what name is given to a gene that causes cancer?


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Which of the following is the best definition for recombinant DNA? DNA that carries a translocation DNA that includes pieces from two different sources DNA that results from bacterial conjugation an alternate form of DNA that is the product of a mutationDNA that includes pieces from two different sources
Which of these is a genetically modified organism? the first organism in which a particular mutation has appeared an organism carrying a gene that was acquired by artificial means a cloned organism carrying two different alleles an organism that gestated in an artificial womban organism carrying a gene that was acquired by artificial means
Which of the following best defines the term transgenic organism? an organism that is the first of its kind to bear a particular allele an organism containing a gene from another species an organism containing genes from three or more species an organism in which a genetic defect has been corrected using recombinant DNA therapyan organism containing a gene from another species
The world's first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was ______. SCID humulin RFLP HGHhumulin
A vaccine works by ______. preventing translation of mRNA molecules that code for disease-causing proteins inhibiting bacterial reproduction killing cells infected with a virus stimulating the immune system to develop lasting defensesstimulating the immune system to develop lasting defenses
Transgenic animals are currently used ______. as vectors for use in cloning human DNA as food to produce potentially useful proteins all of the aboveto produce potentially useful proteins
Which of these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell? humulin PCR plasmids GMplasmids
Of these steps, which occurs first in the production of a recombinant plasmid? recombination cloning construction of a genomic library isolation of a plasmid from a bacteriumisolation of a plasmid from a bacterium
Of these steps, which one occurs earliest in the process of producing recombinant DNA? Bacteria carrying recombinant plasmids are cloned. Human DNA fragments are mixed with the cut plasmids. The recombinant plasmids are mixed with bacteria. The same restriction enzyme is used to isolate the gene of interest and to cut the plasmid DNA.The same restriction enzyme is used to isolate the gene of interest and to cut the plasmid DNA.
When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein, the ______. plasmids multiply and produce the protein outside of the bacterium bacterial genome and plasmid are inserted into the genome of the cell containing the desired gene (perhaps the cell of a plant or animal) desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is taken up by the bacterium bacterial chromosome is genetically engineered and the plasmid is used to help the bacterium replicatedesired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is taken up by the bacterium
The process of making multiple copies of a gene by inserting it into a host genome and culturing the host is an example of ______. industrial genetic engineering gene amplification gene cloning gene pharminggene cloning
A collection of cloned DNA fragments that includes an organism's entire genome is called a ______. phenotypic library genomic library gene repository clone collectiongenomic library
Nucleic acid probes are used to ______. isolate bacterial genes synthesize a DNA strand complementary to a sticky end find a specific nucleotide sequence destroy clones that do not carry the recombinant plasmid of interestfind a specific nucleotide sequence
Restriction enzymes are obtained from ______. archaea eukaryotes viruses bacteriabacteria
"Sticky ends" are produced as a result of the action of ______. a clone DNA ligase humulin a restriction enzymea restriction enzyme
"Sticky ends" are ______. telomeres the site on chromosomes where the centromere is found regions of double-stranded DNA that can be cut by a restriction enzyme single-stranded ends of fragments of double-stranded DNAsingle-stranded ends of fragments of double-stranded DNA
A DNA fragment with a sticky end that reads -ATTCG will bind with another DNA fragment with a sticky end that reads ______. CGGAT- GCCTA- ATTGC- TAAGC-TAAGC-
Which enzyme is used to bind DNA fragments together? DNA ligase restriction enzyme DNA polymerase telomeraseDNA ligase
Of the following, which is the last step in the production of a recombinant DNA plasmid? using DNA ligase to join DNA fragments allowing the reproduction of the bacterium bearing the recombinant plasmid transduction cloningusing DNA ligase to join DNA fragments
You are attempting to link an individual to a crime. The only evidence you have is a tiny drop of blood. How can you use this drop of blood to make the association? You can use the sample to check for the presence of the Rhesus factor. You can use gel electrophoresis to determine the length of the DNA found in the sample. You can use the sample to determine the individual's ABO blood group. You can use PCR to increase the amount of DNA available for restriction fragment analysis.You can use PCR to increase the amount of DNA available for restriction fragment analysis.
What name is given to a region of DNA that varies from person to person? restriction fragment genetic probe monoDNA genetic markergenetic marker
Cutting DNA with a particular restriction enzyme produces DNA fragments that can be separated by ______. recombinant DNA enzymes plasmids gel electrophoresisgel electrophoresis
To make restriction fragments, a DNA sample is treated with ______. gel electrophoresis DNA ligase restriction enzymes PCRrestriction enzymes
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments on the basis of differences in their ______. length pH G:T ratio A:C ratiolength
STR analysis is a DNA profiling technique that makes use of the fact that different people have different CODIS DNA sequences different numbers of repeats of short DNA sequences at certain sites in the genome. different restriction fragments different alleles for many genes in the genome.different numbers of repeats of short DNA sequences at certain sites in the genome.
The scientific field that studies complete sets of genes is called ______. genomics recombinant DNA proteomics genetic engineeringgenomics
The human genome contains approximately ______ genes. 1,000-2,000 50,000-60,000 2,000-3,000 21,00021,000
Approximately what percentage of the human genome consists of noncoding DNA? 87% 67% 98% 77%98%
The Human Genome Project has the potential to ______. lead to treatments for inherited diseases increase our understanding of the historical relationships among species lead to treatments for contagious diseases play a role in all of the choices listed hereplay a role in all of the choices listed here
Which of these statements can be logically inferred from the amount of DNA shared by chimpanzees and humans? Humans are unique and different from all other life forms. Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor. Humans are a more complex life form than chimpanzees. Humans evolved from chimpanzees.Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.
To find the nucleotide sequence of human chromosomes, chromosomes had to be digested into small fragments and then ______. cloned and sequenced centrifuged and electrophoresed restricted fingerprintedcloned and sequenced
What technique is most commonly used to sequence entire genomes? the nucleic acid probe method the whole-genome shotgun method the genetic marker method the plasmid methodthe whole-genome shotgun method
The study of the full protein sets that genomes encode is _____. gene therapy gene cloning genomics proteomicsproteomics
In human gene therapy, genetically engineered alleles, usually from other species, replace mutated alleles. normal versions of genes are transferred to patients who carry a mutated allele. harmless bacteria make important proteins for humans that cannot produce these proteins on their own. bacterial plasmids are used to transfer genes to human patients.normal versions of genes are transferred to patients who carry a mutated allele.
The state of human gene therapy today is that the work that has been completed so far is purely theoretical, but some treatments are in development. human gene therapy is used routinely in the treatment of certain rare cancers. human gene therapy is used to treat a wide variety of conditions, including diabetes, cancer, and bone marrow diseases. there have been a small number of successes, including with the disease SCID.there have been a small number of successes, including with the disease SCID.
Genetically modifying human ______ cells may directly affect future generations. intestinal somatic gametic immunegametic
Ethical dilemmas raised by DNA technology and knowledge of the human genome include ______. the potential for interfering in evolution the potential discrimination against people predisposed to certain diseases the safety of GM foods all of the aboveall of the above
The possibility that Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan spread an unusual chromosome to nearly 16 million men living today resulted from studies of _____. the X chromosome proteomics cDNA the Y chromosomethe Y chromosome
At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this? regeneration carcinogenesis gene expression cellular differentiationcellular differentiation
The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is ______. transcription recombination gene expression phenogenesisgene expression
In bacteria, what name is given to a cluster of genes with related functions, along with their DNA control sequences? exon promoter operon activatoroperon
Bacterial RNA polymerase binds to the ______. regulatory gene proto-oncogene promoter operatorpromoter
In prokaryotes, the production of a single RNA transcript for a group of related genes is under the control of the ______. master control gene homeobox operon signal transduction pathwayoperon
In an operon, the ______ acts as an on/off switch. promoter operator activator repressoroperator
Which of the following turns off transcription by binding to the operator? promoter repressor RNA polymerase lactoserepressor
Repressors act by blocking the binding of _____ to the operator. the operon RNA polymerase DNA polymerase promotersRNA polymerase
What would you assume if you found RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E. coli? the presence of lactose the absence of lac operon repressor protein the presence of lac operon activator protein the binding of lactose to the lac operon activatorthe presence of lactose
While examining a human cell that functions normally, you determine that it has 45 functional chromosomes and one chromosome that is almost completely inactive. You immediately decide that it is very likely that this cell ______. is lacking a chromosome came from a normal human female will become cancerous if one or two more genes are mutated is a gametecame from a normal human female
What is the first level of control of eukaryotic gene transcription? the binding and unbinding of transcription factors to enhancer sequences RNA splicing DNA packing and unpacking attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoterDNA packing and unpacking
Male tortoiseshell cats ______. do not have an X chromosome have orange and black patches of fur that reflect the pattern of X chromosome inactivation are likely to be exceedingly rare and very likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY are usually XYY individualsare likely to be exceedingly rare and very likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY
Which of these plays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? RNA splicing gene operons attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter transcription factorsattachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
In eukaryotic cells, repressor proteins inhibit transcription by binding to ______. regulators operators silencers enhancerssilencers
Introns are ______. DNA sequences to which activators bind noncoding DNA sequences expressed DNA sequences the product of RNA splicingnoncoding DNA sequences
Which of these is a type of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression? inactivation of tRNA alteration of proteins alteration of DNA nucleotide sequences binding of transcription factors to enhancersalteration of proteins
How can a single RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides? The length of its tail can vary. Two different genes can produce the same RNA transcript, which will then be translated differently. There is more than one way to modify the coded polypeptide. There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.
Cells communicate with one another via ______. signal transduction pathways cascades of gene activation the diffusion of RNA transcripts through adhesion junctions RNA splicingsignal transduction pathways
The "master control genes" that regulate other genes, which determine what body parts will develop in which locations, are called ______. oncogenes homeotic genes enhancers operonshomeotic genes
Which of these is most likely to cause the development of a six-legged frog? mutation of homeotic genes artificial selection dietary supplementation conversion of a proto-oncogene to an oncogenemutation of homeotic genes
Homeotic genes ______. are an example of convergent evolution are evidence of the common ancestry of eukaryotic organisms have very different sequences in plant cells as compared to animal cells regulate gene expression in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsare evidence of the common ancestry of eukaryotic organisms
Which of these techniques could tell you how gene expression differs between individuals with and without cystic fibrosis? therapeutic cloning karyotyping reproductive cloning DNA microarrayDNA microarray
How is it that the cells in different body tissues are able to perform different functions? Different chromosomes have been inactivated in different cells. The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression. The mutations that have accumulated in the cells of the different tissues control functions. The cells contain different genes.The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression.
Reproductive cloning involves a cell or nucleus that must be implanted in the egg of an organism that is capable of regenerating lost body parts come from an early stage of embryonic development be dedifferentiated reacquire the genes it lost during the course of developmentbe dedifferentiated
Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______. the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans restocking populations of endangered animals all of the above.all of the above.
What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells? Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated. Adult stem cells are easier to grow in culture. It is easier to enucleate embryonic stem cells. The use of embryonic stem cells raises fewer ethical issues than the use of adult stem cells.Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.
What name is given to a gene that causes cancer? cancogene oncogene pathogene homeotic geneoncogene
Many proto-oncogenes regulate ______. cell growth cell suicide cell repair cell divisioncell division
Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers; thus, it can be said that ______. these cancers are inherited as a dominant trait (for these individuals) lifestyle will have little impact on cancer risk mutations that occur in somatic cells can be passed from parent to offspring predisposition to these cancers is inheritedpredisposition to these cancers is inherited
Data suggest that the normal version of BRCA1 functions as a(n) ______. oncogene silencer proto-oncogene tumor-suppressor genetumor-suppressor gene
Which risk factors are associated with cancer of the colon and rectum? dietary fat UV radiation tobacco virusesdietary fat
______ is(are) responsible for more cancers than any other carcinogen. Tobacco Asbestos X-rays UV radiationTobacco
More people die of ______ cancer than of any other cancer. skin breast pancreatic lunglung
Which of these lifestyle choices will increase cancer risk? jogging quitting smoking a diet low in plant fiber spending more time in the suna diet low in plant fiber
DNA and RNA are polymers composed of ______ monomers. fatty acid amino acid nucleotide carbohydratenucleotide
The backbone of DNA consists of ______. a repeating sugar-nucleotide-sugar-nucleotide pattern nitrogenous bases a repeating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern paired nucleotidesa repeating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern
Thymine and cytosine differ from adenine and guanine in that thymine and cytosine are only found in DNA, whereas adenine and guanine are only found in RNA. thymine and cytosine are single-ring structures, whereas adenine and guanine are double-ring structures. thymine and cytosine are only found in DNA, whereas adenine and guanine are found in both DNA and RNA. thymine and cytosine are larger nitrogenous bases.thymine and cytosine are single-ring structures, whereas adenine and guanine are double-ring structures.
RNA contains the nitrogenous base ______ instead of ______, which is only found in DNA. uracil... thymine uracil... guanine a deoxyribose sugar... a ribose sugar thymine... uraciluracil... thymine
If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine? 60% 40% 20% 30%30%
In a DNA double helix, adenine pairs with ______ and guanine pairs with ______. thymine... cytosine guanine... adenine cytosine... thymine uracil... cytosinethymine... cytosine
If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence GTCCAT, what is the sequence of the other strand? ACTTGC CAGGUA TGAACG CAGGTACAGGTA
Who discovered the structure of DNA? Hershey and Chase Franklin Watson and Crick PaulingWatson and Crick
Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from ______. base rule studies X-ray crystallography studies bacteriophage studies studies of disease-causing bacteriaX-ray crystallography studies
What type of chemical bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands? covalent hydrophilic ionic hydrogenhydrogen
After replication, ______. one new DNA double helix consists of two old strands and the other new DNA double helix consists of two new strands each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand each new DNA double helix consists of two old strands each new DNA double helix consists of two new strandseach new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand
DNA replication is a slow process that results in virtually no errors. is a very fast process that results in numerous errors. requires the cooperation of over a dozen enzymes and other proteins. requires DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase.requires the cooperation of over a dozen enzymes and other proteins.
The modern phrasing of Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis about relationships between genes and their products is "one gene-one ______." protein RNA polypeptide enzymepolypeptide
What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism? morphology phenotype genotype holotypephenotype
How many amino acids are common to all living systems? 10 20 30 10020
How many nucleotides make up a codon? two three four fivethree
The shared genetic code of all life on Earth is evidence that ______. all life shares a common ancestry the genetic code arose relatively late in the history of life on Earth bacterial cells arose earlier than eukaryotic cells DNA replication is error-freeall life shares a common ancestry
Transcription is the ______. manufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA manufacture of a protein based on information carried by RNA modification of a strand of RNA prior to the manufacture of a protein manufacture of two new DNA double helices that are identical to an old DNA double helixmanufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA
If a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC, transcription will result in a(n) ______. RNA double helix with the sequence UUCGAG for one strand and AAGCUC for the complimentary strand single RNA strand with the sequence TTCGAG DNA double helix with the sequence AAGCTC for one strand and TTCGAG for the complementary strand single RNA strand with the sequence UUCGAGsingle RNA strand with the sequence UUCGAG
Which of the following enzymes is responsible for RNA synthesis? RNA polymerase RNase RNA ligase RNA helicaseRNA polymerase
The region of DNA where RNA synthesis begins is the ______. promoter processor start codon initiatorpromoter
The correct sequence of events occurring during transcription is ______. initiation, elongation, termination splicing, capping, tailing elongation, initiation, termination tailing, capping, splicinginitiation, elongation, termination
The absence of a terminator in transcription will result in ______. a strand of mRNA that lacks its cap and tail the creation of a virus the production of a longer RNA molecule the production of a shorter RNA moleculethe production of a longer RNA molecule
What protects mRNA from attack by cellular enzymes? the removal of exons RNA splicing a cap and tail the lack of RNA-digesting enzymes in the cytoplasma cap and tail
The expressed (coding) regions of eukaryotic genes are called ______. exons caps promoters intronsexons
Translation converts the information stored in ______ to ______. DNA... RNA RNA... DNA RNA... a polypeptide DNA... a polypeptideRNA... a polypeptide
The RNA that is translated into a polypeptide is ______ RNA. nuclear transfer ribosomal messengermessenger
The DNA codon AGT codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon ______. AGU TCU AGT TCAAGU
Where is translation accomplished? lysosomes smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes nucleoliribosomes
During translation, what is the correct order of events that occur as an amino acid is added? initiation, codon recognition, termination peptide bond formation, translocation, codon recognition translocation, codon recognition, termination codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocationcodon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation
Peptide bonds form between ______. a tRNA and the amino acid it is carrying an mRNA codon and a tRNA anticodon an mRNA transcript and the small ribosomal subunit amino acidsamino acids
A mutation within a gene that will insert a premature stop codon in mRNA would ______. change the location at which transcription of the next gene begins result in a polypeptide that is one amino acid shorter than the one produced prior to the mutation result in a shortened polypeptide chain have the same effect as deleting a single nucleotide in the generesult in a shortened polypeptide chain
What is the smallest number of nucleotides that must be added or subtracted to change the triplet grouping of the genetic message? one two three fourone
What is the ultimate source of all diversity? meiosis natural selection mutation sexual recombinationmutation
Mad cow disease is caused by small circular RNA molecules called viroids. an enveloped virus. a retrovirus similar to HIV. infectious proteins called prions.infectious proteins called prions.
How can bacteriophage DNA be spread from cell to cell without causing cell death? by altering its DNA by altering the way a cell splices its RNA via a lytic cycle via a lysogenic cyclevia a lysogenic cycle
Plant viruses ______. cause diseases that can be easily cured often use RNA, rather than DNA, as their genetic material do not exist-viruses only attack animals benefit plants, rather than causing diseaseoften use RNA, rather than DNA, as their genetic material
A(n) ______ is to bacteria as a ______ is to animal cells. retrovirus... virus prophage... provirus RNA virus... DNA virus phage... prophageprophage... provirus
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) must use its own ______ to reproduce. RNA polymerase tRNA DNA polymerase reverse transcriptasereverse transcriptase
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Asked: 3 years ago

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