which of the following statements about age pyramids is true?

which of the following statements about age pyramids is true?


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Asked by 2 years ago
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Which aspects of a region's climate have the most impact on plants and animals?Temperature and moisture.
True or false? Weather is defined as the prevailing long-term atmospheric conditions in a particular region.False
Which of the following statements about Hadley cells is true?As warm air rises, air at the top of the atmosphere is pushed poleward and cools.
Which location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?Equator
What are rain shadows?Dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
Which desert is caused by a Hadley cell?Sahara Desert in Africa.
age classAll the individuals of a specific age in a population.
age specific fecundityThe average number of female offspring produced by a female in a certain age class.
age structureThe proportion of individuals in a population that are of each possible age.
carrying capacityThe maximum population size of a certain species that a given habitat can support.
cohortA group of individuals that are the same age and can be followed through time.
demographyThe study of factors that determine the size and structure of populations through time.
density dependentIn population ecology, referring to any characteristic that varies depending on population density.
density independentIn population ecology, referring to any characteristic that does not vary with population density.
emigrationThe migration of individuals away from one population to other populations.
exponential population growthThe accelerating increase in the size of a population that occurs when the growth rate is constant and density independent. Compare with logistic population growth.
fecundityThe average number of female offspring produced by a single female in the course of her lifetime.
finite rate of increaseThe rate of increase of a population over a given period of time. Calculated as the ending population size divided by the starting population size. Compare with intrinsic rate of increase.
generationThe average time between a mother's first offspring and her daughter's first offspring.
immigrationThe migration of individuals into a particular population from other populations.
intrinsic rate of increaseThe rate at which a population will grow under optimal conditions (i.e., when birthrates are as high as possible and death rates are as low as possible).
life historyThe sequence of events in an individual's life from birth to reproduction to death, including how an individual allocates resources to growth, reproduction, and activities or structures that are related to survival.
life tableA data set that summarizes the probability that an individual in a certain population will survive and reproduce in any given year over the course of its lifetime.
logistic population growthThe density-dependent decrease in growth rate as population size approaches the carrying capacity.
metapopulationA population made up of many small, physically isolated populations.
net reproductive rateThe growth rate of a population per generation; equivalent to the average number of female offspring that each female produces over her lifetime.
population densityThe number of individuals of a population per unit area.
population dynamicsChanges in the size and other characteristics of populations through time.
population ecologyThe study of how and why the number of individuals in a population changes over time.
population viability analysis (PVA)A method of estimating the likelihood that a population will avoid extinction for a given time period.
replacement rateThe number of offspring each female must produce over her entire life to replace herself and her mate, resulting in zero population growth. The actual number is slightly more than 2 because some offspring die before reproducing.
survivorshipOn average, the proportion of offspring that survive to a particular age.
survivorship curveThe number of offspring each female must produce over her entire life to replace herself and her mate, resulting in zero population growth. The actual number is slightly more than 2 because some offspring die before reproducing.
zero population growth (ZPG)A state of stable population size due to fertility staying at the replacement rate for at least one generation.
A population is a _____.group of individuals from the same species that live in the same area at the same time
For the accompanying graph, which of the following statements is true?A bird that lays one egg every other year is likely to have a probability of survival to the following year of 90 percent or higher.
Which statement is true of the growth rates of Paramecium species in the following graph, according to the experiment described in the text?Both Paramecium species experienced exponential growth until their population size caused their growth rates to be logistic.
A carp has a large number of offspring, but predators eat many of them during the first year of life. Once they survive to maturity, they have few predators. What type of survivorship curve does a carp have and why?type III, because carp have a low survivorship initially but a high survivorship once they have matured
What is the logic behind the calculation of the net reproductive rate?The growth rate of a population is the average number of female offspring that each female produces over the course of her lifetime.
What does the following graph tell us about common primrose population dynamics?Population size should decline with time.
Which factor is one of those used to calculate population growth?death rate
Which population would be most likely to experience exponential growth?Which population would be most likely to experience exponential growth?
Which of the following statements about exponential growth is true?In reality, it is not possible for population growth to continue indefinitely.
From the following graph and your reading of the text, select the statement below that best describes the results of this experiment.The hare population is controlled by both food supply and the lynx population.
Experiments performed on the bridled goby in coral reefs and song sparrows on Mandarte Island support the hypothesis that density-dependent effects can cause logistic population growth. What conclusions can be drawn from the graphs below?Gobies survive better and song sparrow clutch size increases when the population density is low.
What are population dynamics?changes in populations through time
Why can metapopulations remain stable over time even if some subpopulations go extinct?Migration from other subpopulations can re-establish formerly extinct subpopulations.
What inference can be made from the graphs below?Developed nations have had long periods of zero population growth or very slow population growth.
Which of the following statements is true about the metapopulation model?Migration from nearby populations can reestablish populations.
Which generalizations apply to most species endangered by human actions?They have high juvenile mortality, low adult mortality, and low fecundity.
Under what condition might r, the per capita rate of increase, approach rmax, the intrinsic rate of increase?when resources are abundant
Which of the following leads to growth of a population?births
In some European countries the population is declining. In these countries the net reproductive rate, R0 is _____.less than one
Which of the following is a constant for a given species?rmax, the intrinsic rate of increase
Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual's life span?robins
Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____.adults
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?grasses
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?elephants
Which processes increase a population's size?Births and immigration.
True or false? Factors that determine the per capita rate of increase of a population include the age of breeding and the number of offspring produced each year.True
Which factor does not affect a habitat's carrying capacity?Maximum number of individuals in a population.
Which equation represents the logistic growth rate of a population?N/t=rMmaxN*(KN)/K
Which of the following statements about density-independent growth is true?Density-independent growth is also known as exponential growth.
Under which of the following conditions would a population most likely experience exponential growth?Young populations with few individuals.
Which of the following statements about a population experiencing logistic growth is true?If N is greater than K, the population will shrink.
You are doing a mark-recapture experiment to determine the population size of the MendAliens living on an island in my back yard. Initially, you catch and mark 130 MendAliens, which you then release. Next, you capture 90 MendAliens, of which 20 are marked. What is your estimate of the population size of MendAliens living on the island in my back yard? N = (M1 x C) / M2 Or: (130 x 90) / 20 =585
Assume there are 200 MendAliens living on an island in my back yard. If my island has an area of 20 hectares, what is the population density of MendAliens in terms of MendAliens per hectare? 200 MendAliens / 20 hectares =10 MendAliens per hectare
The mark-recapture method would be best for sampling a population of _____.sharks
Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape?pyramid
Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape?inverted pyramid
Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape?a rectangle tapering toward the top
Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?the advent of agriculture
Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?the Industrial Revolution
Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics
Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth's carrying capacity for humans?There is insufficient information to answer this question.
There is insufficient information to answer this question.Changes in populations through time.
Which of the following statements about age pyramids is true?Predictions of a population's future take into account such factors as increasing survivorship and fecundity levels that remain the same.
True or false? The growth rate of a certain population increases very quickly for a time and then levels off to zero. The most likely reason that the growth rate leveled off to zero is that the environment reached its carrying capacity.True
The average age of childbearing in country A is 26, whereas the average age in country B is 30. In each country, the average number of offspring per woman is 3. Which of the following statements about the population growth rate in each country must be true?It is not possible to compare the population growth rates of countries A and B.
In 1970, the average age of childbearing was 28, and the average number of offspring per woman was 3 in a certain country. In 1980, the average age of childbearing was still 28, but the average number of offspring per woman was 2 in that country. If the death rate in the country remained constant during those years, how did the population growth rate change from 1970 to 1980?The population growth rate decreased.
The population of Greece is expected to _______.decline
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals.False
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population.False
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children.True
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals.True
Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this?Males generally have a shorter life span than females.
The population of Colombia is currently _______.expanding
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals.True
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population.True
Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children.False
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in homozygous recessive (ff) humans that typically causes death in the early 30s. Over time, we would expect the f allele frequency to _____ for this trait.decrease
Which of the following is the most predictable outcome of increased gene flow between two populations?decreased genetic difference between the two populations
Which of the following does not tend to promote speciation?gene flow
Male frogs give calls that attract female frogs to approach and mate. Researchers examined mating calls of closely related tree frogs in South America. If reinforcement of postzygotic isolation is occurring, what would you expect if you compare the calls of the two species in zones of sympatry versus zones of allopatry?Calls would be more different in areas of sympatry.
Which of the following could be a vicariance event for species in that habitat?The level of water in a lake recedes, creating two lakes where there used to be one.
Suppose 64% of a remote mountain village can taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and must therefore have at least one copy of the dominant PTC taster allele. If this population conforms to Hardy-Weinberg expectations for this gene, what percentage of the population must be heterozygous for this trait?48%
There is an island in the middle of a large river that houses a large population of ants. Damming of the river causes the island to flood and only the highest points of the island are now above water. The ants cannot swim, so are now in multiple isolated populations. Which of the following best describes this event?isolation by vicariance
Which of the following statements explains why animals are less likely than plants to speciate by polyploidy?Animals self-fertilize less often than plants, so diploid gametes are less likely to fuse.
Charophyceae (stoneworts) are a type of _____.green algae
Which of the following statements is consistent with the assertion that protists are paraphyletic?Some protists evolved into other eukaryotic groups.
The term "gymnosperm" refers to plants _____.with "naked seeds"
What evidence do paleobotanists look for that indicates the movement of plants from water to land?waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves
Where on the phylogenetic tree should the origin of double nuclei appear?at the base of Diplomonadida
Stramenopila literally means _____.straw hairs
Which of the following is a correct element of alternation of generations?The sporophyte is diploid and produces spores.
How many membranes does a mitochondria have?two
The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum grows best as a photoheterotroph. What are the most favorable sources of energy and carbon for this bacterium?fructose and light
You have found a new prokaryote. What line of evidence would support your hypothesis that the organism is a cyanobacterium?It is able to form colonies and produce oxygen.
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Asked: 2 years ago

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