when treating an 80-year-old patient who is in shock, it is important to remember that:

# when treating an 80-year-old patient who is in shock, it is important to remember that:

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afterloadThe force or resistance against which the heart pumps.
anaphylactic shockSevere shock caused by an allergic reaction.
anaphylaxisAn unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign protein or other substances.
aneurysmA swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting from weakening of the arterial wall.
autonomic nervous systemThe part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating.
cardiogenic shockShock caused by inadequate function the heart, or pump failure.
compensated shockThe early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss.
cyanosisBluish color of the skin resulting from poor oxygenation of the circulating blood.
decompensated shockThe late stage of shock when blood pressure is falling.
dehydrationLoss of water from the tissues of the body.
distributive shockA condition that occurs when there is widespread dilation of the small arterioles, small venules, or both.
edemaThe presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in body tissues, causing swelling of the affected area.
homeostasisA balance of all systems of the body.
hypothermiaA condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius), usually as a result of prolonged exposure to cool or freezing temperatures.
hypovolemic shockShock caused by fluid or blood loss.
irreversible shockThe final stage of shock, resulting in death.
myocardial contractilityThe ability of the heart to contract.
neurogenic shockCirculatory failure caused by paralysis of the nerves that control the size of the blood vessels, leading to widespread dilation; seen in patients with spinal cord injuries.
obstructive shockShock that occurs when there is a block to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues.
perfusionCirculation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs.
preloadThe precontraction pressure in the heart as the volume of blood builds up.
psychogenic shockShock caused by a sudden temporary reduction in blood supply to the brain that causes fainting (syncope).
sensitizationDeveloping a sensitivity to a substance that initially caused no allergic reaction.
septic shockShock caused by severe infection, usually a bacterial infection.
shockA condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.
sphinctersCircular muscles that encircle and, by contracting, constrict a duct, tube, or opening.
syncopeFainting.
Patients develop septic shock secondary topoor vessel function and severe volume loss
Distributive shock occurs when:widespread dilation of the blood vessels causes blood to pool in the vascular beds.
Pulmonary edema and impaired ventilation occur during: A) neurogenic shock. B) anaphylactic shock. C) septic shock. D) cardiogenic shock.cardiogenic shock
Capillary sphincters are:circular muscular walls that regulate blood flow through the capillaries.
Shock is the result of:hypoperfusion to the cells of the body.
When assessing a patient with signs and symptoms of shock, it is MOST important to remember that:blood pressure may be the last measurable factor to change in shock.
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely cause obstructive shock?cardiac tamponade
Which of the following would MOST likely result in hemorrhagic shock? A) liver laceration B) excessive sweating C) severe vomiting D) repeated diarrhealiver laceration
In infants and children, a capillary refill time (CRT) that is greater than ______ second(s) is a sign of poor peripheral perfusion.2
Neurogenic shock occurs when:failure of the nervous system causes widespread vasodilation.
Hypovolemic shock caused by severe burns is the result of a loss of:plasma
All of the following conditions would make you suspect shock, EXCEPT:tachycardia
One of the primary waste products of normal cellular metabolism that must be removed from the body by the lungs is:carbon dioxide
When the body senses a state of hypoperfusion, the sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine, the effects of which include:tachycardia
You respond to a residence for a patient with a severe leg injury following an accident with a chainsaw. When you arrive, you find the patient, a 44-year-old male, lying supine in the backyard. He has a partial amputation of his right lower leg that is actively bleeding. The patient is conscious and breathing adequately; however, he is restless and his skin is diaphoretic. You should:apply pressure directly to wound
Clinical signs of compensated shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:absent peripheral pulse
Which of the following patients is in decompensated shock?a 20-year-old female with absent radial pulses and dilated pupils
Which of the following MOST accurately describes septic shock?bacterial damage to the vessel wall, leaking blood vessels, and vasodilation
When treating an 80-year-old patient who is in shock, it is important to remember that:changes in gastric motility may delay gastric emptying, which increases the risk for vomiting.
Which of the following statements regarding anaphylactic shock is MOST correct?Each subsequent exposure following sensitization often produces a more severe reaction.
Which of the following clinical signs is unique to anaphylactic shock?wheezing
Hypotension in a child with blunt or penetrating trauma is particularly significant because:it often indicates the loss of half of his or her blood volume
In an acute injury setting, neurogenic shock is commonly accompanied by: A) hypovolemia. B) diaphoresis. C) tachycardia. D) hypothermia.hypothermia
Regulation of blood flow is determined by?cellular need
Basic causes of shock:a)pump failure b)blood or fluid loss c)blood vessel dialation
Noncardiovascular causes of shock are respiratory failure and?anaphylaxis
Nuerogenic shock usually develops from damage to spinal cord at the:cervical level
Neurogenic shock is caused byradical change in size of blood vessels
Hypovolemic shock is result oflow blood volume
In anaphylatic shock poor oxygenation and poor perfusion is a result ofwidespread vasodilation
when treating shock patient frequently check vitals every5 minutes
The Golden Period is the first 60 minutes afterthe injury occurs
What is a sudden reaction of nervous system causing temporary vasodilation and fainting?psychogenic shock
At what systolic blood pressure should you recognize that an adult patient is in decompensated shock?90 mm Hg
In compensated shock, the pulse of the patient usually:increases
When assessing breathing for a patient in shock, an increased respiratory rate can be a sign of:compensated shock
When treating a patient who exhibits signs and symptoms of shock, which of the following actions would not be appropriate?Splint all suspected extremity fractures.
Signs and Symptoms of Cardiogenic Shockchest pain irregular weak pulse/low BP cyanosis cool clammy skin anxiety rales in breathing pulmonary edema/possibly short of breath
Causes of Obstructive Shockmechanical obstruction of cardiac muscle leading to pump failure
A collection of fluid between pericardial sac and myocardium caused by blunt force trauma to chest/ type of obstructive shockcardiac tamponade/pericardial tamponade
type of obstructive shock caused by damage to lungs allowing air to escape into chest cavity and apply pressure to structures in mediastinum such as the hearttension pneumothorax
Signs and Symptoms of Septic ShockWARM SKIN tachycardia low BP
Signs and Symptoms of Neurogenic ShockBRADYCARDIA Low BP SIGNS OF NECK INJURY
Signs and Symptoms of Anaphylactic ShockQUICK ONSET mild itching rash burning skin vascular dilation generalized edema especially around face and lips pallor/cyanosis dizziness/fainting sneezing/tightness in chest/cough WHEEZING
Causes of Hypovolemic ShockHemorrhagic fluid/blood loss -burns can cause plasma loss
Signs and Symptoms of Hypovolemic ShockRapid weak pulse low BP Cyanosis lips nail beds cool clammy skin dehydration/thirsty INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE
A 25-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her chest when her car hit a tree while traveling at a high rate of speed. She has signs and symptoms of shock, which you suspect are the result of intrathoracic bleeding. Which of the following interventions will provide this patient with the greatest chance for survival? A) full immobilization of her spine B) application of the pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) C) 100% oxygen administration D) rapid transport to a trauma centerD) rapid transport to a trauma center
When perfusion to the core of the body decreases: A) blood is shunted away from the skin. B) the voluntary nervous system releases hormones. C) decreased cardiac contractility occurs. D) blood is diverted to the gastrointestinal tract.A) blood is shunted away from the skin.
A 70-year-old female was recently discharged from the hospital following a total hip replacement. Today, she presents with restlessness, tachycardia, and a blood pressure of 100/64 mm Hg. Her skin is warm and moist. You should be MOST suspicious that she is experiencing: A) pump failure. B) a local infection. C) decompensated shock. D) septic shock.D) septic shock.
Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when: A) blood coming from the right side of the heart bypasses nonfunctional alveoli and returns to the left side of the heart in an unoxygenated state. B) a decrease in respiratory rate and depth causes carbon dioxide accumulation in the alveoli and an overall decrease in blood oxygen levels. C) any impairment in circulatory function causes a reduced ability for oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane. D) the presence of pulmonary surfactant causes a decrease in alveolar surface tension, thus impairing the exchange of gases in the lungs.A) blood coming from the right side of the heart bypasses nonfunctional alveoli and returns to the left side of the heart in an unoxygenated state.
A 39-year-old male sustained a large laceration to his leg during an accident with a chainsaw and is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. You should:follow appropriate standard precautions.
when treating
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