the nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is

the nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is

Asked by 2 years ago
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Excess amounts of most water-soluble vitamins are stored in the adipose tissue. readily excreted. stored in the liver. often toxic.readily excreted
Excess amounts of most fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver or adipose tissue. excreted via the kidneys. stored in the pancreas. all of the above are correct.stored in the liver or adipose tissue.
Nutrients most likely to cause toxicity if consumed in excessive amounts include vitamin B-12 and vitamin K. vitamin D and riboflavin. vitamin A and vitamin D. vitamin A and vitamin E.A and D
Beta-carotene can be converted to vitamin A in the body. can be converted to vitamin E in the body. is a classified as a retinoid. is toxic when consumed in excess amounts.can be converted to vitamin A in the body.
In children, a severe deficiency of vitamin A often results in scurvy. night blindness. insufficient blood clotting. microcytic anemia.night blindness.
After absorption, the fat-soluble vitamins are distributed to body cells by free fatty acids. lipases. mucopolysaccharides. lipoproteins.lipoproteins.
Some scientists believe that vitamin D recommendation should be much higher than currently set. True FalseT
When consumed in recommended amounts, approximately ________ of fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed. 1-5% 5-20% 10-35% 40-90%40-90%
Vitamin A supplements are not necessary for most adult Americans as they have significant reserves in the eye. the skin. the kidney. the liver.the liver
In North America, population groups at increased risk of vitamin A deficiency include all of the following EXCEPT college-aged diabetics. alcoholics with liver disease. those with GI diseases that prevent fat absorption. low birth weight, premature diabetics.
The most likely cause of a vitamin A toxicity would be consuming large amounts of dark green and yellow vegetables. eating sauted liver and onions twice a week. consuming high levels of vitamin A supplements. drinking carrot juice twice a day.consuming high levels of vitamin A supplements.
Healthy, light-skinned individuals can make sufficient vitamin D to meet the body's needs with about ________ of sun exposure on their face, arms, and hands 2 or 3 times per week. 15 minutes 60 minutes 90 minutes 120 minutes15 minutes
The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is vitamin E. K. D. A.D
Vitamin D is involved in the regulation of body levels of cholesterol. calcium. prothrombin. potassium.calcium
As calcitriol, vitamin D functions in calcium and bone metabolism by reducing calcium excretion by the kidney. regulating calcium and phosphorus absorption through the intestinal wall. regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in bones. All of these choices are accurate.All of these choices are accurate.
Calcitriol is the precursor to vitamin D that is activated by sunlight. plant source of vitamin D. animal food source of vitamin D. biologically active form of vitamin D.biologically active form of vitamin D.
A reliable food source of vitamin D is yellow-orange colored fruits. dark green leafy vegetables. whole grain breads. fortified milk.fortified milk.
Vitamin D synthesis in the skin is affected by all of the following EXCEPT use of sunscreen. skin color. geographic location. All of these factors can affect vitamin D synthesis.All of these factors can affect vitamin D synthesis.
Individuals at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency include all of the following EXCEPT elderly adults living in nursing homes. dark-skinned children with limited outdoor activity. young adults who eat high amounts of fatty fish and fish oils. individuals with diseases of fat-malabsorption.young adults who eat high amounts of fatty fish and fish oils.
Vitamin E functions to protect cell membranes from destruction by various reducing agents. protect phospholipids in cell membranes from damage by free radicals. accept electrons, thus neutralizing the action of free radicals. All of these choices are accurate.All of these choices are accurate.
The most nutrient-dense sources of vitamin E are refined grains and cereal products. orange-colored fruits. vegetable oils. animal fats.vegetable oils.
Of the following population groups, those at lowest risk for vitamin E deficiency are premature infants. the elderly. athletes. smokers.premature infants.
A high intake of vitamin E can interfere with vitamin K's blood-clotting activity. result in lead poisoning. inhibit copper absorption. cause atherosclerosis.interfere with vitamin K's blood-clotting activity
The nutrient essential for the synthesis of blood clotting factors is vitamin A. D. E. K.K
A nutrient synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine is vitamin E. D. A. K.K
Vitamin K deficiency is most likely to result from insufficient sunlight. kidney disease. insufficient intake of diary products. antibiotic therapy.antibiotic therapy.
The most nutrient-dense food sources of vitamin K are green leafy vegetables. whole grain breads and cereals. nuts and seeds. oysters and leafy vegetables.
Newborns usually receive an injection of vitamin _________ to protect them against deficiency until the gastrointestinal tract has matured. A D B KK
Most B-vitamins function as fat-soluble vitamins. coenzymes. antibodies. sources of energy.coenzymes.
Nutritionally, the difference between brown rice and white rice is the presence of bran and germ layers in the brown rice, which have most of the nutrients. negligible. There is a little more thiamin in white rice than brown rice. fiber content. White rice has more fiber. there is more thiamin and fiber in white rice.the presence of bran and germ layers in the brown rice, which have most of the nutrients.
The nutrients added to enriched grains typically include all of the B vitamins. vitamin C, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and zinc. thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron. vitamin B-6, folic acid, vitamin B-12, and iron.thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron.
The best sources of thiamin in the average diet are pork products, whole or enriched grains and cereals, and legumes. root vegetables and cheddar-type cheese. whole grains and fresh fruit. ham and vegetables of the cabbage family.pork products, whole or enriched grains and cereals, and legumes.
Which of the following foods represents the most nutrient-dense source of riboflavin? low-fat milk applesauce whole wheat bread green leafy vegetableslow-fat milk
he B-vitamin most easily destroyed by exposure to light is biotin. niacin. riboflavin. thiamin.riboflavin
To protect riboflavin from destruction by sunlight, milk and milk products are packaged in clear glass bottles. paper and opaque plastic cartons. clear plastic bottles and cartons. any kind of container.paper and opaque plastic cartons.
Bright yellow urine usually is indicative that someone is supplementing with niacin. vitamin A. vitamin K. riboflavin.riboflavin
Flushing of the face and skin can result from pharmacological doses of vitamin B-6. thiamin. folate. niacin.niacin.
The nutrient sometimes prescribed by physicians to increase HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels is thiamin. folic acid. niacin. None of these choices are accurate.niacin
Important contributors to niacin intake in the American diet are poultry, meat, and fish. citrus fruits, kiwi, and bananas. milk, cheese, and yogurt. spinach, kale, and broccoli .poultry, meat, and fish.
The best food sources of vitamin B-6 are meats, fish, and poultry. milk and dairy products. carrots, celery, and squash. enriched breads and cereals.meats, fish, and poultry.
Symptoms of vitamin B-6 deficiency include depression, confusion, and convulsions. microcytic anemia. dermatitis. All of these choices are accurate.All of these choices are accurate
About 50% to 90% of folate in foods can be destroyed by food processing and preparation. ultraviolet light. oxidation. All of these choices are accurate.All of these choices are accurate.
Good sources of folate include enriched cereals and grains. leafy green vegetables. oranges. dried beans. All of these choices are accurate.All of these choices are accurate.
Which group of individuals is advised to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily from supplements and/or fortified foods? infants the elderly athletes women capable of becoming pregnantwomen capable of becoming pregnant
Vitamin B-12 is supplied mostly in fruits and vegetables. cereal grains. foods of animal origin. None of these answers are correct.foods of animal origin.
Persons who smoke have an increased need for vitamin B-12. vitamin C. folate. biotin.vitamin C.
For vitamin B-12 to be absorbed, it must be attached to an incomplete protein. intrinsic factor. bile. the protein portion of its final coenzyme form.intrinsic factor.
The B-vitamin that has significant liver stores is niacin. folate. biotin. vitamin B-12.b-12
Vitamin B-12 is found in which of the following foods? orange juice dark green leafy vegetables seed oils chickenchicken
Supplements of the water-soluble vitamins ______ and _______ are most likely to cause toxicity symptoms. thiamin; riboflavin vitamin B-12; pantothenic acid vitamin B-6; vitamin C biotin; vitamin B-12vitamin B-6; vitamin C
Ingestion of vitamin C during meals can modestly improve absorption of beta-carotene nonheme iron vitamin B-12 folatenonheme iron
Which meal contains the highest amount of vitamin C? Hamburger sandwich, french fries, and cola Meat loaf, mashed potatoes and gravy, and diet cola Baked fish with lemon, broccoli, cole slaw, and strawberries Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and coffeeBaked fish with lemon, broccoli, cole slaw, and strawberries
In an adult of normal body composition weighing 165 lb, approximately ________ lb is water. 91 55 37 11691
Which compartment contains the greatest amount of body fluid? intracellular compartment extracellular compartment Both compartments contain the same amount of water.intracellular compartment
About 73% of lean muscle tissue is protein. water. calcium. sodium.water
The major cation in the intracellular fluid is ________, whereas the major anion in the extracellular fluid is ________. sodium; chloride potassium; chloride sodium; chloride potassium; phosphatepotassium; chloride
The body's temperature regulation mechanism depends on drinking enough water to remove heat by way of the urine. water within the body absorbing heat energy, and on the evaporation of perspiration removing heat energy. water being delivered to the lungs, where the heat energy will be exhaled as water vapor. excretion of body wastes.water within the body absorbing heat energy, and on the evaporation of perspiration removing heat energy.
Compared to dry environments, evaporation of sweat is ________ in humid environments, resulting in _______ body cooling. reduced; more reduced; less increased; more increased; lessreduced; less
The consumption of a high-protein, high-sodium diet will tend to ________ ion concentration of the urine. have no effect on increase decreaseincrease
Extra water losses from heavy sweating or diarrhea will typically result in increased urine output. decreased urine output. no change in urine output. decreased water loss from the lungs.decreased urine output.
When blood osmolality increases, ___________ is released by the anterior pituitary and acts on the kidney to increase water retention. antidiuretic hormone renin angiotensin II insulinantidiuretic hormone
A loss of 1-2% of body weight in fluids will cause a person to experience thirst. experience a decline in muscle strength and endurance. experience decreased heat tolerance and weakness. lapse into coma and die.experience thirst.
As dehydration progresses and blood volume decreases, blood pressure will ______ and heart rate will _______. increase; increase remain the same; decrease decrease; decrease decrease; increasedecrease; increase
Aldosterone is a pituitary hormone that decreases water excretion. is minerals deposited into bone that give strength and rigidity. is an adrenal hormone that increases sodium reabsorption in the kidney. is a protein-calcium complex that influences enzyme activity in cells. is an enzyme in kidneys formed in response to low blood an adrenal hormone that increases sodium reabsorption in the kidney.
Most sodium consumed is from table salt added at home. naturally occurring sodium in foods. tap water and medications. processed foods and those purchased at restaurants.processed foods and those purchased at restaurants.
Some North Americans are called "sodium sensitive." For these people, high sodium intake contributes to stomach cancer. hypertension. gastrointestinal upsets. serious fluid imbalances.hypertension
Table salt is _____ sodium. 20% 30% 40% 60%40%
One teaspoon of salt contains about ________ of sodium. 3400 mg 1000 mg 2300 mg 6000 mg2300 mg
In a healthy person, sodium consumed in excess of body needs is stored in the liver. excreted by the kidneys. metabolized in cells. excreted in the feces.excreted by the kidneys.
In the U.S., dietary intakes of the major minerals ______ and _______ often fall short of recommendations. sodium; phosphorus calcium; phosphorus sodium; potassium potassium; calciumpotassium; calcium
Joe Smith, age 52, has a blood pressure of 145 mm Hg over 95 mm Hg. This is considered normal blood pressure. low blood pressure. hypertension or high blood pressure. None of these choices are accurate.hypertension or high blood pressure.
Factors that can contribute to an increased risk of high blood pressure include advanced age. African-American race. BMI over 30. type 2 diabetes. All of these choices are accurate.all
A diet that contains an average of 4,000 mg sodium and 1,500 mg potassium daily is likely to decrease the risk of hypertension. result from an eating disorder. increase the risk of hypertension. have no effect on blood pressure.increase the risk of hypertension.
Individuals advised to consume calcium supplements should consume about 2,000 mg in a single dose each day. only calcium citrate as other calcium salts are poorly absorbed. an amount of no more than 500 mg with or just after a meal. the calcium supplement at the same time as other mineral amount of no more than 500 mg with or just after a meal.
The most nutrient-dense food source of calcium with high bioavailability is leafy green vegetables. fish fillets. milk and dairy products. cereal grains. meats.milk and dairy products.
Assuming that milk is the only source of dietary calcium, how much milk must an adolescent drink every day to meet the RDA for calcium? 2 cups 3 cups 4 cups 5 cups5 cups
The two life stage groups with the highest RDAs for calcium are _________ and _________. children; adolescents infants; children adolescents; adults over age 50 infants; adolescentsadolescents; adults over age 50
The bones most likely to be affected by the disease osteoporosis include the ankle, shoulder, and neck. hip, thigh, and ankle. hip, wrist, and vertebrae in the spine. wrist, forearm, and neck. All of these are correct as all bones are affected equally by osteoporosis.hip, wrist, and vertebrae in the spine. wrist, forearm, and neck.
The richest sources of iron in the diet are fruits and vegetables. nuts and seeds. meats and seafood. breads and pastries.meats and seafood.
Most of the iron in the body is found as a part of ferritin. albumin. hemosiderin. hemoglobin.hemoglobin
Excess intake of zinc supplements can reduce absorption of selenium. calcium. copper. iodine.copper
Which type of dietary iron is most efficiently absorbed? non-heme iron elemental iron heme iron All these forms of iron are absorbed equally.heme iron
Which of the following factors increases iron absorption? high intakes of zinc high stores of iron low gastric acidity increased need for ironincreased need for iron
Which of the following foods is a good source of non-heme iron? eggs spinach grilled chicken clamsspinach
Approximately ____ of dietary iron is absorbed each day from typical Westernized diets. 1-3% 14-18% 55-65% 90-99%14-18%
Iron-deficiency anemia often causes symptoms of fatigue. night blindness. dental decay. dermatitis.fatigue
The "mucosal block" theory is one explanation of how the body protects itself from excess absorption of dietary iron and zinc. iodide and chromium. fluoride and chloride. manganese and selenium.iron and zinc.
Dietary zinc absorption is increased by phytic acid. zinc deficiency. ferritin status. the amount of vitamin C in the diet.zinc deficiency.
When large doses of zinc are consumed, the excess is excreted primarily via the sweat. the urine. the feces. expired air.the feces.
Which group of foods would provide the most bioavailable zinc? refined breads and cereals oysters and other seafood spinach and leafy greens black-eyed peas and lentilsoysters and other seafood
Zinc functions as a part of immune function. antioxidant defense. DNA and RNA synthesis. Zinc is involved in all of these functions.Zinc is involved in all of these functions.
Which of the following has been associated with a decreased risk of cancer? low intakes of calcium high intakes of nitrates adequate intake of vitamin D low intakes of lycopeneadequate intake of vitamin D
Which of the following is the leading type of cancer in males and females? brain liver lung colonlung
Which of the following contribute to increased risk of cancer? viruses radiation dietary fat All of these factors may increase cancer risk.all
the nutrient

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Views: 65
Asked: 2 years ago