freud suggested that defense mechanisms protect an individual from

freud suggested that defense mechanisms protect an individual from


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An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her A)self-esteem. B) personality. C) reality principle. D) identification process.personality
The importance of unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences is of most central importance to A) humanistic theories . B) psychodynamic theories. C) social-cognitive theories. D) trait theories.psychodynamic theories.
Psychoanalysis refers to the personality theory and therapeutic practices developed by A) Carl Rogers. B) Gordon Allport. C) Sigmund Freud. D) Albert Bandura.Sigmund Freud.
By professional training, Freud was a A) philosopher. B) sociologist. C) physician. D) literary scholar.physician
Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when e noticed that certain patients' symptoms A) resulted from the physical abuse they received from their paren s during childhood. B) reflected a loss of individualism. C) illustrated a reciprocal determinism. D) made no neurological sense.made no neurological sense
Freud referred to the largely conscious "executive" part of the personality as the A) Oedipus complex . B) superego. C) ego. D) id.ego
According to Freud, the component of personality that seeks to reconcile the demands of the id, superego, and reality is the A) collective unconscious. B) Oedipus complex. C) erogenous zone. D) ego.ego
Freud suggested that the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasuresensitive areas of the body known as A) archetypes. B) the Big Five. C) erogenous zones. D) Oedipus complexes.erogenous zones.
Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is going through the stage of development. A) phallic B) anal C) latency D) oralanal
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ____ stage. A) anal B) phallic C) oral D) latencyphallic
The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe A) the erogenous zones that are the focus of the latency stage. B) the passive dependence of someone who is orally fixated. C) children's efforts to overcome feelings of inferiority. D) boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother.boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother.
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people A) disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others. B) consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses. C) retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development. D) offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action.consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called A).projection. B) displacement. C) fixation. D) reaction formation.projection.
The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is A) projection. B) denial. C) rationalization. D) displacement.rationalization
Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as A) regression, B) denial. C) displacement. D) projection.denial.
Karen Homey, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women A) have weak: superegos. B) experience high levels of self-efficacy. C) have stronger sexual instincts than men. D) never experience the Barnum effect.have weak: superegos.
Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that A) much of our mental functioning is unconscious. B) people often struggle with conflicting wishes. C) childhood experiences influence our adulthood relationships. D) sexual drives are central to personality development.sexual drives are central to personality development.
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for A) overestimating the impact of childhood experiences on adult personality. B) underestimating the inconsistency of behavior from one situation to another. C) overestimating the degree of similarity among people. D) underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called A) self-concept. B) fixation. C) projection. D) trait.trait.
The MMPI is an example of a(n) A) projective test. B) personality inventory. C) inkblot test. D) self-esteem test.personality inventory.
Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates A) the false consensus effect. B) the Barnum effect. C) the spotlight effect. D) unconditional positive regard.the Barnum effect
Sheryl is very outgoing and fun-loving. She prefers to be around other people most of the time. She most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as A) openness. B) collectivism. C)- extraversion. D) conscientiousness.extraversion
People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ______ during their twenties. A) conscientiousness B) extraversion C) openness D) emotional instabilityconscientiousness
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates A) factor analysis. B) the spotlight effect. C) self-serving bias. D) the Barnum effect.self-serving bias
Narcissism refers to excessive A) self-transcendence. B) self-control. C) self-love. D) self-pity.self-love.
Narcissism is associated with A) less gambling and less cheating. B) less gambling and more cheating. C) more gambling and less cheating. D) more gambling and more cheating.more gambling and more cheating.
People are more critical of their ____ selves than of their _____ selves. A)past; current B) current; past C) possible; impossible D) impossible; possiblepast; current
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and A) archetypes. B) situations. C) fixations. D) self-concepts.situations
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to A) Allport. B) Rogers. C) Adler. D) Bandura.Bandura
Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by A) the spotlight effect. B) reciprocal determinism. C) the self-serving bias. D) the Barnum effect.reciprocal determinism.
Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called A) the Barnum effect. B) self-serving bias. C) the spotlight effect. D) a fixation.the spotlight effect
A,sense of personal self-worth is called A} self-esteem. B) self-efficacy. C) self-monitoring. D) self-disclosure.self-esteem.
Self-efficacy refers to the experience of one's own A) fixations. B) superego. C)-competence. D) self-serving bias.competence.
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely completing A) a projective test. B) the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. C) the MMPI. D) the Free Association Index.a projective test.
The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to A) frightening pictures. B) ambiguous stories. C) meaningless inkblots. D) incomplete sentences.meaningless inkblots
Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it A) underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality development. B) is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive behavior. C) is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests. D)offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of A) projective tests. B) self-determination. C) reciprocal determinism. D) factor analysis.self-determination.
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for A) reciprocal determinism. B) immediate gratification. C) self-actualization. D) unconditional positive regard.self-actualization.
Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic? A) Gordon Allport B) Carl Rogers C) Sigmund Freud D) Albert BanduraCarl Rogers
Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected A) self-actualization. B) an Electra complex. C) the spotlight effect. D) unconditional positive regard.an Electra complex.
Freud suggested that a boy's identification with his father during the phallic stage illustrates the process of A) unconditional positive regard. B) self-transcendence. C) free association. D) conflict resolution.conflict resolution.
Freud suggested that defense mechanisms protect an individual from A) anxiety. B) self-serving bias. C) self-transcendence. D) unconditional positive regard.anxiety
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of A)repression. B) rationalization. C) regression. D) displacement.repression.
Regression is a defense mechanism that involves A) consciously expressing feelings that are the opposite of underlying unconscious impulses. B) disguising threatening impulses by attributing them to others. C) retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage. D) shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward less threatening targets.retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage.
Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from A) genetic defects. B) an inferiority complex. C) psychological processes. D) unconditional positive regard.psychological processes.
According to Freud, the unconscious is A) the part of personality that cannot process information. B} the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware. C) a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past. D) a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behaviorthe thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
Reporting whatever thoughts come to mind even if they are trivial or embarrassing is characteristic of A) defense mechanisms. B) the spotlight effect. C) free association. D) self-serving bias.free association.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the A) id B) ego. C) superego. D) reality principleid
Ego is to id as _____ is to _____ A) unconscious; conscious B) biology; morality C) reality principle; pleasure principle D) regression; repressionreality principle; pleasure principle
According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the A) Oedipus complex. B) ego. C) id. D) superego.superego.
freud suggested
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