cultural transmission refers to the process of

cultural transmission refers to the process of

Asked by 2 years ago
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The theoretical approach in sociology that assumes society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity is theStructural-functional approach
A manifest function of sports isProviding recreation and physical conditioning
A statement that explains how and why specific facts are related is called a(n)Theory
According to Emile Durkheim, categories of people with a higher suicide rate typically haveLower social integration
Gender blindness is the problem of failing to consider the importance of gender in sociological research.True
The focus of the symbolic-interaction approach is how society is divided by class, race, and gender.False
Sociology first appeared as a formal discipline inFrance
Which sociological research method is best used to study what cannot be directly observed, such as attitudes and values, among large numbers of people?The survey
Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?Symbolic-interaction approach
Rarely are people aware of all the functions of any social structure.True
E. Digby Baltzell's study, Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia, showed that a very high number of "top achievers" listed in the Dictionary of American Biography came fromMassachusetts
Auguste Comte was a positivist who believed that there were laws of society in the same way that there are laws of physics that describe the operation of the natural world.True
Karl Marx, speaking for the social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society wasTo bring about greater social justice.
A theory states that increasing a person's formal higher education results in increased earnings over the individual's lifetime. In this theory, "higher education" is theIndependent variable
Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview?A survey
An example of a latent function of college isKeeping young people out of the labor force, which may not have jobs for them.
The term "sociology" was coined in 1838 byAuguste Comte
Unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social pattern are calledLatent functions
The social-conflict approach draws attention toPatterns of social inequality
A limitation of the structural-functional approach is that itFocuses on stability at the expense of conflict
Cultural universals are elements of culture thatAre part of every known culture
Culture refers to the values, beliefs, behavior, and material things that form a way of life.True
Across the United States, more vary more than folkways.False
The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact thatSome cultural elements change more quickly than others
Ethnocentrism refers toJudging another culture using the standards of your own culture.
According to Gerhard Lenski, which of the following has the greatest power to shape a society?Technology
Cultural integration refers to the fact thatChange in one cultural pattern is usually linked to changes in others
Counterculture refers toCultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held
A great danger to hunting and gathering societies isThe forces of nature, including storms and droughts
An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming toFolkways
In terms of social inequality, agrarian societies generallyHave much more inequality than less productive societal types
Sociologists define a symbol asAnything that carries meaning to people who share a culture
A good example of cultural lag isGaining the ability to modify genetic patterns in humans before understanding the possible social consequences of doing so
Cultural lag refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others.True
Cultural transmission refers to the process ofPassing cultural patterns from one generation to another
Multiculturalism is defined asA perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equality of all cultural traditions
The fact that some married men and married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouse is an example of ____ culture, while the fact that most adults say they support the idea of sexual fidelity is an example of ____ culture.Real; ideal
Mores are norms that have great moral significance.True
Cultural relativism means using your own cultural standards to evaluate another culture.False
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are calledValues
In Freud's model of personality, the superego manages the opposing forces of the id and the ego.False
Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of theId
In Freud's model of personality, what represents the presence of culture within the individual?Superego
George Herbert Mead used the concept "the looking-glass self" to refer to significant people in our lives.False
What effect did industrialization have on life expectancy in the United States and Western Europe?Life expectancy went up
One contribution of schooling to the socialization process that teaches about rules and schedules isExposing the child to a bureaucratic setting
George Herbert Mead considered the self to beThe part of an individual's personality that is composed of self-awareness and self-image
According to Piaget, in what stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact?Sensorimotor stage
Biological changes that accompany growing old includeAll of these responses are correct
By "taking the role of the other," Mead had in mindImagining a situation from another person's point of view
Which theory, developed by the psychologist John B. Watson, claims that human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment?Behaviorism
According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is toRadically alter a person's personality or behavior
In Freud's model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person's efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking drives?Ego
Total institutions operate with the goal of resocializing inmates.True
Applying Freud's thinking to a sociological analysis of personality development, you would conclude thatHumans have basic, self-centered drives that must be controlled by learning the ways of society
A cohort is a category of people who have something important in common, usually their age.True
Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization states thatPersonality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages
Lawrence Kohlberg claims that individuals develop the capacity for moral reasoning in stages as the grow older.True
The special importance of the peer group is the fact that itLets children escape the direct supervision of parents
Mead would agree thatIf you won $100 million in a lottery, your self might change
In her study of women's abortions experiences, Jennifer Keys discovered that feelings are guided by"Emotional scripts"
According to dramaturgical analysis, a role operates like a part in a play and a status serves as a script.False
A role set refers toA number of roles attached to a single status
Looking at humor from a structural-functional viewpoint, jokesAre often used to relieve tension-"lightening" a situation
An important element of nonverbal communication isBody language
Nonverbal communication refers toBody movements, gestures, and facial expressions
Sociologists use what concept to refer to behavior that people expect from someone who holds a particular status?Role
Which concept refers to the tension among roles connected to a single status?Role strain
Garfinkel's research, an approach called ethnomethodology, involvesStudying the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
The reality we construct through social interaction is likely influenced by ourSocial class background
Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?Master status
"Role strain" refers to differences between the same roles when performed by two different people.False
Based on research around the world, Paul Ekman concludes that people everywhere express how many basic emotions?6
When it comes to what triggers emotions in people and how those emotions are displayed, culturePlays an important role
Ekman claims that a minor function of emotions is toSupport group life by forging connections with others
Social structure, including status and role, provides a guide for everyday living.True
"Role conflict" refers to the conflict or incompatibility among the roles linked to two or more statuses.True
The idea that reality is socially constructed means that, to most people, nothing seems real at all....
What does the term "presentation of self" mean?...
Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds?...
Which of the following is every society's most important primary group?The family
Formal organizations are designed to meet the personal needs of the participants.False
A social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions is called aReference group
Solomon Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed thatGroup membership has the power to generate conformity
A prisoner would consider a maximum-security prisonA coercive organization
What is Robert Merton's term for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goal?Bureaucratic ritualism
The development of social media means thatIn the computer age, typical social networks now link more people
During the process of groupthinkGroup members quickly settle on a position and then they treat other possibilities as oppositional
Robert Michels referred to the rule of the many by the few asAn oligarchy
What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?Groupthink
One person's in-group can be another person's out-group.True
The success story of the McDonald's organization explainsThat the organizational principles of McDonald's have come to dominate our social life
Why did Cooley refer to some groups as "primary groups"?They are among the first groups we experience in life
Oligarchy refers to the rule of the many by the few.True
In principle, bureaucratic organizations pay little attention toTradition
The concept "McDonaldization" of society refers toMcDonald's organizational principles moving to dominate all of society
A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is aCrowd
An example of a primary group isA family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday
Which sociological concept refers to a number of weak social ties among people who have little common identity and little interaction?Network
An example of a secondary group isA Microsoft Corporation awards banquet
The incest tabooLimits sexual competition within families
If you were to study the changing meaning of virginity over the last century in our society, you would discover that the norm stating that people remain virgins until marriageHas become weaker
Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?Sex
Comparative research indicates thatAlthough sex has a biological foundation, sexual practices vary from place to place as an element of the culture
According to the Laumann study of sexual patterns among U.S. adults,There are striking differences in sexual experience within the U.S. population
Pornography isVery popular in the United States
Teenagers with the highest probability of pregnancy areTeenage women with low incomes and weak families
A widespread - but false - idea about rape is thatWomen who are raped must have encouraged their attackers
A common myth is thatIn most cases of rape, the victim does not know the attacker
The sexual counterrevolution had begun in the United States by1980
According to Robert Merton's strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to ask anything wrong?Ritualist
In Robert Merton's strain theory of deviance, ____ refers to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them.Innovation
Looking back in history, the oldest justification for punishing an offender isRetribution
One of the social foundations of deviance is thatDeviance exists only in relation to cultural norms
According to Durkheim, functions of deviance includeThe idea that responding to deviance promotes social unity
Crime committed by persons of high social position during the course of their occupations is calledWhite-collar crime
According to Robert Merton's strain theory, the term ____ correctly describes the behavior of a school "dropout" who rejects both cultural goals and the conventional means to reach themRetreatist
Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called ____.Social control
An example of the "medicalization of deviance" isTheft being redefined as a "compulsive stealing"
According to Robert Merton's strain theory, the term ____ would correctly describe a gangster like Al Capone, who made a lot of money breaking the law.Innovator
"Crimes against the person" include all butBurglary
"The recognized violation of cultural norms" refers to the concept ofDeviance
"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crimeRefers to a violation of norms enacted into law.
Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that "good boys" have the ability to rein in deviant impulses. They called their analysisContainment theory
Both Albert Cohen and Walter Miller argue that deviance is most likely to arise amongLow-income youths
In his study of New England's Puritans, Kai Erikson concluded thatEven this disciplined and highly religious group created deviance to clarify the moral boundaries of their community
Most criminal cases handled by the criminal justice system in the United States are resolvedThrough plea bargaining
The concept of due process refers toThe criminal justice system operating within the bounds of the law
Prostitution is widely regarded as aVictimless crime
Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion thatMental illness is a myth so that "insanity" is only "differences" that bother other people
If a part threatens a child with punishment in order to discourage wrongdoing, the parent is using punishment to accomplishDeterrence
A hate crime is defined asA criminal act motivated by race or other bias
Organized crime refers toAny business that supplies illegal goods or services
According to Robert Merton's strain theory, the term ____ correctly describes the behavior of a radical activist who rejects just about everything in the existing society in favor of some alternative system.Rebel
Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" asA passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concept
In 1917, the Russian Revolution transformed the feudal aristocracy and placed productive property under the control ofThe state
Social stratification is a concept that refers toRanking categories of people in a hierarchy
Using the sociological perspective, we see that social stratificationGives some people more privileges and opportunities than others
According to Karl Marx, social stratification in a capitalist society always involvesClass conflict
Ideology, or beliefs that support social stratification, is found inBoth class and caste systems
A caste system is defined asSocial stratification based on ascription, or birth
According to the Davis-Moore thesisMore important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them
The concept of structural social mobility refers toChange in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself
According to Simon Kuznets, in which type of society is the extent of social stratification greatest?Agrarian
Compared to other high-income nations, the United States hasMore economic inequality
Marx claimed social stratification would end with the creation of a socialist economy. What was Weber's view?Weber thought socialism would reduce economic differences but also create a political elite, increasing differences in power
Relative povertyIs found everywhere
Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian?Hunting and gathering
In all societies, kinship plays a part in social stratification becauseParents pass their social position on to their children
The degree of status consistency isGreater in caste than class systems
Wallerstein pointed to several factors that cause dependency among low-income nations. Which of the following is a factor that Wallerstein did NOT claim to be a cause of dependency?Lack of integration into the world economy
According to Immanuel Wallerstein's theory of global capitalism, which nations are at the "core" of the world economy?High-income nations
Which type of slavery refers to one person owning another?Chattel slavery
While modernization theory focuses on ____, dependency theory focuses on ____.Production of wealth; distribution of wealth
In poor countries, the disadvantages women face relative to men areGreater than in rich nations
Some critics claim that modernization theoryIgnores how rich nations prevent the economic development of poor nations
With regard to the role of rich nations, dependency theoryClaims rich nations are to blame for global poverty
Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts?Debt bondage
The concept of "colonialism" refers to the process by whichSome nations enrich themselves through political and economic control
In 2012, how many independent nations were there in the world?195
The concept of "neocolonialism" refers to the process by whichMultinational corporations dominate the economy of a poor country
From a global perspective, economic productivity is lowest in precisely the regions wherePopulation increase is highest
A social theorist who contributed to the development of dependency theory by tracing the growth of the capitalist world economy isImmanuel Wallerstein
Absolute poverty isLife threatening
According to modernization theory, the greatest barrier to economic development isTraditional culture
Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?Radical feminism
Friedrich Engels claimed that capitalismIncreased patriarchy
The "beauty myth" refers to the idea thatWomen learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
Which type of feminism links the social disadvantages of women to the capitalist economic system?Socialist feminism
When did feminism begin as a social movement in the United States?In the 1840s
What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?Matriarchy
According to intersection theory, ____ is a source of social disadvantage.Gender, race, & class
Talcott Parsons described gender in terms ofComplementarity
Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?Liberal feminism
Most cases of female genital mutilation occur inAfrica
The concept of "glass ceiling" refers toThe barrier that prevents women from reaching the top
____ refers to social organization in which makes dominate females.Patriarchy
In which job categories are the workers mostly women?Elementary school teachers
Engels claimed that men's desire to control their property brought aboutMonogamous marriage
On average, young men show greater ____ ability than young women; young women show greater ____ ability than young men.Mathematical; verbal
cultural transmission

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Views: 18
Asked: 2 years ago