because there was very little investment in education, african colonies

because there was very little investment in education, african colonies


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Indian Independenceboycott- abstain from using or purchasing goods or services civil disobedience- the refusal to follow certain laws, usually those viewed as unjust, as a form of protest nonviolent protests:refusing violence in favor of peaceful methods to gain political goals partition- the act of dividing something passive- not active, dominant, or forceful refugee- someone who goes to another country to escape danger Amritsar Massacre in 1919, ten thousand Indians marched to protest British policies in India -British soldiers fired on the crowd without warning -400 Indians were killed and 1200 were wounded -Nationalism began to grow How did the independence movement create conflict in India? ~Mohanda K. Ghandi (1869-1948) was called "Mahatma" which means "great soul" trained in Britain as a lawyer worked in S. Africa where he fought against racial discrimination organized nonviolent protests to achieve Indian independence spent 7 years in jail for his protests ~Civil Disobedience Satyagraha: -form of civil disobedience -deliberate and public reftusal to follow the law in order to protest the actions of the government Nonviolent Protest: -rejecting violence and choosing peace methods to gain political objectives ~The India National Congress In 1920, the India National Congress adopted Ghandi's strategy: -boycott British-made goods -refuse to pay taxes or vote in elections ~The Salt March In 1930, Ghandi led hundreds of followers on a march to the sea -They protested the British salt tax -Non-marching supporters were also attacked by troops for attempting to close the British salt works ~India after WW2 India participated in the war on the side of the Allies -More Indian leaders demanded self-government -Britain's population was reconsidering the cost of maintaining colonies ~Disagreement between Hindus and Muslims Muslims and Hindus could not agree on how to set up the new government -Ghandi wanted Hindus and Muslims to live together peacefully -Muslims like Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted to partition India into two states ~The problems of partition Hindus lived in spread out area Muslims lived in the North mostly but still the religions overlapped so there was no clear dividing line ~The Partition of India (1947) The Indian Independence Act of 1947 divided India The Republic of India: Majority Hindu Pakistan: Majority Muslim ~The Partition India: Hindu Pakistan: Muslim Burma: Buddhist Kashmir: Muslim and Hindu There was no clear break between both religions. ~The Aftermath of Partition After the partition, Hindus and Muslims fled in an effort to relocate -10 million became refugees -500 died in Hindu-Muslim riots -Ghandi pleaded for peace but was assassinated ~Indira Ghandi(1917-1984) became first woman to be elected prime minister of India was assassinated by members of her own bodygaurds becasue of religious conflict ~India's Challenges India face many challenges since gaining its independence -Religious conflict and acts of terrorism -Corruption in government -Legacy of the caste system -Explosive population growth
One of Jawaharlal Nehru's first duties as India's Prime Minister was toimprove living standards for Indians.
Why did Gandhi encourage Indians to weave their own cloth?Textiles were a major source of income for Britain.
Gandhi was trained to be alawyer
Which of the following ended the post-partition fighting between Hindus and Muslims?Gandhi's protest hunger strike
If the United States was to be partitioned in the same way India was, the partition would be based onreligious groupings.
Gandhi's nickname, Mahatma, meansgreat soul.
The refugee crisis that occurred in India after its partition was a result oftoo many people trying to relocate at one time.
Which of the following illustrates the concept of Satyagraha?camping out by a "no loitering" sign to protest the law
Why was the Salt March a turning point in India's struggle for independence?A foreign journalist gave the story an international audience.
Which of the following is the best example of civil disobedience?refusing to pay taxes because you disapprove of how the money is being used by the government
Challenges of Independence in Asiadecolonization- process of moving from colonial to independent status insurgency- rebellion against the government junta- a military group that rules a country by force regime- government in power secession- formally withdrawing from a group or organization seperatist- one who supports secession from a larger state, often based on ethnicity or religion Decolonization the process by which a colony becomes an independent nation India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Vietnam, Malaysia granted or gained through armed struggle How were the former colonies of Southeast Asia affected by independence? ~Seeking Independence The US won the Philippines from Spain in the Spanish-American War -The people of the Philippines opposed US rule -The Philippines gained independence after the end of WW2 ~Challenges since Independence Independence has led to political and economic challenges in the Philippines Dictatorship: two decades of rule by Ferdinand Marcos who known for marshal law, violence, and rigged elections Insurgency: Muslim seperatists and Communist rebels Poverty: struggles to raise the standard of living ~Successes since Independence The Philippines has had a steadily growing economy -Filipinos have successfully battled corrupt and abusive governments ~The US-Philippines Relationship Following Philippines' independence, ties to the US have remained close -The US had several military bases in the Philippine until the 19902 -The US is one of the Philippines' top trade partner and a major investor ~Indochina Colonies in Indochina were controlled by Britain and France Each would gain independence following WW2 Burma's Change to Myanmar Burma, which is now know as Myanmar, was granted independence from Great Britain in 1948 -The nation has been under military control since the 1960s -A military junta controlled the government until 2011, repressing citizens and limiting rights -Recent political reforms have been slow, bringing limited change ~Aung San Suu Kyi (b.1945) was elected Prime Minister of Myanmar in 1990 was prevented from taking office and placed under house arrest for 21 years was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 while under house arrest was freed in 2010 and now works for political reform ~Independence for Malaysia and Singapore Malaysia gained its independence from Britain in 1962 Successes: -has experienced continued economic growth -is known for the strength of its manufacturing industry Challenges: -has experienced tensions between the Malay majority and other groups -experienced the secession of Singapore which became an independent state ~Independence in Cambodia, Laos,and Vietnam The nations of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam were part of French Indochina -Rebels led successful wars of independence -Vietnam was divided into two, with a communist north and a pro-Western south ~After Independence Vietnam: -The US-led war in Vietnam failed to stop the spread of communism into the south -Economic reforms brought Vietnam into the world trade community Cambodia: -The Khmer Rouge regime killed more than 1.5 million Cambodians -Rapid economic growth occurred after the monarchy was restored in 1993 ~Indonesia Indonesia is made up of many islands that spread southeast of the Asian mainland. -The group of islands was colonized by the Dutch ~Indonesian Nationalism and Independence Various groups fueled a nationalist movement int he early 1900s -Indonesia declared its independence in 1950 -Indonesians rebelled against the Dutch, fighting off attempts to regain control until 1949 ~The Challenges of Independence Political challenges:Army-led coup d'etat and corrupt dictatorships Ethnic conflict: East Timor's independence in 2002 Natural disaster: 2004 earthquake and tsunami killed more than 200,000 people
Which world event sped up independence movements by European colonies in southeast Asia?the occupation of southeast Asia by Japan
Why did the United States become involved in the Philippines' affairs?to fight the Spanish-American War
Before gaining independence, the colonies in Indochina were controlled byFrance and Britain
Which Indochinese country was under control of a junta for decades?Burma
How did the Dutch set themselves up for an uprising by the people of Indonesia?They provided too many opportunities for the Indonesians, who used their new skills to demand independence.
After the Philippines became independent, its relationship with the United Statesstregthened.
Which of the following best summarizes the character of Aung San Suu Kyi?fearless activist who would risk imprisonment for principles
Which of the following countries were part of French Indochina? Check all that apply.Cambodia Laos Vietnam
This chart shows the gross domestic product of the Philippines after independence....
Which of the following nations achieved independence through armed rebellion? Check all that apply.Cambodia Indonesia Vietnam
Vietnam's war for independence and division into two countries in 1954 led the United States to send military forces to the region. Why did this take place?The United States feared the spread of Communism throughout Southeast Asia.
After World War II, the Philippines was granted its independence by which nation?the United States
After independence, the Philippines struggled under the dictatorship ofFerdinand Marcos
he Philippines gained full independence from the US in1946
Since independence, Malaysia has been highly successful inmanufacturing.
In the Philippines, attempted takeovers by Communist rebelsare still an ongoing problem today.
Decolonization in Africacorruption- a lack of morals demand- call for something urgently incite- encourage or provoke pan-Africanism- a movement that sought to unify people of African descent and establish independence for African nations Colonialism in Africa European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s -Imposed their economic and political systems on the colonies -Exploited African labor and resources for European profit How did decolonization affect African nations? ~The Effects of Colonial Practice Causes: -Economies created to benefit colonial powers -Little Investment in education -Colonial boundaries ignored cultural division ~Economic Effects of Colonialism Cause: Economies created to benefit colonial powers Effects: -Economies dependent on a single cash crop -Little industrialization -Little investment in infrastructure -Very small middle class ~Little Focus on Education Cause: Little investment in education Effects: -Lack of a skilled, literate workforce -lack of leaders with government experience ~Problems with Colonial Boundaries Cause: Colonial boundaries ignored cultural divisions Effects: -Widespread ethnic conflict -Lack of national identity ~Challenges of Independence Overwhelming challenges made it harder for democracies to stay in power Democracies fell to military rule and authoritarian dictatorships ~The Pan-Africanism Movement Pan-Africanism was a movement whose purpose was to unify people of African descendants around the world -An imp early goal was to free Africa from colonial rule -African leaders formed the Organization of African Unity, also know as the African Union ~Ghana African independence began in Gold Coast, now called Ghana -Africans gained a majority in colony's Parliament in 1946 -Kwama Nkrumah became prime minister in 1952 -In 1957, Ghana became independent ~Problems Lead to Military Rule Nkrumah increase his own power: -Opposition political parties banned -Corruption increased Economic problems increased: -Rising debt -falling cacao crop prices Military coup overthrew government: -Government instability increased ~Ghana today Democratic reforms in 1992 allowed for multiparty elections -Advances in education and human services continue ~Kenyan Independence Kenya African Union(KAU): led by Jomo Kenyatta Mau Mau Uprising: Rebel group used guerrilla warfare Forced the British to negotiate Kenyan Independence granted in 1963 ~Jomo Kenyatte (c.1894-1978) Served as a prime minister and then president of Keny Led the Kenyan Africa Nationalist Union(KANU), the dominant political party Was a member of the pan-African movement who sought rights for Africans Was accused of showing favortism towards Kikuyu people, causing discontent ~Kenya Today In 1990s, new opposition parties began to gain influence Charges of election fraud led to the creation of a new constituiton It created a system of checks and balances and reduced the power of the presidency Ethnic favortism continues to be a problem ~Nigeria Nigeria was home to many ethnicities and religions -ethnic minorities in the west rebelled against Yoruba rule in 1967 -Soon, civil war broke out across the nation -More than 1 million people were killed ~Shift from Military to Democratic Rule From 1970 to 1999, a series of military leader and dictators ruled Nigeria -Some prohibited all political activity and criticism of the government In 1999, a civilian president was elected -The growth of the oil industry helped the development of the Nigerian economy -Ethnic tensions remain ~Rwanda Rwanda won its independence from Belgium in 1962 -The nation is home to two rival ethnic groups: the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi -Unrest, conflict and civil war were common -A peace agreement was signed in 1994 in which the two groups agreed to share power in a democratic government ~The Rwandan Genocide In 1994, a plane crash killed the Hutu president of Rwanda -Extremist Hutus used the event in incite genocide against the Tutsis -800,000 people were murdered
What was the first step in Ghana's independence?Africans gained a majority in the parliament.
The economies of most African colonies were dependent onone or two crops.
What was the purpose of pan-Africanism?to unite people of African descent around the world
The large number of casualties in the Nigerian civil war can be attributed tothe many different factions at war with one another.
Why did corruption increase when opposition political parties were banned in Ghana?Nkrumah's government held too much power, and officials could do whatever they wanted.
European nations benefited from African colonies'labor and resources.
Because there was very little investment in education, African colonieshad few leaders with government experience.
Another name for the Organization of African Unity is theAfrica Union
The majority ethnic group in Rwanda is theHutu
When military leaders and dictators ruled Nigeria, they sometimes tried to prevent unrest byprohibiting all criticism of the government.
What was a major contributor to unrest in Nigeria?its many ethnicities and religions
Jomo Kenyatta caused discontent during his rule in Kenya byexhibiting favoritism toward the Kikuyu people.
Europeans ignored cultural divisions when setting colonial boundaries becauseEuropeans had no interest in or concern for African cultural divisions.
What can one conclude about the link between falling cacao crop prices and rising economic problems in Ghana?The country was too dependent on exports of its cacao crop.
Latin American Reformimplement- to put into effect intermittently- every once in a while liberal- a philosophy that believes it is the government's role to correct social inequalities nationalize- to transfer control of land or industry from private owners to the government opposition party- a political party not in power that works to oppose the government's policies referendum- a political decision given to the voters to decide during a general election Latin America South of the US Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba Many of these countries struggled after independence The Problems of Independence Latin American nations faced a broad range of challenges following independence -competing government ideologies -widespread poverty -unequal distribution of wealth -growing foreign economic influence How did countries in Latin America approach government reform? ~Mexican Independence Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 -The country was intermittently ruled by dictator Santa Anna until 1855 -Benito Juarez set up a republic, and began to institute liberal reforms in the 1860s -This led to conflict between liberals and conservatives ~The Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz seized power and established a dictatorship -He used his power to limit democracy and freedoms -In 1910, the people rose up in revolution Revolutionary leaders: Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa ~The Mexican Constitution of 1917 After the revolution, Mexico passed a new constitution that protected democratic rule Land Reform: -Restricted foreign ownership of land -Broke up large estates -Seized remaining church lands Social Reforms: -Prohibited discrimination -Prohibited censorship -Prohibited for free education Economic Reform: -Established minimum-wage laws -Protected unions and the right to strike ~Lazaro Cardenas(1895-1970) Became Mexico's president in 1934 Redistributed land to peasants Implemented new welfare programs Improved education in rural areas Nationalized oil and railroad industries ~Institutional Revolutionary Party(PRI) The PRI became the dominant party in Mexican politics -Controlled the congress, and won every presidential election -Allowed opposition parties, but used election fraud to stay in power -Became controlling and corrupt ~Modern-Day Mexico Challenges: -High levels of corruption among police and public officers -Drug cartel-related violence -Continuing poverty, especially in rural areas Successes: -Growing middle class -Expanded role of women, and increased rights -Economic growth, and increased global trade ~Socialism and Communism During the 20th century, some Latin American countries turned to socialism and communism Socialism: -Government-controlled means of production -Government-provided services -Multiple political parties Communism: -Totalitarian government -Single-party state -Government-controlled economy ~Communism Cuba Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba, and created a communist dictatorship -Nationalized the Cuban economy -Repressed civil liberties, imprisoned political opponets, and prohibited a free press -Became economically dependent on the Soviet Union ~Cuba after the Fall of Communism The collapse of the USSE led to significant changes -Cuba lost Soviet-provided economic support -Shortages of food and medicine were common -Some economic reforms were made ~Venezuela After gaining independence in 1831, Venezuela experienced political instability -17 constitutions -Series of dictators and military leaders until 1958 ~The Chavez Presidency(1988-2013) Hugo Chavez was elected president in 1988 -won a referendum to rewrite the constitution -Implemented socialism in Venezuela -Established stronger ties with Cuba -Accused of damaging some democratic institutions
Porfirio Diaz and Santa Anna each led Mexico after independence asdictators.
What type of ideology has gained popularity throughout Latin America?liberalism
Which best describes the difference between socialism and communism?The government controls people's lives under communism, while it provides certain services for citizens under socialism.
After being elected president of Venezuela, Hugo Chavezstrengthened ties with socialist countries like Cuba.
Who were two leaders of the rebel army during the Mexican Revolution?Zapata and Villa.
After Cuba lost economic aid from the Soviet Union, Fidel Castroallowed some economic reforms to occur.
Which best describes how Mexican leaders sought to protect democratic rule after the country's revolution?They approved a new constitution.
Mexico's Constitution of 1917 helped the working class byprotecting the right to strike.
The main reason Crdenas nationalized Mexico's oil industry was toenable the country to get direct benefit from its vast supplies.
Which actions did Fidel Castro take in Cuba after creating term-82a communist system in 1959? Check all that apply.He nationalized the Cuban economy. He repressed the civil liberties of all citizens. He prohibited free press in the country. He forbade the selling of private property. He banned all travel to and from the country.
The Venezuelan people gave Hugo Chavez a referendum to rewrite their constitution and implementsocialism.
Which best describes the successes and challenges of modern-day Mexico?It has experienced economic growth and a growing middle class, but poverty continues to linger and government corruption remains
Mexico experienced a series of liberal reforms in the 1860s instituted byBenito Juarez.
Which best describes what occurred in Mexico following the institution of liberal reforms by Benito Juarez?The government action caused conflict between liberals and conservatives.
Conflict in the Middle Eastcoalition- a political alliance formed to accomplish a mutually beneficial goal controversial: giving rise to public disagreement terrorism- the practice of committing violent or destructive acts to achieve political goals weapons of mass destruction- weapons that can kill or injure a large number of people at one time, or cause massive damage to structures. The 9/11 Attacks Terrorist hijacked various airplanes and flew them into buildings Greatly change the US can trace events back to the Persian Gulf War How did issues in the Persian Gulf region lead to conflict with the US? ~Saddam Hussein (1937-2006) was president of Iraq from 1979 to 2003 ruled as a dictator invaded Iran in 1980, starting an 8 year war known for human rights abuses such as torture and genocide used a secret police and terrorism to stay in power overthrown, convicted of war crimes, and executed ~Iraq invades Kuwait In 1990, Hussein's army invaded Kuwait -Iraqi troops stationed themselves near border of Saudi Arabia -Saudi Arabia feared an Iraqi Invasion ~Ultimatum from the UN The UN Security Council demanded that Hussein leave Kuwait August 3, 1990: The UN tells Hussein to withdraw January 15, 1991: The UN deadline for withdrawal passes January 16,1991:Allied forces launch invasion -The coalition was led by the US -It included NATO and Arab forces from many countires ~Operation Desert Storm In January 1991, the US led a bombing campaign in Iraq -A ground invasion was launched six weeks later -Retreating Iraqi soldiers set fire to old wells in Kuwait -Iraq was forced to accept the UN's cease fire terms ~The Persian Gulf War Ends Hussein agreed to the terms of cease-fire: Recognition of Kuwait's right to exist independently -Elimination of long-range missiles and weapons of mass destruction in its possession -Cooperation with UN weapons inspectors, including allowing them to visit Iraq -Establishment of a US-led UN force in Saudi Arabia to protect Kuwait from further attack ~Hussein Remains in Power Kurds and Shiite Muslims rebelled against Hussein's rule Hussein used chemical weapons against the rebels Hussein refused to admit UN weapons inspectors as required by the cease-fire The UN imposed sanctions against Iraq for Hussein's unwillingness to cooperate ~The Taliban The Taliban rose to power by restoring order in Afghanistan after country's 9 year war with the Soviet Union -The strict Islamic regime governed Afghanistan from 1996-2001 -The Taliban allowed terrorist organization to operate out of Afghanistan ~Al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda is a militant Islamist group founded in the late 1980s -It began as a force to fight the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan -It later demanded that US troops withdraw from Saudi Arabia -It has designed a terrorist organization by the UN Security Council, the European Union, NATO, and the US government ~Osama Bin Laden(1957-2011) United Islamic fighters he met in Afghanistan to create al-Qaeda Viewed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as an attack on Islam Saw the US-led UN forces in Saudi Arabia as another attack on Isla, -Supported and bankrolled the 9/11 attacks ~Early al-Qaeda Attacks In 198, bin Laden told al-Qaeda members they should target Americans -In 1998, US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were bombed In 2000, the USS Cole was attacked in Yemen ~September 11, 2001 On the morning of September 11,2001, a group of hijackers -boarded four planes leaving airports on the East Coast -attacked the flight crews and took over the planes' controls after takeoff -flew planes toward targets in NY and DC -The hijackers piloted two planes into the World Trade Center's twin towers, which soon collapsed -One plane was flown into the Pentagon -One plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania -Almost 3,000 people died ~The War on Terror After Sept 11 attacks: -the FBI identified the 19 hijackers and linked them to al-Qaeda -The US demanded that Afghanistan's Taliban government turn over Osama bin Laden Afghanistan: -In Oct 2001, the US began bombing Taliban defenses -The Taliban were driven from power and a new government was established -Many countries contributed to the war effort, including Britain, Australia, Germany, and Pakistan Iraq: -in 2003, US forces invaded Iraq -The invasion was controversial -Saddam Hussein was captured, tried, and eventually executed for war crimes by the new Iraqi government -Free elections were held in 2005 ~US government Reaction to 9/11 Established the Department of Homeland Security Increased security at airports and on airplanes passed the USA Patriot Act Launched invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States demanded thatAfghanistan's Taliban government turn over Osama bin Laden.
How did al-Qaeda get its start?as a force against Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
What is a coalition?a political alliance
What was the most likely motivation for Iraqis to set fire to oil wells in Kuwait?They wanted revenge when they were forced to retreat from Kuwait.
What was the source of al-Qaeda's hostility toward the United States?Al-Qaeda wanted the United States to withdraw troops from Saudi Arabia.
As part of the war on terror, what action did the United States take in Afghanistan?It drove the Taliban out of power.
Al-Qaeda's main targets on September 11, 2001, wereNew York City and Washington, DC.
Operation Desert Storm was the name ofthe ground invasion in Kuwait.
Why did Saudi Arabia fear an Iraqi invasion?Iraq invaded nearby Kuwait for its oil.
Why was the US invasion of Iraq controversial?Many did not agree that Iraq presented a terrorist threat.
Why did Saddam Hussein use weapons of mass destruction against Kurdish people and Shiite Muslims?They rebelled against Saddam Hussein's rule.
The Department of Homeland Security was created toprotect the United States from terrorist attacks.
Arab forces most likely fought with the United States in the Gulf War becausethey wanted to protect their own resources.
How would al-Qaeda have been affected if the Taliban had not supported it?It would not have developed a strong base in Afghanistan.
Why did Singapore secede from Malaysia?Its primarily Chinese population was facing threats and conflict from the Malay majority of the country.
In addition to Spain and the United States, which nation controlled the Philippines for a time?Japan
In ____, Osama bin Laden first told al-Qaeda to target Americans.1998
How did Osama bin Laden form Al-Qaeda?He united Islamic fighters he met in Afghanistan.
Read the passage from a speech by President Harry Truman. It has been the repeated declaration of the legislative and executive branches of the Government of the United States of America that full independence would be granted the Philippines as soon as the people of the Philippines were prepared to assume this obligation...the people of the Philippines have clearly demonstrated their capacity for self-government... -Proclamation of Philippines Independence, July 4, 1946 What did the Philippines need to do before assuming independence?show they would be able to govern themselves
Approximately ____ people died in the attacks of September 11, 2001.3,000
Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba in 1959 and created a government based ona communist dictatorship.
What of the following characterized Ghana after 1992?advances in education and human services
Which of the following groups attempted insurgency against the newly independent Philippine government?Muslims
In chronological order, Mexico's leaders after its independence in 1821 and before its revolution in 1910 wereSanta Anna, Benito Juarez, and Porfirio Diaz.
Why did India's desire for independence increase following World War II?It felt that its service in the war effort should grant it independence.
In 1967, ethnic minorities rebelled against Yoruba rule inNigeria
Which event sparked extremist Hutus to incite genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda?the death of the Rwandan president
What resulted when Europeans created colonial boundaries that ignored Africa's cultural divisions? Check all that apply.widespread ethnic conflict lack of national identity
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