which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery?

# which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery?

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Jessica took psychology in the fall semester and is now taking sociology. Several of the concepts are similar, and Jessica finds that she sometimes has trouble recalling some of the major psychological theorists. She keeps getting them confused with sociological theorists. Jessica's problem is most likely due to _______________. A) toronto syndrome B) proactive interference C) retroactive interference D) decoding failureC. Retroactive interference
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the last items on the list. This is known as the ______. A) recency effect B) chunking effect C) primacy effect D) phi phenomenonA. Recency effect
According to the levels-of-processing model of memory, we are most likely to remember information that we process at a _______________ level. A) any of these, depending on the information B) deeper C) shallower D) mediumB. Deeper
Work with electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) for severe depression suggests that consolidation ___________. A) only takes a short time B) may take months to complete C) may take years to complete D) may take weeks to completeC. May take years to complete
In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be the magic number __________. A) 7, plus or minus 2 B) 11, plus or minus 1 C) 5, plus or minus 4 D) 9, plus or minus 3A. 7, plus or minus 2
H. M., a famous amnesiac, gave researchers solid information that the ______________ was important in storing new long-term memories. A) frontal lobes B) amygdala C) cerebellum D) hippocampusD. Hippocampus
Your teacher has given each student the name of a key figure in the history of psychology. The assignment is to describe at least one significant contribution made by this person. If your historical figure is Hermann Ebbinghaus, what contribution might you describe to the class? A) He described the limits of sensory storage. B) He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a "pure" form. C) He discovered the parts of the brain responsible for processing memories. D) He developed a series of memory aids that is still used by students today.B. He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a "pure" form.
Which type of long-term memory is most resistant to loss with Alzheimer's disease? A) none of these B) episodic C) procedural D) semanticC. Procedural
If ____________is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, __________ is like pushing the "save" key and having the document disappear instead of being stored. A) adolescent amnesia; conductive amnesia B) anterograde amnesia; retrograde amnesia C) retrograde amnesi; anterograde amnesia D) procedural amnesia; implicit amnesiaC. Retrograde amnesi; anterograde amnesia
A psychologist asks people to recall the name of their kindergarten teacher. Surprisingly, the majority of people correctly do this and comment, "Gee whiz, I haven't thought about that old bat [or old coot] in years!" Their ability to do so is a severe problem for which theory of forgetting? A) encoding failure B) retroactive interference C) decay or disuse D) interference theoryC. Decay or disuse
Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her history test, all she can remember is French! Shalissa's memory is suffering from _____________. A) retroactive interference B) proactive interference C) decay D) cue-dependent forgettingB. Proactive interference
Which type of long-term memory is most difficult to bring into conscious awareness? A) semantic memory B) episodic memory C) declarative memories D) procedural memoriesD. Procedural memories
Why did research participants in Sperling's experiment recall so few letters stored in sensory memory? A) The stress of participating in this research became excessive. B) They stopped paying attention after a few stimuli. C) Proactive interference reduced the effectiveness of recall. D) The remaining stimuli quickly faded from sensory memory.D. The remaining stimuli quickly faded from sensory memory.
____________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. A) Memory B) Classical conditioning C) Operant conditioning D) LearningA. Memory
In the famous case of H. M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer ______. A) form new memories B) pay attention to specific stimuli C) make sense of memories D) retrieve memoriesA. Form new memories
Information is simultaneously stored across a network that stretches across the brain in the ___________________. A) Craik and Lockhart model of memory B) parallel distributed processing model of memory C) information-processing theory of memory D) multistore model of memoryB. Parallel distributed processing model of memory
A. R. Luria studied an individual with phenomenal memory. This person was a ____________. A) hypnotist B) child prodigy C) mnemonist D) gestaltikerC. Mnemonist
Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades? A) short-term memory B) long-term memory C) sensory memory D) implicit memoryB. Long-term memory
When someone looks at an image, the retina turns the light rays from it into neural messages that go up to the optic nerve so the brain can interpret them. This process is called __________________. A) retrieval B) evaluation C) storage D) encodingD. Encoding
Which of the following examples represents the shallowest processing as described by the levels-of-processing model of memory? A) thinking about the meaning of a word B) attending to the sound of a word C) recalling that an object was rectangular D) recalling an object's functionB. Attending to the sound of a word
Laboratory studies using the recall of letters and numbers indicate that short-term memory is probably coded __________. A) semantically B) visually C) physically D) verballyD. Verbally
Patients with anterograde amnesia were taught to solve the Tower of Hanoi problem. It was later found that they _______________. A) didn't remember solving the problem but could do it again B) remembered solving the problem but couldn't do it again C) didn't remember the problem and couldn't solve it D) remembered solving the problem and could do so againA. Didn't remember solving the problem but could do it again
A. R. Luria studied a mnemonist with phenomenal memory. This person had several problems associated with the ability. Which was one reported in your textbook? A) tip-of-the-tongue aphasia B) repressed memory syndrome C) separating trivial from important memories. D) cognitive penetranceC. Separating trivial from important memories.
You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using? A) permanent B) maintenance C) condensed D) elaborativeB. Maintenance
Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her French test, all she can remember is history! Shalissa's memory is suffering from ____________. A) cue-dependent forgetting B) retroactive interference C) proactive interference D) decayB. Retroactive interference
Malcolm, aged 35, is severely depressed. Because of this he is given electroconvulsive shock therapy. After treatment, he is sent home and does much better. However, his TV-watching behavior is strange. Which is the most likely behavior pattern? A) Malcolm does not remember any episodes of shows going back 25 years. B) Malcolm thinks that last year's episodes of his favorite series are new. C) Malcolm does not remember that he has a TV. D) Malcolm can no longer understand long sentences if they occur in the dialogue.B. Malcolm thinks that last year's episodes of his favorite series are new.
Believers in the information-processing model of memory are likely to agree that ____________. A) the brain has nothing in common with a computer B) information flows from one memory system to the next C) studying computers can give you useful insights into human information processing D) auditory information is retained in the sensory register for up to 2 secondsC. Studying computers can give you useful insights into human information processing
Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, _______________ is an easier task than _______________. A) priming; the savings method B) recall; recognition C) the savings method; priming D) recognition; recallD. Recognition; recall
Retrieving information from long-term memory is done by assembling information from various brain locations in a process known as ______________. A) automatic processing B) reintegration C) consolidation D) constructive processingD. Constructive processing
When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called ________________. A) storage B) encoding C) retrieval D) evaluationB. Encoding
Which of the following statements is true about the serial position curve? A) It is used as evidence of separate long-term and short-term memory systems. B) All of these are true. C) It is due, in part, to the fact that the middle items of a serial list get less rehearsal than items at the beginning of the list. D) It is found when someone tries to recall items in long-term memory, such as the names of the presidents.B. All of these are true
Loss of memory from the point of injury or illness forward is called _________________ . A) anterograde amnesia B) infantile amnesia C) retrograde amnesia D) consolidationA. Anterograde amnesia
What is one of the real-world uses of iconic storage? A) It is the process that covers up the disruption that would occur from saccades. B) It is where photographic memories are kept. C) none of these D) It increases depth of processing.A. It is the process that covers up the disruption that would occur from saccades.
What are the two major types of rehearsal (for moving information from short-term to long-term memory)? A) elaborative and permanent B) elaborative and maintenance C) maintenance and permanent D) condensed and expandedB. Elaborative and maintenance
Which of the following is an example of a test using recall? A) essay B) All of these are examples that use recall. C) short answer D) fill-in-the-blankB. All of these are examples that use recall.
When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, this is known as _________. A) the tip-of-the-tongue effect B) encoding failure C) extinction of acoustic storage D) auditory decayA. The tip-of-the-tongue effect
In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is _________. A) semantic B) episodic C) procedural D) workingA. Semantic
Long-term memory is organized in the form of semantic networks, or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge, according to the work of ____________. A) Tolman B) Baddeley C) Sperling D) CollinsD. Collins
If memory were like the sea, we could say that ______ is long-term memory, ______ are the specific memories, and _______ are retrieval cues. A) a boat; hooks; worms B) a boat; worms; fish C) the sea; fish; hooks D) an island; worms; fishing polesC. The sea; fish; hooks
Rochelle remembered getting "B's" in her English lit classes in college. But years later when she applied for a job and took out her transcript, she was shocked to find that she had actually gotten "C-" grades. She then started telling everyone she remembers being a pretty poor student. Her erratic memory of her mediocre performance is most likely due to ___________. A) consolidation B) hindsight bias C) eidetic imagery D) her poor memoryB. Hindsight bias
Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can't remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n) ______. A) elaborative rehearsal cue B) cross code C) retrieval cue D) structural cueC. Retrieval cue
______________ appears to be responsible for the storage of new long-term memories. If it is removed, the ability to store anything new is completely lost. A) The cerebellum B) The hippocampus C) The prefrontal and temporal lobes of the cortex D) The amygdalaB. The hippocampus
You start out using Netscape, then change to Explorer because your company demands that browsers be Microsoft products. If you have trouble with Explorer, it is most likely due to ______________. A) retroactive interference B) anterograde interference C) proactive interference D) consolidation problemsC. Proactive interference
False positives occur when a person incorrectly "matches" a stimulus that is merely similar to a real memory to that memory. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that _______________. A) witnesses are prone to habituate to the courtroom and forget what happened B) extinction of auditory memories causes the witness to forget what was said C) None of these are true. D) false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurateD. False positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate.
People with dementia typically have a memory problem known as ____________. A) amygdaloid amnesia B) anterograde amnesia C) retrograde amnesia D) inferograde amnesiaB. Anterograde amnesia
The three parts of the information-processing model of memory are ____________. A) shallow, medium, and deep processing B) CS, UCS, UR, and CR C) encoding, storage, and retrieval D) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memoryD. Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Encoding specificity refers to _______________. A) the discrete and specific links that occur in a Collins and Quillan network B) using physical surroundings or emotions as retrieval cues for specific memories C) particular codes such as Morse code to transform information into bits D) none of theseB. Using physical surroundings or emotions as retrieval cues for specific memories.
Personal facts and memories of one's personal history are parts of ___________. A) declarative memories B) semantic memory C) episodic memory D) procedural memoriesC. Episodic memories
A witness on the stand swears that he saw someone commit a crime. Must you believe that the testimony is valid when a witness testifies so forcefully? A) Yes, because seeing is believing. B) No, because eyewitnesses are not usually honest. C) No, because there is a great possibility of a "false positive" identification. D) Yes, because eyewitnesses are very confident about their testimony.C. No, because there is a great possibility of a "false positive" identification.
Chunking is a means of ______. A) arranging details into a hierarchy from most to least important B) storing long-term memories C) combining information into meaningful units D) immediately forgetting irrelevant detailsC. Combining information into meaningful units.
When memories are stored in long-term memory, which of the following forms of information is used? A) all of the above B) meanings of words and concepts C) visual images D) soundsA. All of the above
Which of the following statements about memory retrieval while under hypnosis is NOT TRUE? A) All of the statements are not true. B) These memories are more accurate than other kinds of memories. C) Therapists have induced false memories through hypnosis. D) Age regression through hypnosis can increase the accuracy of recall of early childhood memories.A. All of the statements are not true.
In the _________________ model, memory is seen as a simultaneous process, with the creation and storage of memories taking place across a series of networks "stretched" across the brain. A) parallel distributed processing B) transfer-appropriate processing C) levels-of-processing D) information-processingA. Parallel distributed processing
In the semantic network model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning _________________. A) are not physically proximal B) All of these are true C) are archaic D) are stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly relatedD. Are stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related.
The case of Father Bernard Pagano, who was identified by seven eyewitnesses as a criminal, was an instance of a ____________. A) false positive B) retrieval failure C) tip-of-the-tongue effect D) primacy effectA. False positive
For which famous memory researcher is memory a problem-solving activity in which the problem is to give a coherent account of some past event, and the memory is the solution to that problem? A) Meyer B) Bartlett C) Skinner D) EbbinghausB. Bartlett
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ____________. A) tactile sensory memory B) short-term memory C) echoic sensory memory D) iconic sensory memoryC. Echoic sensory memory
The key to the partial report method of Sperling's study of sensory memory was to ________________. A) test the use of chunking B) cue the participants, using a tone, as to which line of the matrix they were to report C) have the participants report the entire matrix of letters they saw as fast as they could D) have the participants report the entire matrix of letters but mask the letters after presentation with a very bright lightB. Cue the participants, using a tone, as to which line of the matrix they were to report.
Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten ____________. A) most quickly one day after learning B) gradually at first, then with increasing speed C) more rapidly as time goes by D) quickly at first, then tapers off graduallyD. Quickly at first, then tapers off gradually
A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer's family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to provide a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write? A) retroactive amnesia B) retrograde amnesia C) anterograde amnesia D) proactive amnesiaC. Anterograde amnesia
The levels-of-processing model of memory would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog? A) "Is it in capital letters?" B) "Is it written in cursive?" C) "Does it rhyme with blog?" D) "Would it be found in a pond?"D. "Would it be found in a pond?"
Sitting in a very noisy restaurant, you are able to screen out all the other conversations around you so you can listen to the friend with whom you are conversing. This is an example of ______. A) Broadbent's forgetting theory B) the homecoming queen party phenomenon C) selective attention D) intimacyC. Selective attention
Proactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when _____________. A) older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information B) newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information C) information is not attended to and fails to be encoded D) information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over timeA. Older information already in the memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information.
When newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information, this is called ______________. A) retroactive interference B) decay C) proactive interference D) cue-dependent forgettingA. Retroactive interference
Godden and Baddeley found that if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study underwater, you do better when tested underwater. This finding is an example of_______________. A) registered learning B) accessible decoding C) encoding specificity D) memorabilityC. Encoding specificity
In one study, over 2,500 photographs were shown to participants, one every 10 seconds. Participants were then shown pairs of photographs in which one member of each pair was one of the previously seen photographs. Accuracy for identifying the previously seen photos was __________. A) 85 to 95 percent B) 50 to 60 percent C) 70 to 80 percent D) 10 to 20 percentA. 85 to 95 percent
Which of the following statements is true about retrieval? A) It is a process of getting information from the sensory receptors to the brain. B) It is a process that allows an extinguished CR to recover. C) It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness. D) It is the reason that conditioned taste aversions last so long.C. It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.
Memories for general facts and personal information are called _________. A) procedural memories B) episodic memory C) declarative memories D) factual memoryC. Declarative memories
In this view, memories are literally "built" from the pieces stored away at encoding. This view is called ______________. A) adaptation of memory traces B) constructive processing C) hindsight bias D) flashbulb integrationB. Constructive processing
Flashbulb memories ______. A) are almost always highly accurate B) usually concern events from early childhood C) are not subject to periodic revision D) usually concern events that are emotionally chargedD. Usually concern events that are emotionally charged.
Which type of memory allows us to have meaningful conversations? A) procedural memory B) distributed memory C) echoic memory D) iconic memoryC. Echoic memory
Long-term memory is thought to be organized in the form of ___________. A) conditioned responses and associations B) alphabetical lists of semantic concepts, time-based lists of life events, body-part-specific motor skills C) none of these D) semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledgeD. Semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge.
Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of ______. A) rote rehearsal B) categorizing C) cueing D) chunkingD. Chunking
Evidence suggests that procedural memories are stored in the _____________. A) hippocampus B) amygdala C) cerebellum D) prefrontal and temporal lobes of the cortexC. Cerebellum
What "magic number" did Miller find to be the capacity of short-term memory? A) 11 B) 5 C) 7 D) 9C. 7
Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N in no particular order. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words INK and LATE. This tactic is called ______. A) shadowing B) rote rehearsal C) cueing D) chunkingD. Chunking
Examples of tests that use recognition are _____________. A) both multiple choice and matching B) multiple choice C) matching D) none of theseA. Both multiple choice and matching
In the curve of forgetting developed by Ebbinghaus, the greatest amount of forgetting occurs _____________. A) near the end of the retrieval period B) within the first day after learning new material C) near the middle of the retrieval period D) within the first hour after learning new materialD. Within the first hour after learning new material.
Maintenance rehearsal is defined as ________________. A) analyzing new material in order to make it memorable B) associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory C) processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered D) repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memoryD. Repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory.
Bethany is trying to focus on a conversation across the room during a party she is attending. This is because she thinks she heard her name above the din of the conversation. Her ability to hear her name is due to the mechanism of ____________. A) intimacy B) the homecoming queen party phenomenon C) Broadbent's forgetting theory D) selective attentionD. Selective attention
Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of ______. A) a procedural memory B) a semantic memory C) a flashbulb memory D) an eidetic imageC. A flashbulb memory
Repeating items over and over in order to aid memory is known as ______ rehearsal. A) imagery B) maintenance C) elaborative D) repetitiveB. Maintenance
When a person's ____________is damaged or removed, anterograde amnesia, or the inability to form new memories, results. A) hippocampus B) prefrontal lobe C) cerebellum D) amygdalaA. Hippocampus
Which of the following examples represents the shallowest processing as described by the levels-of-processing model of memory? A) recalling an object's function B) recalling that an object was rectangular C) attending to the sound of a word D) thinking about the meaning of a wordC. Attending to the sound of a word
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. This is an example of the _____________. A) reintegrative effect B) serial position effect C) encoding specificity effect D) TOT effectB. Serial position effect
General knowledge, language, and concepts are seen as parts of ___________. A) declarative memories B) procedural memories C) episodic memory D) semantic memoryD. Semantic memory
Retroactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when_________. A) information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time B) newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information C) information is not attended to and fails to be encoded D) older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer informationB. Newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information.
Which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery? A) a modem B) a photograph C) a table D) a rainbowB. A photograph
A display of 12 letters is flashed on a screen in front of you followed by a tone. You attempt to recall a portion of the display based on the specific tone you heard. What aspect of your memory is this experiment designed to assess? A) sensory memory B) long-term memory C) short-term memory D) primary memoryA. Sensory memory
It is thought that long-term memory never can get filled up. The term used to describe the capacity of long-term memory is _______________. A) about 10,000 items B) 7, plus or minus 2 C) limited by the size of a person's brain D) unlimitedD. Unlimited
According to Baddeley, which memory system is best conceived of as three interrelated systems: central executive, visual sketchpad, and auditory recorder? A) long-term memory B) working memory C) procedural memory D) sensory memoryB. Working memory
The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really happy when you were learning math, you should be ______ when taking the math exam to do well. A) happy B) depressed C) calm D) nervousA. Happy
Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to _____________. A) encoding failure B) none of these C) decay or disuse D) interference from other informationD. Interference from other information
_____________ memory is constantly updated. A) Declarative B) Procedural C) Episodic D) SemanticC. Episodic
Short-term memory is another name for ______ memory. A) long-term B) sensory C) tertiary D) workingD. Working
According to Elizabeth Bowman, ____________. A) hypnosis makes production of false memories easier B) all of these statements are true. C) hypnosis increases confidence in memories, even fake ones D) therapists have produced false memories through hypnosisB. All of these statements are true
The best place to take your biology exam to ensure good retrieval of biology concepts is in _____________. A) the biology classroom B) an auditorium to prevent cheating C) the English classroom D) the special testing room used for all examsA. The biology classroom
What type of stimuli did Hermann Ebbinghaus use in his memory experiments? A) words B) numbers C) pictures D) nonsense syllablesD. Nonsense syllables
Which model of memory is most similar in conceptualization to the way computers function? A) parallel distributed processing model B) extinction C) Craik and Lockhart's model D) information-processing modelD. Information-processing model
When given a list of items to remember, you are more likely to remember _______. A) the items in the middle more than those at the beginning or at the end B) the items in the beginning better than those in the middle or at the end C) the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list D) the items at the end more than those in the middle or at the beginning of the listC. The items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list.
The duration of iconic memory is _______ than echoic memory, but iconic's capacity is probably ________. A) longer; larger B) shorter; larger C) longer; about the same D) shorter; about the sameB. Shorter; larger
If one wanted to use the best method to get storage in long-term memory, one would use ______________. A) rote rehearsal B) elaborative rehearsal C) sleep learning D) maintenance rehearsalB. Elaborative rehearsal
A terrible crime is committed, and an eyewitness is unable to identify whether a suspect arrested by the police is actually the one who committed the crime. The police bring in Madame Xanadu to hypnotize the witness, and then the witness identifies the suspect the police have in custody. Of course, the Madame knew who the suspect was before she hypnotized the witness. At the trial, the defense attorney objects. The core of the objection to the judge would be that ___________. A) the use of hypnosis makes it very easy for factors like the misinformation effect or constructive processing effect to come into play through the influence of the hypnotist's knowledge and suggestions B) all of these are good objections. C) hypnosis makes it much easier to create false memories, or pseudomemories D) memories obtained under hypnosis are no more accurate than others but the jury will think they are and, thus, bias the caseB. All of these are good objections.
The best analogy for the way long-term memory is conceptualized would be _________. A) a filing cabinet B) a revolving door C) a desktop D) a televisionA. A filing cabinet
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