# in the body, water that resides between cells is known as

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Approximately how much water is found in a 134b person?80
Whats the body's most indispensable nutrient?Water
What fraction of lean tissue represents the water content?3/4
What is not a function of water in the body?Source of energy
What contributes most to the weight of the human body?Water
who has the highest percentage of body water?Children
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as..interstitial
All are mild symptoms of dehydration exceptspastic muscles
Which body structure helps regulate thirst?Hypothalamus
Where is interstitial fluid found?Between cells
What is a feature of water and nutrition?water intoxication
What min level of body weight loss as water impairs a persons physical performance?3-4%
What min % of body weight loss as water results in fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite?1-2%
Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known ashyponatremia
Which is a feature of water?Generalized from oxidation
The avg daily loss of water via kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin is about1.5-2.5 liters
What is the min amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away body waste products?500mL
What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcal?2,500mL
The min amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termedobligatory
The approximate % of water in pizza45%
Approximately how many mL of water/day are produced by metabolism?250mL
What is present in the highest concentration in soft water?Sodium
Habitual intake of soft water is most likely to aggravatehypertension
Which is a characteristic of caffeine intake and water balance?Habitual consumers
Which type of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?distilled
What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?Kidneys
How does antidiuretic hormone function?stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys
What pituitary hormone regulates kidney retention of water?Antidiuretic
Factors that are effective in regulating the body's water balance include all of the following exceptadrenaline
Aldosterone and renin each function to promoteretention of sodium
What promotes constriction of blood vessels resulting in elevated blood pressure?Angiotensin
What is the function of renin?Activates angiotensin
Ions that carry a positive charge are calledcations
What describes a way to make an electrolyte solution?Dissolve a teaspoon of salt
What is the major extracellular anion?Chloride
What is the major extracellular cation?Sodium
What is the major intracellular anion?Phosphate
What is the major intracellular cation?Potassium
All of the following are properties of electrolytes exceptinclude fat-soluble and water-soluble
What is the term for pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentration are separated by a membrane?Osmotic pressure
What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?Osmotic pressure
What is the sodium-potassium pump?out of cell
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?sodium and chloride
All are typical ingredients in an oral rehydration therapy formula exceptprotein
The normal blood pH range is about7.35-7.45
All are common participants in the regulation of body fluid pH exceptoxalic acid
All play important roles in acid base balance exceptliver
What organ is the chief regulator of the body's acid base balance?Kidneys
What is the chief function of carbonic acid in the body?maintain acid-base balance
What is a general property of the minerals?when food is burned
What does not serve as a major regulator of fluid balance in the body?Calcium
What event is specific to a salt-sensitive individual?Blood pressure inc
In a normal person with a daily requirement of 500mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10g of common salt?Equilibrium
Normally, what is the relationship of the amount of sodium excreted to the amount ingested that day?Intake and excretion are equal
What is another term for hypertension?High blood pressure
Salt-sensitive pop groups include all of the following exceptCaucasians
The DASH diet plan was devised to preventhypertension
How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5g?1,000mg
Even in people with normal blood pressure, what percent are salt sensitive?25
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?Processed foods
What percent of a persons total sodium intake derives from naturally occurring food sodium?10
Which of the following is a feature of sodium and health?promotes calcium excretion
What is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?Salted peanuts
Why are salt tablets not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?dehydration
What is tolerable intake level for salt?1 teaspoon
Hyponatremia refers to low blood concentration ofsodium
What adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity?Hyponatremia
What is a feature of sodium nutrition?AI for young adults
Which of the following minerals would bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?Chloride
Which is a major function of chloride?Helps
All are characteristics of chloride in nutrition exceptrecommended
What is the primary function of potassium?intracellular electrolyte
What is not a feature of potassium deficiencyIt is common
BarbaraHigh blood pressure
What is a feature of potassiumLiberal
What is a symptom of potassium deficiency?Muscle weakness
Who is at risk for potassium depletion?don't get a lot of fruits and veggies
All are features of potassium exceptprocessed foods
Which is not among the common food sources of potassium?Cheese
Which is a feature of potassium supplementsCan cause toxicity
About what % of the body's calcium is found in the blood?1%
Almost all calcium in the body is used toprovide rigidity
What is hydrodoxyapatite?calcium-rich
What is not a process that directly involves calcium?pH regulation
What is calmodulin?calcium binding protein
Which is a feature of calcium in the body?Higer calcium intakes
Which regulates the level of calcium in the blood?Parathyroid
TiffanyPara
Which represents the least likely cause for an abnormal blood calcium level?Insufficient
Muscle stiffness that results from abnormally high calcium levels in the blood is termedCalcium rigor
Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence oflactose
All are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract exceptoxalates
Which foods are sig. sources of oxalates?Spinach and sweet potatoes
How much calcium would typically be absorbed by a normal adult w/ a calcium intake of 1,000mg?300mg
All dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance exceptlactose
Calcium binding protein acts w/in theintestines
What is a risk of consuming calcium supplements above the UL?Kidney stone
What is a good source of dietary calciumgreen vegetables
What green veg. shows the lowest bioavailability of calcium?Spinach
On a per calorie basis, what shows the best sources of calcium?Vegetables
What shows the highest bioavailability for calciumBroccoli
All are good plant sources of calcium for the body exceptspinach
Which age is typically associated with people having the dense bone?28
What age to adults normally begin to lose bone mass?30-40 yrs
About how many people in the US a afflicted with osteoporosis?50 mil
Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence ofnaturally
What is a feature of osteoporosis?virtually no effect
What is the calcium AI for young adults?1000 mg
All are characteristics of phosphorous in nutrition exceptthe ratio
What is a feature of phosphorous?Involved
Which is a feature of phosphorous in nutrition?Dietary deficiencies
Which mineral is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?Phosphorus
Which mineral is least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?Calcium
All are shared by calcium and magnesium exceptboth are found
Where is the majority of the body magnesium found?Bones
Which is a major function of magnesium?Catalyst
"Magnesiums Role in ATP synthesis"magnesium serves
Which mineral is required in the enzymatic phosphorylation of ADPMagnesium
Which is a feature of magnesium in nutrition?Deficiency is associated with hypertension/average intakes from food are below recommendations
Magnesium present in mineral water has bioavailability of50%
Magnesium is known to be involved in all exceptproduction of red
Sulfur is present in almost allproteins
Some amino acids can link to each other by bridges made ofsulfur
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?Protein
All are known to have high sulfur content exceptteeth
The outer, hard shell of bone is calledcortical bone
All are characteristics of dolomite supplements exceptusually sold
Which is a function of trabecular bone?Storage for calcium
The incidence of death within a year of sustaining a hip fracture is about (%)25%
In what decade of life does osteoporosis first begin in men and women?fourth
For every man with type 1 osteoporosis, about how many women have it?6
Most common fracture sites of osteoporosis type 1 arespine and wrist
What does DEXA scan measure?Bone density
What is a feature of osteoporosis type 1?estrogen
What % of hip fractures in men and women are due to osteoporosis?80-90%
All are known to have high correlation with risk for osteoporosis excepthigh protein diet
Protective factors for osteoporosis include all of the following exceptfemale gender
The strongest predictor for loss of bone density is a personsage
development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?10 yrs later
A persons highest bone density is achieved by around age30
What % of people with osteoporosis are female?80
After age, whats the nest strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?Sex
Antiresorptive drug treatment for osteoporosis work primarily bybone degrading cells
Anabolic drug treatments for osteoporosis work chiefly byosteoblast activity
Estrogen therapy for osteoporosis is often rejected because it may increase risk forcancer
Which is not known to be a risk factor for osteoporosis in men?High BMI
Primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related toestrogen like activity
What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?Phyto
Among the following ethnic groups, which has the highest bone density?African-Americans
What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison w/ white women?1/2
Which is a feature of physical activity and bone health?Working the muscles
Which best explains why Asians show fewer bone fractures that whites and hispanics?small, compact hips
Which is not a feature of body weight and bone health?low calcium diet
All are features of bone health and smoking exceptsmokers adapt
Which is a characteristic of calcium nutrition in teens?calcium intake is higher in boys than in girls
Which is a feature of calcium supplements?Common antacids
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most likely to be contaminated with toxic minerals?Oyster
Which is not a characteristic of alcohol and bone health?moderate alcohol intake
Which is a characteristic of calcium supplement use?take them with a meal
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, it is best to take them several times a day in doses up to500mg
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium dense?Calcium carbonate
Common side effects of taking a high dose calcium supplement include all exceptincreased iron absorption
Among the following calcium supplements, which contains the lowest % of calcium?Calcium gluconate
How many mg of calcium are present in a 500 mg tablet of calcium carbonate?200
To minimize the risk of calcium toxicity, total daily intakes should be held to a max of2,500
What is most likely to occur when a calcium supplement and iron supplement are taken at the same time?iron absorption is reduced
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