which of the following best describes ethics?

# which of the following best describes ethics?

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TrueEthics is that branch of philosophy that seeks to discover what different moral beliefs different people do in fact have.
TrueEthics is that branch of philosophy that is concerned with how we ought to live, with the idea of the good, and with the meaning of such concepts as right and wrong.
TrueAccording to the text, one reason why we study ethics is to see whether we can justify the beliefs we already hold.
FalseA moral theory is a coherent and systematic presentation of some view of the basis of good and bad.
FalseEthics is primarily a descriptive discipline.
TrueWhile emotions or feelings may play some role in moral considerations, one is also expected to give reasons for one's moral judgments.
FalseEthical considerations always start with the top, in other words, with the formulation of ethical principles or basic ethical values.
False"People often find it difficult to do what they believe is right" is a normative statement.
TrueThe following is an example of normative ethics: "Capital punishment is wrong because it is wrong to directly take a human life."
TrueIn doing metaethics one analyzes the meaning and function of ethical language.
FalseA teleological moral theory is one in which ends or goals play a key role.
TrueTo say that Sue has a right to know the truth is to give a consequentialist reason for being honest.
PrescriptiveAnother word for normative is
FORM OF GOLDEN RULE- A branch of philosophy that uses reasons to support positionsWhich of the following best describes Ethics?
ImmortalMetaethics is largely about studying The meaning of ethical language A synonym for unethical is
As we develop our skills we will be able to win more ethical arguments.Which of the following in not a reason given for developing our natural moral reasoning skills?
Follows logic--- leads to right conclusionEthics requires skillful reasoning. Which of the following is not important to making a good argument?
agrees with legal actionsprovides reasons for actions right or wrongEthical theory does which of the following
Teleological is moral and deontological is immoralThe difference between teleological and deontological is that
DeontologicalThat type of ethics which holds that an act is never justified by its consequences, the end does not justify the means
TrueEthics is branch of philosophy that makes only descriptive judgments.
God commands us to be good. Something good because god says it isThe Divine Command theory holds that
Explaining his actionWhen asked why he killed those people, Bill explains that he has anger management issues that result from an abusive childhood. Bill is
justifying his answerrationalizing his answerTommy robs a bank because he wants the money; he feels he deserves it because, he says, "Society has given me a raw deal because I'm not white." Tommy is
Explaining her actionMary gives a few dollars to charity every week. When questioned, she tells her friends that she helps others because the world is a better place when people help each other. Mary is
Based strictly on faithWhich of the following is NOT a characteristic of ethical rules?
TrueStarting at the conclusion and then looking for reasons that support that conclusion is the best way to build an argument that justifies an opinion.
Is not forced upon us and makes no sense at allAccording to Mary Migley, "moral isolationism"
FalseEthical relativism holds that there is a right and wrong, even though we do not agree about what is right and wrong.
Prevent us from truly examining our own cultureIsolating barriers
She believes they are fictionWhat is Midgley's opinion about pure, unmixed cultures?
FalseThe belief that what is right in some circumstances is not necessarily right in others cannot be held by ethical objectivists.
FalseMoral pluralists hold that there are many different ultimate values but question whether some rank higher than others.
TrueSocial or cultural ethical relativism holds that what is right is whatever one's society or culture holds is right.
Individual ethical relativism demands moral accountability from those who subscribe to the theoryWhich of the following is NOT a problem for the individual ethical relativist?
TrueAccording to the text, moral skeptics hold that it is difficult or impossible to know what is good or bad, right or wrong.
The class's disagreement about the date does not mean there is no such date, just as our diversity of moral views does not mean there is no correct moral viewWhy does MacKinnon ask her classes about the death date of George Washington?
subjectivismThe belief that all knowledge is personal knowledge, that we have access only to our own reality, is called what?
The theory offers no solutionYou are tempted to steal a large sum of money. You feel like you shouldn't, but you also feel like you really want to. What does the theory of individual ethical relativism say to do?
Social cohesionWhich is not a reason for supporting ethical relativism
TrueSome moral philosophers believe that ethical relativism is nothing more than a lazy way to avoid really thinking about ethics.
TrueAccording to ethical relativism, there is no objective good or bad, right or wrong.
FalseIf people disagree about some moral matter, their disagreement will always to due to their having difficult moral values
TrueMidgley argues that we can understand other cultures well enough to judge their practices
TrueAccording to individual ethical relativism, I cannot be objectively mistaken in my moral judgments.
there is no objective right and wrongEthical relativism holds that
satisficingPeople tend to settle for the first solution that appears to work. What word describes their normal human tendency?
Poor and despisedAccording to Glaucon, the perfectly moral man would be
Even "good" people will do evil if they can act without consequenceWhat does Glaucon want to demonstrate with his story of the perfectly moral and perfectly immoral men?
John NashWhich of the following believed that competition did not always produce the best results?
TrueEthical egoism is criticized as contrary to commonsense morality.
Act in the way they perceive to be best for themAccording to psychological egoism people
we should treat others well so they will treat others wellWhich of the following is not an example of ethical egoism?
FalseAccording to W. D. Falk, one would be given a good moral education if one were taught to be prudent.
TrueThe view that everyone ought to take care of him or herself because this would work to the benefit of all is not egoism but a form of utilitarianism.
TrueThe story of Mr. Lincoln was supposed to illustrate the truth of psychological egoism.
A ring that can make the wearer invisibleThe ring of Gyges can best be described as which of the following?
To show that being moral is ennoblingWhy did the instructor read a passage from The Mountain People in which people gorged themselves on stolen food?
Do what is in one's self interestAccording to individual ethical egoism one should
TruePsychological egoism is a descriptive theory and ethical egoism is a normative theory.
FalseThe most reasonable form of psychological egoism holds that we always do what is in our own best interest.
Rescued a pieIn the story questioning Lincoln's ability to be selfless, Lincoln
Living in a moral society benefits us more than anything elseAccording to contractarianism, we should all be moral because
That creates the best possible outcome, as if an "invisible hand" had guided the economy all alongIn The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith wrote that the government should take a hand-off (laissez faire) approach to the economy because
TrueThe Nash Equilibrium shows that not every game is win/lose and that cooperation sometimes beats competition.
FalsePsychological egoism is a theory that holds that we each ought to do what is in our own best interest.
TrueTo say that something is a normative theory is to say that it tells us what we ought to do.
Rene DescartesWhich of the following was not one of the founders of utilitarianism?
The ResultAccording to utilitarianism which of the following is useful for evaluating the morality of an action?
FalseBoth Bentham and Mill hold that some pleasures are better in kind than others.
TrueUtilitarianism is a moral theory that holds that we ought to promote utility (overall human happiness) and not just personal pleasure.
TrueThe reason that Mill believes that pleasure is the only intrinsic good is because he believes that it is the only thing that everyone desires for its own sake.
TrueAccording to act utilitarianism, if it produces more net utility or pleasure to give money that I had promised to return to a friend to famine relief instead, then I ought to give it to the relief fund.
PleasureAccording to utilitarianism which of the following is an intrinsic good?
TrueSomething that has value because people can use it to get what they want has instrumental value.
TrueIn the reading from Utilitarianism Mill writes that we have learned by experience that murder and theft are wrong because they are generally injurious to human happiness.
FalseUtilitarianism is a relativistic moral theory, for it recognizes that what is good in some circumstances is not always good in others.
TrueAccording to Mill, the only way to prove that something is desirable in itself (as an end) is to notice that people do desire it.
It is difficult to assign dollar value life or happinessCost-benefit analysis is one popular version of utilitarianism. Which of the following is the main problem identified with cost-benefit analysis in the textbook?
TrueIn his work, Utilitarianism, Mill's test or basis for distinguishing higher from lower pleasures is the preference of those who have experience of both.
As a general practiceRule Utilitarianism asks that we consider the consequences of each act
TrueAccording to Bentham, some pleasures may be more valuable than others but only in so far as they are of greater intensity or duration.
TrueThe following is an example of the reasoning of a rule utilitarian: "If the practice of lying is bad, then one ought not to lie now, even if in this case to lie would actually bring about better consequences."
FalseUtilitarianism is an egoistic moral theory.
FalseAccording to utilitarianism, an act that makes some people happy and others unhappy can never be morally right.
StressWhich of the following is not included in calculating the amount of happiness?
Choice AA will bring 5 people each 8 days of pleasure and 3 people each 2 days of pain, B will bring 8 people each 3 days of pleasure and 1 person 3 days of pain. According to act utilitarianism, all unstated factors being equal, which is the moral choice?
FalseAccording to utilitarian moral theory, happiness is an instrumental good.
This question is not part of Utilitarian reasoning"Who are the people involved, and what are my obligations to them?"
It cannot accurately identify preferencesWhich of the following is NOT a criticism of preference utilitarianism?
To act as the majority wishesWhich of the following is not necessary to act morally according to utilitarianism?
The complexity of calculating morality using a cost benefit analysis.MacKinnon used the story of the Golden Gate Bridge to illustrate which of the following?
The persons in the experiment had not consented to the studyThe example in the beginning of Chapter Five suggests using humans as "guinea pigs" was immoral because
The relationship between honesty and loyalty is conditionalAccording to W. D. Ross
Motives are within our control; not so consequencesWhat was one reason Kant focused more on motives than consequences?
FalseAccording to Kant, to act with a "good will" means to do what will benefit others.
Acting out of a will to do the right thingAccording to Kant, the highest moral activity happens as a result of
For our motive to do good or badAccording to Kant, we are morally responsible for which of the following?
FalseAccording to Kant, the shopkeeper who charges an equal price of all her customers because she likes them is acting "out of duty."
FalseAccording to Kant, an obligation or "ought" is categorical when it is something we ought to do in order to achieve some ends or goals that we have.
Like suggesting we should use what works to arrive at a goalHypothetical imperatives are
The kingdom of endsKant calls the community of rational persons
Don't use people as if they were mere thingsA good paraphrase of Kant's second form of the categorical imperative is
TrueAccording to Kant, one can do what is right and that action still may not have "moral worth."
TrueAccording to Kant, because persons are ends they ought not to be used as means to ends.
TrueKant reasoned that in order for moral law to affect only humans, humans must have some unique attribute that makes them subject to moral law, similar to the way having mass makes something subject to the law of gravity.
FalseAccording to Kant, moral obligations are hypothetical in nature.
Always supported by civil lawsAccording to Kant, moral "oughts" are all of the following except
It stresses the idea of people as free, equal, and rationalJohn Rawls's theory of justice is called Kantian because
I can't do what I couldn't do if everyone did it"Act only on that maxim you can will to become universal law" is a form of Kant's categorical imperative? Which of the following is Mr. Fredregill's paraphrase of it?
A desire to do one's dutyAccording to Kant, what is the only thing good in itself (the only "unqualified good")?
TrueKant's first form of the categorical imperative is derived from the nature of moral obligation as universally binding. In other words, it is generated logically from the necessity of equality built into the moral law.
Social or "Caring for others"Which of the following is NOT one of the features humans that makes them bound by moral law according to Kant?
TrueKant believed that moral law was as real as physical laws like those of gravity and magnetic attraction.
FalseThe reason it is wrong to make a lying promise, according to Kant, is because if everyone did that the results would be bad.
PeopleAccording to Kant, what has the highest intrinsic value?
FalseAccording to Kant the moral worth of an act is determined by its consequences.
which of
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