freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it

# freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it

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The concept of "personality" most clearly embodies the notion of:temporal consistency.
Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptomcould not be explained readily in terms of neurological impairments.
Freud observed that certain symptoms of illness were relieved when patients talked freely about their past. This led Freud to suspect that these symptoms resulted from:psychological processes.
The use of free association is central to the process of:psychoanalysis.
Which of the following techniques would Freud have used to discover the latent content of his patients' dreamsfree association
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as:free association
Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to bepreconscious.
According to Freud, the unconscious is:the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
Freud believed that ________ are the "royal road to the unconscious."dreams
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:id
When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his:id
Ego is to id as ________ is to ________.reality principle; pleasure principle
When 16-year-old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car. He decided, instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college education. Hafez shows signs of a:strong ego
According to Freud, the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the:superego
Janine experiences feelings of revulsion at the prospect of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine's:superego
No matter how long and hard Oprah studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Oprah shows signs of a:strong superego
Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's ________ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires.ego
During the early psychosexual stages, the id derives pleasure from distinct:erogenous zones
Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is going through the ________ stage of development.anal
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.phallic
According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with:the oedipus complex
One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n):oedipus complex
Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of:the superego
Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?Freud's psychoanalytic theory
Gene spends a good deal of time bragging about his numerous sexual exploits. Freud would have suggested that Gene is fixated at the ________ stage.phallic
Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as:fixation
Saleem seeks sexual pleasure by means of solitary masturbation rather than through sexual interaction with his wife. Freud would have suggested that this illustrates a(n):fixation.
Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit:passive dependence
Arjean is terribly gullible and accepts as true just about anything she is told. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Arjean is most likely fixated at the ________ stage.oral
Mr. Hendriks, a high school teacher, washes the chalkboard and realigns student desks in precise rows before every class. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Mr. Hendriks is most likely fixated at the ________ stage.anal
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of:repression
Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete:repression
An excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to:regression
Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates:regression
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of:reaction formation
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:projection
Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates at school are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a:projection
Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells her friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates:projection
The defense mechanism in which selfjustifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is:rationalization
Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she, "You could better spend the time playing with our kids." Melissa's comment best illustrates:rationalization
While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor's treatment of students as an example of:displacement
Projective tests are most closely associated with the ________ perspective.psychoanalytic
Henry Murray found that children's perceptions of photographs were biased by their previous participation in a frightening game. Their perceptual reactions most clearly highlighted the potential value of:projective tests
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the:TAT
The major reason for the unreliability of the Rorschach inkblot test is the fact that:psychologists often do not agree on how to score the results of this test.
Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of:childhood sexual instincts.
Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from:feelings of inferiority.
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women:have weak superegos
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?Jung
Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to emphasize the importance of:motivational conflict
Contemporary psychologists are least likely to agree with Freud's belief that:conscious awareness of our own mental processes is very limited.
Freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the:recovery of repressed memories.
Survivors' memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:repression
Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it:offers few testable predictions that allow one to determine its validity.
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:self-determination
Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of:self-actualization
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are least likely to be highly:conforming
Which theorist emphasized that personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?Rogers
Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children's feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her approach to parentchild interaction was most explicitly recommended by:Rogers
Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.self-concept
Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:the actual self and the ideal self
Which psychologists are most likely to criticize standardized personality tests for failing to capture the unique subjective experience of the individual personality?humanistic theories
Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of:social influence
Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by:selectively studying people with qualities he admired.
The humanistic perspective has been criticized for promoting an excessive degree ofindividualism
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for:underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as Allport is to the ________ perspectivetrait
Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called:traits
Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than ________ it.describing; explaining
Santa Claus is to Superman as ________ is to ________.endomorph; mesomorph
The MyersBriggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by:Carl Jung
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic:Personality Traits
Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as:unstable-introverted
A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is called a(n) ________ test.empirically derived
Which of the following tests was empirically derived?MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, delusions, and other symptoms of psychological disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?MMPI
Personality inventories typically gather information by means of:self reports
The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of:factor analysis
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension known as:conscientiousness.
Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most closely related to one's level of creativity?openness
Morning types are to evening types as ________ is to ________.conscientiousness; extraversion
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as:The Barnum effect
Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates:The Barnum effect
Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation?trait
Walter Mischel's studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. According to Mischel, this should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing:personality traits
Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many classroom discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. According to Walter Mischel, Sheen's behavior should lead us to question the importance of:personality traits
In rejecting claims that personality trait measures fail to predict behavior effectively, Seymour Epstein emphasized the importance of:multiple behavior assessments
People's scores on a test of extraversion are likely to be most strongly correlated with the number of social conversations they initiate during the course of a single:month
An individual's responses to a personality inventory would be most useful for accurately predicting that person's behavior ________ that involve(s) highly ________ social expectations or roles.across a wide variety of situations; ambiguous
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the socialcognitive perspective is toBandura
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among:behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of:reciprocal determinism
Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them very kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by:reciprocal determinism
Because Greta is extremely extraverted, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize. Because Jim is extremely introverted, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by:reciprocal determinism
The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects:an external locus of control
Sasha believes that the questions on college tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates:an external locus of control
Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of:an external locus of control
Emma believes that she will be highly successful in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates:an internal locus of control
Compared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to:cope effectively with stress
An individual who perceives an internal locus of control would most likely show signs of astrong ego
Learned helplessness is most likely to contribute to:an external locus of control
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed:learned helplessness
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates:learned helplessness
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote:pessimism
The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her:attributional style
Researchers found that new life insurance representatives were less likely to quit during their first year on the job if they demonstrated the trait of:optimism
Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that itinvolves the scientific study of optimal human functioning.
Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n):self-serving bias
Sexually active undergraduate women perceive themselves as much less likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy than other women at their university. This best illustrates:unrealistic optimism
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's:past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
The social-cognitive perspective is least likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of:environmental influences
Larry studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of himself being unable to gain employment after his college graduation. Larry's diligence best illustrates the motivational impact of:possible selves
Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called:the spotlight effect
If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.overestimate; overestimate
Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to:have a strong ego
Self-esteem is negatively correlated with:depression
A person whose selfesteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to:criticize the shortcomings of others.
People who are challenged by severe physical disabilities are likely to maintain normal levels of self-esteem by:comparing themselves with others who are similarly disabled.
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates:self-serving bias
Research on selfperception indicates that most people:view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.
Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part?"I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing."
In one survey, Americans were more optimistic that they themselves would go to heaven than would either Michael Jordan or Bill Clinton. This best illustrates:self serving bias
Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates:self serving bias
Which of the following is most likely to contribute to raising one's self-esteem?self serving bias
A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:social responsibility.
Professor Shankar believes that her students' most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of:individualism
Individualism is most likely to be emphasized in:North America
American university students are more likely than Japanese university students to describe themselves in terms of their:academic abilities
Japanese students are more likely than American students to describe themselves in terms of their:social identities
A willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of:individualism
When Professor Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from people simply because he was a retired college professor. His sense of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a culture that valued:collectivism
Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.independence; interdependence
The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most likely to be emphasized in cultures that value:individualism
Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture that values:individualism
Parents in collectivist cultures are more likely than parents in individualist cultures to encourage teenage children to:participate in household chores
Compared with Freud, contemporary research psychologists are less likely to think of unconscious mental dynamics as involving:motivational conflict
According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates our pursuit of:self esteem
freud's
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