as your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to

# as your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to

S
9.9k points
When your textbook describes public speaking as a form of empowerment, it means that public speaking isa way to make a difference in something we care about.
How much time does the average adult spend in conversation?about 30 percent of waking hours
The skills used in public speaking which are the same used in everyday conversation are: (3)organizing your thoughts logically tailoring your message to your audience. adapting to listener feedback.
When you experience stage fright, your body is producing extra , a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.adrenaline
Rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it intopositive nervousness.
You definitely shouldn't do this to deal with nervousness in your speechesfocus on your stage fright
Is there a such thing as a perfect speech?no
When should you think of your speech as an act of communicationto help deal with your nervousness
Research has shown that the anxiety level of most speakers drops off significantly whenthey are 30 to 60 seconds into the speech.
visualization is the process ofa speaker is to create a vivid mental blueprint in which you see yourself succeeding in your speech; build confidence
Turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts is a wayto help deal with your nervousness
Remember that your nervousness is not usually visible to your audience. Concentrate on communicating with the audience rather than on your nerves. As you rehearse, visualize yourself giving a successful speech. These are waysto help deal with your nervousness
Visualize yourself giving a successful speech is a wayto help deal with your nervousness
when you employ the power of visualization as a method of controlling stage fright you shouldfocus on the positive aspects of your speech
Critical ThinkingDealing with such matters as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion
frame of referenceyou relate the speaker's ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience
practicing the delivery of your speechdoes not help strengthen your skills of a critical thinker
Everything a speaker says is filtered through a listener'sframe of reference
feedbackaudiences verbal and nonverbal responses
A listener anxious about an upcoming exam, worried about a recent argument with a friend, or distracted by cold air in the classroom would be experiencinginterference
Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else is termed themessage
The means by which a message is communicated is termed thechannel
The tendency to see the beliefs, values, and customs of one's own culture or group as "right" or "natural" is calledethnocentrism
the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures is termedethnocentrism
Speechmaking is a form of power and therefore carries with it heavy responsibilitiesethical
the branch of philosophy that deals with human issues of right and wrong is termedethics
Be honest in what you say, be fully prepared for each speech, and make sure your goals are ethically sound.guidelines for ethical speechmaking
public speakers have an ethical obligation to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language because such languagedemeans the dignity of the groups or individuals being attacked and undermines the right of all groups in the U.S. to express their ideas are
global plagiarismtakes a speech entirely from one source and passes it off as her or his own
incremental plagiarismforgetting to cite any of your sources
patchwork plagiarismoccurs when a speaker copies word for word from two or three sources.
incremental plagiarismoccurs when the speech as a whole is ethical but the speaker fails to give credit for particular quotations and
listen attentively, avoid prejudging the speaker, and support free speech is guidelines forethical listening
ethical obligations of listenersmaintaining the free and open expression of ideas & being courteous and attentive during the speech
People spend more time than in any other communication activitylistening
Even when we are listening carefully, we usually grasp only about percent of what we hear50%
When business managers are asked to list the communication skills most crucial to their job, they usually rank number onelistening
empathic listeninglistening to provide emotional support
appreciative listeninglistening for pleasure as a friend
critical listeningwhen you listen to evaluate a speaker's message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it
comprehensive listeninglistening to understand the message
taking written notes while the speech is in progress is an example ofpoor listening
jumping to conclusions is an example ofpoor listening
first step to improving your listening skillstake listening seriously
Although most people speak at a rate of 125 to 150 words a minute, the brain can process words at a rate of400-800 words/ min
skilled listening focus on three major aspects of a speech which aremain points. evidence. technique
Your textbook recommends as the most effective method of note taking for listening to a speechmaking a key-word outline
brainstorming is good forchoosing a speech topic
After choosing a topic, what is the next step of speech preparationdetermining the general purpose
using a subject-based search engines on the Internet is recommended in your textbook as one method of for a speech topic.brainstorming
advocatingIs out of place in a speech to inform
When the general purpose of your speech is to , you act primarily as a teacher or lecturerinform
A specific purpose for a speech should be aa full infinitive phrase
What is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?formulating the specific purpose
A specific purpose should not bebroad/ general, use figurative language, an uncompleted sentence
central ideacentral/unifying element in story
The primary purpose of speechmaking is togain a desired response from listeners
Seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common experiences and fearsidentification
egocentricTo say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are
What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?demographic and situational
What kind of audience analysis is by looking at traits such as age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background?demographic
What kind of audience analysis is size, and the audience attitude toward the topic?situational
audience analysis usually builds on the demographic analysissituational
As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become moreformal
The will usually dictate how long a speech should be.occasion
What element usually has the greatest impact on the length a speech should be?the occasion for the speech
What are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a speech topic?knowledge, interest, and attitude
The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that theyproduce clear, unambiguous answers.
When making up an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use questions to get at the strength of a respondent's attitudes or feelings.scale
A questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n)open-ended question
fixed-alternative questionIf you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn how many of your listeners had ever heard of something
fixed-alternative questionA type of question (or interrogative) that offers the listener a closed choice between two or more answers
The is the key to finding information in the librarycatalog
The library's catalogue allows you to search for books byauthor, title, keyword
Periodical databasescatalog articles from a large number of journals and magazines & often provide abstracts of journal and magazine articles
reference worksEncyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, atlases, gazetteers, and quotation books
A _______________ is a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines.periodical database
The two kinds of Internet search aidssearch engines and virtual libraries
A is a search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing datavirtual libraries
As your textbook explains, the best kind of search aid for locating reliable, high quality information on the Internet is avirtual libraries
According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of research documents located on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, andrecency.
What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet?authorship, sponsorship, and recency
If you can't identify the author of a document on the Internettry to determine the sponsoring organization for the document
When quoting an Internet document during a speech, a speaker should identify theauthor or sponsoring organization responsible for the document.
The most important task when preparing to conduct a research interview isdevising questions to ask during the interview.
Preliminary bibliographylists each source that looks as if it might be helpful in speech
Two major formats mentioned in your textbook for citing worksModern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA)
What is the guideline for preparing a preliminary bibliography?Write a brief note on why the source may be valuable for your speech
Using is the best way to pull listeners into your speechesextended examples
The more your examples, the greater impact they are likely to havevivid
combine examples with causal reasoningis not good when providing examples
hypothetical examplean imaginary story that makes a general point
Accomplished speakers consider "the very life of the speech."examples
Research indicates that the impact of examples is greatly enhanced when they are combined with that show(s) the examples to be typical.statistics
The main value of using statistics in a speech is toquantify the speaker's ideas
Avoiding using too many statisticshelps the impact of using statistics
representative statisticthe sample group surveyed accurately represents the group about whom a claim is being made
When you have complicated statistics you shouldround them off
Using visual aids in a speech is a good way toclarify statistical trends
The main value of using expert testimony in a speech is tobuild the credibility of speakers who are not experts on their topics
To paraphrase is togive the gist of someone's statement in your own words
verbatimword for word
Using expert testimony is an excellent way to lend to your speeches.credibility
Don't use statistics withoutexplaining them
Peer testimonyordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic.
The is the longest and most important part of the speech.body
what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech?It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points.
most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, andaudience
Chronological Organizationmain points of a speech follow a time pattern
Spatial Organizationmain ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in
Which of the following organizational patterns is used more than any other method of speech organization because of its applicability to almost any subject?topical
Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing speeches.persuasive
TransitionWords or phrases that indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving on to another are called
While working on the body of your speech, you see the need to let the audience know what the upcoming subpoints will beinternal summary
Internal Previewoutlines the critical points to be made within the body of the speech
According to your textbook, when you are in a formal speaking situation the most effective way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern islooking directly at the audience without saying a word.
What are the four basic objectives of a speech introduction?reinforce the central idea & gain attention of the audience & reveal the topic & establish credibility and goodwill
A preview, credible, startling statement appearsin the speech introduction
When you advocate a highly unpopular position, it is particularly important to in the introduction of your speech.establish goodwill toward the audience
Creating goodwill is especially important in the introduction of a speech.persuasive
When preparing a speech introduction, you should complete itafter the body of the speech
What percent should your conclusion be of your entire speech?5% to 10%
All four methods of reinforcing the central idea can be combined in a singleconclusion
Which of the following does your textbook mention as a means of reinforcing the central idea in the conclusion of a speech?end with a quotation, reinforce main idea, repeat intro
A statement to arouse curiosity should not be where in a speech?conclusion
According to your textbook, when a speaker concludes a speech by fading out on an emotional note she or he is using a ending.dissolve
According to your textbook, a ending is a conclusion that builds force until reaching a peak of power and intensity. (Martin Luther King Speech)crescendo
To give the speech psychological unityRefer back to your introduction in the conclusion
An appeal to action is most appropriate in the conclusion of a speech.persuasive
An outline helps ensure thatideas flow clearly from one to another
A bibliography should be included in anpreparation outline
Two types of speech outlines discussed in your textbook are thepreparation outline and the speaking outline
According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?bibliography & a specific purpose statement & central idea & transitions
Directions for delivering the speech are not necessary in a outline.preparation
According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be writtenbefore the text of the outline itself
In a preparation outline, main points should be positioned farthest to theleft
states main points and subpoints in full sentencespreparation outline
The main points in a preparation outline are identified byRoman numerals
Subpoints in a preparation outline are indicated bycapital letters
Subpoints in a preparation outline are writtenin full sentences
A speech title shouldattract the attention of the audience & be brief & suggest the main thrust of the speech
Both a preparation outline and a speaking outline should use a consistent pattern ofsymbolization and indentation
According to your textbook, the main reason to keep a speaking outline brief is tohelp the speaker maintain eye contact with the audience
A outline includes the quotations a speaker plans to usespeaking
In a speaking outline, subpoints are identified bycapital letters
What outline contains delivery cues?speaking
In a speaking outline, the conclusion should be labeled as aseparate part of the speech
The use of a visual aid can (2)enhances the clarity of the speaker's message &can help combat the speaker's stage fright
One should keep visual aids .simple
If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available, the next best option ideally is amodel
When using color in a visual aid, you should utilize color to highlightkey points
When making a multimedia presentation, you shouldbe prepared to give your speech even if the equipment malfunctions.
To be used effectively as visual aids, photographs should bebigger than ordinary enlargements
are especially valuable for showing an audience statistical trends and patternsgraphs
A graph is best suited for illustrating simple distribution patterns.pie
A graph is best suited for showing comparisons between two or more items.bar
If you wanted to summarize the steps of a process in a speech, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be achart
A graph is best suited for showing changes in statistics over time or space.line
According to your textbook, when selecting fonts for a visual aid you should usually use no more thantwo fonts
Avoid using the to present visual aidschalkboard
Visual aids are most effective when they are part of a speaker'srehearsal process.
as your
studybud

Surround your text in *italics* or **bold**, to write a math equation use, for example, $x^2+2x+1=0$ or $$\beta^2-1=0$$

Use LaTeX to type formulas and markdown to format text. See example.