if the cell could no longer produce atp, what would be the effect on the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

# if the cell could no longer produce atp, what would be the effect on the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

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A toxin released by certain bacteria can block the release of neurotransmitters into a neuromuscular synapse. What would result from such a block? The muscle would become permanently contracted. The muscle would remain fixed at the length it was when the toxin contacted it. the loss of ability to contract the muscleThe loss of ability to contract the muscle
Cross bridge formation between myosin heads and actin molecules is caused by the elevation of calcium ion concentration in the cytosol. During rigor mortis, this elevation of calcium ion concentration in the cytosol is permanent because ________. mitochondria stop producing ATP molecules required by the sarcoplasmic reticulum's calcium ion pumps tropomyosin molecules bind irreversibly to calcium ions to prevent them from being removed from the cytosol acetylcholine continues to stimulate the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulummitochondria stop producing ATP molecules required by the sacrcoplasmic reticulum's calcium ion pumps
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding ATP production in muscles during periods of prolonged energy use, such as exercise? In the absence of oxygen, creatine phosphate can drive aerobic respiration pathways for a few minutes. Prolonged activity requires the use of aerobic pathways for ATP regeneration. As your blood sugar drops at any time during prolonged activity, glycogen stores in your muscles can be broken down to supply a glucose source. In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic pathways provide minimal ATP regeneration for less than a minute.In the absence of oxygen,creatine phosphate can drive aerobic respiration pathways for a few minutes
In the muscles of the limbs, the origin is usually the immobile muscle attachment. True FalseTrue
Which of the following interactions must occur first so that the others can take place? Interaction between thick and thin filaments during muscle contraction. C binds to actin. B binds to troponin. D is shifted from actin's binding sites. C releases ADP and P.C binds to actin
Which structure is highlighted? serosa dense regular connective tissue longitudinal layer of smooth muscle circular layer of smooth musclelongitudinal layer of smooth muscle
If both motor neurons shown in this figure were to develop action potentials and stimulate muscle fibers, would all the muscle cells shown here contract? Innervation of several motor units of a muscle. -No, because neurons in this figure do not innervate every muscle cell shown. - Yes, because signals can be passed from stimulated muscle fibers to unstimulated ones. - Yes, because an entire muscle only needs one neuron to stimulate it in order to contract. - No, because it is impossible for more than one motor unit to contract at once.no, because neurons in this figure do not innervate every muscle cell shown
What level of structural organization do voltage-gated sodium channels in muscle sarcolemma represent? tissue cellular molecule organmolecule
What is the function of the filaments found in ranges 1-2 and 6-7 but no other ranges? Relationship between fibers composing a sarcomere. neurological sensing of the muscle's tension a connection between the myosin fibers and a calcium source adding strength to contraction protection from overstretchingProtection from overstretching
Based on what you know of the relationship between the thick and the thin filaments, what would happen if a disorder existed that caused a person to produce no tropomyosin? The muscle tissues would never be able to relax. Actin will spontaneously fall apart. The muscle would never contract. The muscle would be weaker than normal.The muscle tissues would never be able to relax
Which of the following corresponds to a single fascicle? Pop-out view of a skeletal muscle showing tissue sheaths and bundling patterns. A B C DB
Which type of muscle requires voluntary nervous stimulation for activation? skeletal visceral cardiac smoothSkeletal
Excitation-contraction coupling includes all EXCEPT which of the following events? binding of calcium ions to troponin, which removes the blocking action of tropomyosin propagation of an action potential along the sarcolemma and down T tubules release of calcium ions from the terminal cisterns release of acetylcholine from axon terminals at the neuromuscular junctionRelease of acetylcholine from axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction
Which structure is highlighted? motor axons mitochondria nuclei motor end platesMotor end plates
What feature of smooth muscle allows it to stretch without immediately resulting in a strong contraction? slow, prolonged contractile activity low energy requirements stress-relaxation response smooth muscle toneStress-relaxation response
The molecular interaction described as a cross bridge involves the binding of which two proteins? Interaction between thick and thin filaments during muscle contraction. B and D A and C A and D A and BA and C
The connective tissue that covers structure A is continuous with which of the following? Pop-out view of a skeletal muscle showing tissue sheaths and bundling patterns. endomysium ligament tendon synovial membraneTendon
Which of the following occurs during the latent period of muscle contraction? An action potential is generated. Acetylcholine is released at the axon terminal. Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Acetylcholine is released at the axon terminal and an action potential is generated.Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
As the stimulus voltage was increased in this activity, which of the following occurred? The muscle force generated increased. The latent period increased in length. The muscle force generated decreased. The latent period decreased in length.The muscle force generated increased
Which of the following describes the relaxation phase? The sarcomeres are increasing in length, and the force generated increases. The sarcomeres are decreasing in length, and the force generated decreases. The sarcomeres are increasing in length, and the force generated decreases. The sarcomeres are decreasing in length, and the force generated increases.The sarcomers are increasing in length, and the force generated decreases
Which of the following can trigger a muscle twitch? electrical stimulation release of acetylcholine release of acetylcholine or release of calcium from the sarcolemma release of acetylcholine or electrical stimulation release of calcium from the sarcolemmaRelease of acetylcholine or electrical stimulation
Innervation of several motor units of a muscle. Each neuron shown in this figure innervates a group of muscle fibers. What is the term for a group of muscle fibers innervated by a single neuron? Innervation of several motor units of a muscle. fascicle motor unit neuromuscular junction sarcomereMotor unit
Which pathway for regenerating ATP is the most inefficient during 30 minutes of light to moderate exercise? direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate anaerobic glycolysis aerobic respiration use of stored glycogenDirect phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate
Which protein is indicated by the letter E? Interaction between thick and thin filaments during muscle contraction. tropomyosin actin myosin troponinMyosin
Which type of muscle is found in the wall of hollow organs? cardiac muscle multi unit smooth muscle unitary smooth muscle skeletal muscleUnitary smooth muscle
In this activity, why did the muscle force decrease over time? Intracellular calcium built up. Muscle fatigue developed. The stimulation frequency was decreased. The stimulation frequency was increasedMuscle fatigue developed
Which of the following describes how increasing the duration of the rest period affected muscle tension? Increasing the duration of the rest period had no effect on the subsequent maximal tension. Increasing the duration of the rest period increased the duration of the subsequent maximal tension. Increasing the duration of the rest period decreased the duration of subsequent maximal tension. Increasing the duration of the rest period decreased the amount of the subsequent maximal tension.Increasing the duration of the rest period increased the duration of the subsequent maximal tension
What might be occurring on a molecular level during the rest periods? Intracellular calcium is decreasing. Muscle fatigue is increasing. Intracellular lactic acid is increasing. Intracellular ADP and inorganic phosphate are decreasingIntracellular ADP and inorganic phosphate are decreasing
Which structure is highlighted? perimysium sarcomere skeletal muscle fiber fascicleSkeletal muscle fiber
In which phase of the muscle twitch shown in the figure would the maximum amount of ATP be consumed by myosin head groups? Relationship between tension and time during a single muscle twitch. A B CB
Duchenne muscular dystrophy could theoretically be cured if a technique was developed that would _________. strengthen the dystrophin proteins that are present in the patient's muscle fibers double the existing number of dystrophin molecules in the patient's muscle fibers strengthen the thick and thin filaments in the patient's muscle fibers none of the aboveNone of the above
Which of the following is NOT a normal function of muscle tissue? producing movement generating heat stabilizing joints protecting organs maintaining postureProtecting organs
Slow oxidative muscle fibers are best suited for __________. lifting heavy weights at the gym running a 100-yard dash running a marathon hitting a baseballRunning a marathon
Which organelle can chemically regulate the shortening of the muscle? the sarcoplasmic reticulum the myofibril the sarcolemma glycosomeThe sarcoplasmic reticulum
In which phase in the figure would the net movement of Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) be greatest? Relationship between tension and time during a single muscle twitch. A B CC
The sliding filament model of contraction states that __________. during contraction, the thin myofilaments slide past T tubules so that the Z discs are overlapping during contraction, the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that the actin and myosin myofilaments overlap to a greater degree during contraction, the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that the actin and myosin myofilaments no longer overlap during contraction, the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that calcium ions can be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulumDuring contraction, the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that the actin and myosin myofilaments overlap to a greater degree
The __________ shorten(s) during muscle contraction actin Z lines thick filament sarcomereSarcomere
The force of a muscle contraction is NOT affected by __________. the amount of ATP stored in the muscle cells the number of muscle fibers stimulated the degree of muscle stretch the frequency of the stimulation the size of the muscle fibers stimulatedThe amount of ATP stored in the muscle cells
Which of the following are correctly paired? smooth muscle; striated cardiac muscle; voluntary control cardiac muscle; nonstriated skeletal muscle; voluntary controlSkeletal muscle;voluntary control
Which statement accurately describes the event indicated by B? Summary of events at a neuromuscular synapse. The binding of acetylcholine directly causes the formation of a wave of depolarization. Diffusion of acetylcholine into the muscle fiber triggers the opening of an ion channel. Diffusion of Ca2+ into the muscle fiber triggers the diffusion of acetylcholine out of the muscle fiber. Binding of acetylcholine to a receptor triggers the opening of an ion channel.Binding of acetylcholine to a receptor triggers the opening of an ion channel
In the lab, a researcher finds that the threshold stimulus to induce an action potential in a muscle fiber's sarcolemma was 3.0 volts. Which of the following would result in muscle tension? 1.0 volt 2.0 volts 3.0 volts and 4.0 volts 3.0 volts 4.0 volts3.0 volts and 4.0 volts
Increasing the applied voltage in the simulation corresponds to which in vivo event? muscle fiber recruitment motor neuron recruitment muscle twitch recruitment motor unit recruitmentmotor unit recruitment
As the stimulus voltage increased, the resulting muscle tension _______. increased to a point until it reached a plateau increased proportionally remained the same decreased proportionallyincreased to a point until it reached a plateau
Which of the following occurs during the contraction phase? Cross-bridge cycling is taking place. The sarcomeres are increasing in length. Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is blocked. Acetylcholine binds to the sarcolemmaCross-bridge cylcling is taking place
What event directly triggers the release of neurotransmitter shown in A? Summary of events at a neuromuscular synapse. diffusion of Ca2+ into the axon terminal diffusion of Na+ into the axon terminal diffusion of K+ into the axon terminal diffusion of Na+ out of the axon terminaldiffusion of Ca2+into the axon terminal
Which structure is highlighted? smooth muscle fiber, longitudinal section skeletal muscle fiber, cross section skeletal muscle fiber, longitudinal section smooth muscle fiber, cross sectionsmooth muscle fiber,longitudinal section
Which step precedes all of the other listed steps? The sarcoplasmic reticulum is activated. An action potential starts on the sarcolemma. Na+ rushes into the cell. ACh is released by the motor neuronAch is released by the motor neuron
Which of the following is true? Skeletal muscle fibers tend to be shorter than smooth muscle fibers. Smooth muscle lacks the thin and thick filaments characteristic of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle lacks the coarse connective tissue sheaths that are found in smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle fibers contain sarcomeres; smooth muscle fibers do not.Skeletal muscle fibers contain sarcomeres;smooth muscle fibers do not
Relationship between tension and time during a single muscle twitch. What result would be expected if an additional stimulus, equal in intensity to the first, were to be applied to the muscle at the 60 millisecond (ms) time point? The tension exerted by the muscle would continue to decrease, but at a significantly slower rate than observed without the second stimulus. The muscle would increase in tension to a level greater than that measured at the beginning of phase C. Tension would increase to the same maximum force measured at the beginning of phase C. The muscle would quickly return to the fully relaxed state of minimum tension.The muscle would increase in tension to a level greater than that measured at the beginning of phase C
The contractile, or functional, unit of a muscle fiber is __________. the myofilament troponin the elastic filament the sarcomereSarcomere
The interaction between which protein and ion initiates contraction of skeletal muscle? tropomyosin; calcium ions myosin; sodium ions troponin; sodium ions troponin; calcium ionstroponin;calcium ions
What mechanism allows for a contraction of the highlighted cell? intercalated disc sliding filament tight junction gap junctionsliding filament
A muscle that is lengthening while it produces tension is performing a(n) __________ contraction. concentric eccentric isometric maximaleccentric
Which structure is highlighted? skeletal muscle fibers, longitudinal section smooth muscle fibers, circular layer skeletal muscle fibers, cross section cardiac muscle fibers, longitudinal sectionskeletal muscle fibers,longitudinal section
Myasthenia gravis is sometimes treated medically by a treatment that involves ________. boosting the activity of the immune system suppressing the release of acetylcholine from synaptic vesicles suppressing the synthesis of acetylcholine inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesteraseinhibiting the action of acetylcholinerase
Innervation of several motor units of a muscle. If both of the neurons in the figure were activated, more muscle fibers would contract than if either neuron alone were active. This mechanism for control of the force of muscle contraction is known as __________. Innervation of several motor units of a muscle. recruitment tetanus excitation-contraction coupling wave summationRecruitment
Identify the correct sequence of the following events. (a) Myosin generates a power stroke. (b) Ca+ binds to troponin. (c) ATP recharges the myosin head. (d) Troponin removes tropomyosin from G actin. (e) The sarcomere shortens. (f) Myosin binds to actin. d, b, f , c, a, e b, d, f, a, e, c e, c, a, b, d, f f, a, c, e, d, b a, b, c, d, e, f b, f, a, c, e, db,d,f,a,e,c
Which structure is highlighted? smooth muscle fibers cardiac muscle fibers dense irregular connective tissue fibroblasts and collagen fiberssmooth muscle fibers
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