strong force and kinetic energyC) outward pressure and gravity
What is the Sun made of? A) 100 percent hydrogen and helium B) 50 percent hydrogen, 25 percent helium, 25 percent other elements C) 70 percent helium, 28 percent hydrogen, 2 percent other elements D) 70 percent hydrogen, 28 percent helium, 2 percent other elements E) 98 percent hydrogen, 2 percent helium and other elementsD) 70 percent hydrogen, 28 percent helium, 2 percent other elements
The phase of matter in the Sun is A) gas. B) plasma. C) liquid. D) solid. E) a mixture of all of the aboveB) plasma.
What are the appropriate units for the Sun's luminosity? A) watts B) joules C) meters D) Newtons E) kilogramsA) watts
What is the average temperature of the surface of the Sun? A) 1 million K B) 100,000 K C) 10,000 K D) 6,000 K E) 1,000 KD) 6,000 K
Which is closest to the temperature of the core of the Sun? A) 10,000 K B) 100,000 K C) 1 million K D) 10 million K E) 100 million KD) 10 million K
From the center outward, which of the following lists the "layers" of the Sun in the correct order? A) core, radiation zone, convection zone, corona, chromosphere, photosphere B) core, corona, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere C) core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona D) core, convection zone, radiation zone, corona, chromosphere, photosphere E) core, convection zone, radiation zone, photosphere, chromosphere, coronaC) core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona
Which layer of the Sun do we normally see? A) photosphere B) corona C) chromosphere D) convection zone E) radiation zoneA) photosphere
The core of the Sun is A) at the same temperature and density as the surface. B) at the same temperature but denser than the surface. C) hotter and denser than the surface. D) constantly rising to the surface through convection. E) composed of iron.C) hotter and denser than the surface.
Based on its surface temperature of 5,800 K, what color are most of the photons that leave the Sun's surface? A) blue B) red C) yellow D) orange E) greenE) green
Why do sunspots appear dark in pictures of the Sun? A) They are too cold to emit any visible light. B) They actually are fairly bright but appear dark against the even brighter background of the surrounding Sun. C) They are holes in the solar surface through which we can see to deeper, darker layers of the Sun. D) They are tiny black holes, absorbing all light that hits them. E) They emit light in other wavelengths that we can't see.B) They actually are fairly bright but appear dark against the even brighter background of the surrounding Sun.
Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding solar surface because A) they are regions where convection carries cooler material downward. B) strong magnetic fields slow convection and prevent hot plasma from entering the region. C) magnetic fields trap ionized gases that absorb light. D) there is less fusion occurring there. E) magnetic fields lift material from the surface of the Sun, cooling off the material faster.B) strong magnetic fields slow convection and prevent hot plasma from entering the region.
How does the Sun generate energy today? A) nuclear fission B) nuclear fusion C) chemical reactions D) gravitational contraction E) gradually expanding in sizeB) nuclear fusion
How do human-built nuclear power plants on Earth generate energy? A) chemical reactions B) nuclear fusion C) nuclear fission D) converting kinetic energy into electricity E) converting gravitational potential energy into electricityC) nuclear fission
Hydrogen fusion in the Sun requires a temperature (in Kelvin) of A) thousands of degrees. B) millions of degrees. C) billions of degrees. D) trillions of degrees. E) any temperature, as long as gravity is strong enough.B) millions of degrees.
At the center of the Sun, fusion converts hydrogen into A) hydrogen compounds. B) plasma. C) radiation and elements like carbon and nitrogen. D) radioactive elements like uranium and plutonium. E) helium, energy, and neutrinos.E) helium, energy, and neutrinos.
How much mass does the Sun lose through nuclear fusion per second? A) 4 tons B) 4 million tons C) 600 tons D) 600 million tons E) Nothing: mass is conserved.B) 4 million tons
Suppose you put two protons near each other. Because of the electromagnetic force, the two protons will A) collide. B) remain stationary. C) attract each other. D) repel each other. E) join together to form a nucleus.D) repel each other.
Which is the strongest of the fundamental forces in the universe? A) strong force B) weak force C) electromagnetic force D) gravitational force E) none of the aboveA) strong force
The first step in the proton-proton chain produces an antielectron, or positron. What happens to the positron? A) It slowly works its way to the Sun's surface, where it escapes into space. B) It rapidly escapes from the Sun, traveling into space at nearly the speed of light. C) It is rapidly converted to energy when it meets an ordinary electron, resulting in matter-antimatter annihilation. D) It quickly meets an ordinary electron, forming an electron-positron pair that remains stable. E) It joins with a nearby neutron to form a proton.C) It is rapidly converted to energy when it meets an ordinary electron, resulting in matter-antimatter annihilation.
The overall fusion reaction by which the Sun currently produces energy is A) 3 H 1 Li + energy. B) 3 He 1 C + energy. C) 4 H 4 He + energy. D) 6 H 1 He + energy. E) 4 H 1 He + energy.E) 4 H 1 He + energy.
Why must the Sun's rate of fusion gradually rise over billions of years? A) The Sun becomes less efficient and must increase the rate of fusion to produce the same amount of energy. B) Fusion reactions decrease the overall number of particles in the core, causing the core to shrink, converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy, and increasing the rate of fusion. C) The radiation produced by fusion reactions that is trapped in the core gradually raises the temperature, increasing the rate of fusion. D) The Sun gets heavier as it gets older, and the stronger inward pull of gravity increases the fusion rate. E) The rate of fusion is not rising; it is actually decreasing over time.B) Fusion reactions decrease the overall number of particles in the core, causing the core to shrink, converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy, and increasing the rate of fusion.
Suppose that, for some unknown reason, the core of the Sun suddenly became hotter. Which of the following best describes what would happen? A) Higher temperature would cause the rate of nuclear fusion to rise, which would increase the internal pressure, causing the core to expand and turn the Sun into a giant star. B) Higher temperature would cause the rate of nuclear fusion to rise, which would increase the internal pressure, causing the core to expand and cool until the fusion rate returned to normal. C) Higher temperature would cause the rate of fusion to fall, decreasing the internal pressure and causing the core to collapse until the rate of fusion returned to normal. D) The higher temperature would not affect the fusion rate but would cause the core to expand and cool until the temperature returned to normal, with the core at a new, slightly larger size.B) Higher temperature would cause the rate of nuclear fusion to rise, which would increase the internal pressure, causing the core to expand and cool until the fusion rate returned to normal.
How do we know what goes on under the surface of the Sun? A) We have X-ray images from satellites of the interior of the Sun. B) Astronomers create mathematical models that use the laws of physics, the Sun's observed composition and mass, and computers to predict internal conditions. C) We have sent probes below the surface of the Sun. D) By measuring Doppler shifts, we observe vibrations of the Sun's surface that are created deep within the Sun. E) both B and DE) both B and D
Studies of sunquakes, or helioseismology, have revealed that A) the Sun vibrates only on the surface. B) "sunquakes" are caused by similar processes that create earthquakes on Earth. C) the Sun generates energy by nuclear fusion. D) our mathematical models of the solar interior are fairly accurate. E) neutrinos from the solar core reach the solar surface easily.D) our mathematical models of the solar interior are fairly accurate.
Which statement best describes the solar neutrino problem? A) Theoretical models predict that neutrinos should be produced in the Sun, but no neutrinos have ever been observed to be coming from the Sun. B) Solar neutrinos have been detected, but in fewer numbers than predicted by theoretical models. C) No one understands how it can be possible for neutrinos to be produced in the Sun. D) Our current understanding of fusion in the Sun suggests that all neutrinos should be destroyed before they arrive at Earth, yet neutrinos are being detected. E) The term solar neutrino problem refers to the fact that neutrinos are extremely difficult to detect.B) Solar neutrinos have been detected, but in fewer numbers than predicted by theoretical models.
Why are neutrinos so difficult to detect? A) because there are so rare B) because they have no mass C) because they move at nearly the speed of light D) because they rarely interact with matter E) because they are so smallD) because they rarely interact with matter
Which of the following statements about neutrinos is not true? A) About a thousand trillion neutrinos are passing through your body every second. B) Neutrinos are created as a by-product of the proton-proton chain. C) Neutrinos have no electrical charge. D) Neutrinos have a tendency to pass through just about anything without interactions, making them very difficult to detect. E) The mass of a neutrino is 30 percent of the mass of an electron.E) The mass of a neutrino is 30 percent of the mass of an electron.
What is a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem? A) The Sun is generating energy other than by nuclear fusion. B) The Sun is generating much less energy than we think it is. C) We do not know how to detect electron neutrinos. D) Not all fusion reactions create electron neutrinos. E) The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into another type of neutrino that we do not detect.E) The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into another type of neutrino that we do not detect.
The light radiated from the Sun's surface reaches Earth in about 8 minutes, but the energy of that light was released by fusion in the solar core about A) one year ago. B) ten years ago. C) a hundred years ago. D) a thousand years ago. E) a million years ago.E) a million years ago.
What happens to energy in the convection zone of the Sun? A) Energy slowly leaks outward through the diffusion of photons that repeatedly bounce off ions and electrons. B) Energy is produced in the convection zone by nuclear fusion. C) Energy is transported outward by the rising of hot plasma and the sinking of cooler plasma. D) Energy is consumed in the convection zone by the creation of electrons and positrons.C) Energy is transported outward by the rising of hot plasma and the sinking of cooler plasma.
Most of the energy produced in the Sun is released in the form of visible light from the photosphere. However, some energy is released from the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. Which of the following best describes where other forms of light are released? A) The chromosphere is the source of ultraviolet light, and the corona is the source of X rays. B) The chromosphere is the source of infrared light, and the corona is the source of ultraviolet light. C) The chromosphere is the source of X rays, and the corona is the source of radio waves. D) The convection zone is the source of ultraviolet light, and the upper photosphere is the source of X rays.A) The chromosphere is the source of ultraviolet light, and the corona is the source of X rays.
What is granulation in the Sun? A) the bubbling pattern on the photosphere produced by the underlying convection B) another name for the way sunspots look on the surface of the Sun C) elements in the Sun other than hydrogen and helium D) dust particles in the Sun that haven't been turned into plasma E) lumps of denser material in the SunA) the bubbling pattern on the photosphere produced by the underlying convection
What are coronal holes? A) regions on the photosphere where magnetic lines poke through, creating the cooler areas of the sunspots B) areas of the corona where magnetic field lines project into space, allowing charged particles to escape the Sun, becoming part of the solar wind C) holes in the corona of the Sun that allow us to see the photosphere D) tunnels in the outer layers of the Sun through which photons can escape more quickly than through the radiation zone E) all of the aboveB) areas of the corona where magnetic field lines project into space, allowing charged particles to escape the Sun, becoming part of the solar wind
Which of the following statements about the sunspot cycle is not true? A) The number of sunspots peaks approximately every 11 years. B) With each subsequent peak in the number of sunspots, the magnetic polarity of the Sun is the reverse of the previous peak. C) The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years. D) The cycle is truly a cycle of magnetic activity, and variations in the number of sunspots are only one manifestation of the cycle. E) The number of solar flares peaks about every 11 years.C) The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years.
What processes are involved in the sunspot cycle? A) gravitational contraction of the Sun B) wave motions in the solar interior C) variations of the solar thermostat D) the winding of magnetic field lines due to differential rotationD) the winding of magnetic field lines due to differential rotation
What observations characterize solar maximum? A) The Sun becomes much brighter. B) The Sun emits light of longer average wavelength. C) The Sun rotates faster at the equator. D) We see many sunspots on the surface of the Sun. E) all of the aboveD) We see many sunspots on the surface of the Sun.
Humans have not sent a spacecraft into the interior of the Sun to confirm any models of the interior. What evidence then do we have to support our current ideas about the solar interior? A) solar neutrinos B) solar flares C) sun spots D) We have no evidence, just informed guesses.A) solar neutrinos
when is
studybud

Your Answer

Surround your text in *italics* or **bold**, to write a math equation use, for example, $x^2+2x+1=0$ or $$\beta^2-1=0$$

Use LaTeX to type formulas and markdown to format text. See example.

Sign up or Log in

  • Answer the question above my logging into the following networks
Sign in
Sign in
Sign in

Post as a guest

  • Your email will not be shared or posted anywhere on our site
  •  

Stats
Views: 32
Asked: 1 year ago

Related