in preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs?

# in preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs?

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A molecule becomes more oxidized when it _____. (eText Concept 9.1) a) gains an electron b) gains a hydrogen (H+) ion c) changes shape d) loses a hydrogen (H+) ion e) loses an electrone) loses an electron
In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced. (eText Concept 9.1) a) oxygen ... ATP b) ATP ... oxygen c) glucose ... oxygen d) glucose ... ATP e) carbon dioxide ... waterc) glucose ... oxygen
Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.1) a) glycolysis b) the citric acid cycle c) reduction of NADH d) oxidative phosphorylation e) substrate-level phosphorylationd) oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following is a correct description of the events of cellular respiration and the sequence of events in cellular respiration? (eText Concept 9.1) a) oxidation of glucose to pyruvate; reduction of pyruvate; citric acid cycle; oxidative phosphorylation b) oxidation of pyruvate; citric acid cycle; oxidation of glucose to pyruvate; oxidative phosphorylation c) glycolysis; reduction of pyruvate; citric acid cycle; oxidative phosphorylation d) glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation; citric acid cycle; oxidation of pyruvate. e) oxidation of glucose to pyruvate; oxidation of pyruvate; oxidation of acetyl-coA; oxidative phosphorylatione) oxidation of glucose to pyruvate; oxidation of pyruvate; oxidation of acetyl-coA; oxidative phosphorylation
Oxygen gas (O2) is one of the strongest oxidizing agents known. The explanation for this is that _____. (eText Concept 9.1) a) oxygen is so abundant in the atmosphere b) oxygen gas is composed of two atoms of oxygen c) the oxygen atom is very electronegative d) oxygen gas contains a double bond e) oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in cellular respirationc) the oxygen atom is very electronegative
The function of cellular respiration is to _____. (eText Concept 9.1) a) synthesize macromolecules from monomers b) extract usable energy from glucose c) extract CO2 from the atmosphere d) produce carbohydrates e) reduce CO2b) extract usable energy from glucose
During the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, which compound is reduced as a result of the reaction? (eText Concept 9.1) a) water b) oxygen c) glucose d) carbon dioxide e) both glucose and carbon dioxideb) oxygen
Each ATP molecule contains about 1% of the amount of chemical energy available from the complete oxidation of a single glucose molecule. Cellular respiration produces about 32 ATP from one glucose molecule. What happens to the rest of the energy in glucose? (eText Concept 9.1) a) It is stored as fat. b) It is used to make water from hydrogen ions and oxygen. c) It is released as carbon dioxide and water d) It is converted to starch. e) It is converted to heat.e) It is converted to heat.
Which of the following statements is the best explanation of what happens to the temperature and carbon dioxide concentration during a one-hour class period in a classroom of 300 students if the heating and air conditioning is turned off and all doors are kept closed? (eText Concept 9.1) a) Temperature goes up and the level of carbon dioxide goes down. This is because cellular respiration is an exergonic process that is only about 38% efficient; the remaining energy is lost to the environment as heat. Also, carbon dioxide is being converted to organic molecules such as fats and sugars during cellular respiration. b) Temperature and the level of carbon dioxide rise as heat and carbon dioxide are by-products of cellular respiration. c) Neither temperature nor carbon dioxide levels change because cellular respiration is 100% efficient and because carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration is just as rapidly consumed by cellular respiration. d) Temperature goes up but carbon dioxide levels remain constant because heat is a by-product of cellular respiration but carbon dioxide is converted to sugar during cellular respiration. e) Temperature goes down and carbon dioxide levels remain constant. This is because cellular respiration, being an endergonic reaction, requires an input of heat energy from the environment to occur and because carbon dioxide is neither produced nor consumed by cellular respiration.b) Temperature and the level of carbon dioxide rise as heat and carbon dioxide are by-products of cellular respiration.
A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.1) a) transport of electrons through a series of carriers b) attachment of a free inorganic phosphate (Pi) group to ADP to make ATP c) transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms to NAD+ d) transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation e) harnessing energy from the sund) transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation
Where do the reactions of glycolysis occur in a eukaryotic cell? (eText Concept 9.1) a) the cytosol b) across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion c) in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion d) the inner membrane of the mitochondrion e) the matrix of the mitochondriona) the cytosol
Which process is the one in which glucose is oxidized to generate two molecules of pyruvate, and in which ATP and NADH are produced? (eText Concept 9.1) a) fermentation b) chemiosmosis c) the oxidation of pyruvate d) the citric acid cycle e) None of the listed responses is correct.e) None of the listed responses is correct.
A chemist has discovered a drug that blocks phosphoglucoisomerase, an enzyme that catalyzes the second reaction in glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to kill bacteria in people with infections. However, he cannot do this because _____. (eText Concept 9.2) a) glycolysis produces so little ATP that the drug will have little effect b) glycolysis can occur without the action of enzymes c) bacteria are prokaryotes; they usually don't need to perform glycolysis d) human cells must also perform glycolysis; the drug might also poison them e) this step in the pathway of glycolysis can be skipped in bacteria, but not in humansd) human cells must also perform glycolysis; the drug might also poison them
In glycolysis, there is no production of carbon dioxide as a product of the pathway. Which of the following is the best explanation for this? (eText Concept 9.2) a) The products of glycolysis contain the same total number of carbon atoms as in the starting material. b) There is very little ATP produced in glycolysis. c) There are no oxidation or reduction reactions in glycolysis to produce CO2. d) The initial steps of glycolysis require an input of energy in the form of ATP (two per glucose). e) Glucose contains more carbons than the number of carbons found in the pyruvate products that are produced by glycolysis.a) The products of glycolysis contain the same total number of carbon atoms as in the starting material.
Of the following molecules in the glycolytic pathway (the process of glycolysis), the one with the most chemical energy is _____. (eText Concept 9.2) a) pyruvate b) glucose c) fructose-6-phosphate d) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate e) fructose-1,6-bisphosphatee) fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.3) a) substrate-level phosphorylation b) anabolic pathways c) the citric acid cycle d) glycolysis e) oxidative phosphorylationc) the citric acid cycle
In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and after a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in _____. (eText Concept 9.3) a) NADH b) carbon dioxide c) water d) ATP e) oxygen gasb) carbon dioxide
In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs? (eText Concept 9.3) a) Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the removed electrons are used to reduce an NAD+ to an NADH. b) Pyruvate is reduced and decarboxylated, and the resulting electrons oxidize an NAD+ to an NADH c) Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the resulting electrons are donated to NADH to produce NAD+. d) Pyruvate is reduced to acetyl-coA, which involves the reduction of pyruvate, the addition of a carbon dioxide from the environment, and its reduction by NADH. e) Pyruvate is ionized directly to acetyl-coA.a) Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the removed electrons are used to reduce an NAD+ to an NADH.
Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle? (eText Concept 9.3) a) The four-carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle. b) All of the carbon from glucose is cycled back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. c) The acetyl CoA that enters the cycle is regenerated in the last step of the pathway. d) NADH is cycled down the electron transport chain. e) NAD+ and FAD are recycled.a) The four-carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle.
Where do the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotic cells? (eText Concept 9.3) a) the matrix of the mitochondrion b) the cristae of the mitochondrion c) the cytosol d) the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion e) across the inner membrane of the mitochondriona) the matrix of the mitochondrion
How many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? (eText Concept 9.3) a) two b) four c) about 16 ATP d) three e) about 32 ATPb) four
Which of the following represents the major (but not the only) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle? (eText Concept 9.3) a) completion of substrate-level phosphorylation b) formation of NADH and FADH2 c) formation of CO2 d) utilization of O2 e) formation of ATPb) formation of NADH and FADH2
After completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____. (eText Concept 9.3) a) ATP b) acetyl CoA c) NADH d) CO2 e) FADH2c) NADH
Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA before the citric acid cycle? (eText Concept 9.3) a) removal of coenzyme A b) regeneration of NAD+ c) release of CO2 and synthesis of NADH d) release of CO2 and release of coenzyme A e) formation of CO2 and synthesis of ATPc) release of CO2 and synthesis of NADH
The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used in which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.4) a) the breakdown of glucose b) the production of CO2 c) pumping H+ across a membrane d) the oxidation of water e) the production of NADH and FADH2c) pumping H+ across a membrane
The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for synthesizing ATP directly from which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.4) a) the movement of electrons through a series of carriers b) the oxidation of glucose c) the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 d) the reduction of oxygen e) the flow of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase enzymee) the flow of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme
When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle also eventually stop working. Which of the following is the best explanation for this? (eText Concept 9.4) a) The uptake of oxygen stops because electron transport was inhibited. b) A high level of NADH is present in the cell. c) NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue. d) They run out of ADP. e) Electrons are no longer available from the electron transport chain to power glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.c) NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue.
Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.4) a) reducing NAD+ to NADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle b) producing a proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the mitochondria c) driving substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis d) The first two choices are correct. e) The second and third answers are correct.d) The first two choices are correct.
Which part of the catabolism of glucose by cellular respiration requires molecular oxygen (O2) and produces CO2? (eText Concept 9.4) a) glycolysis b) the combination of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle c) the citric acid cycle d) the combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport e) the electron transport chaind) the combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes? (eText Concept 9.4) a) at the end of glycolysis to oxidize pyruvate b) as a source of O2 in every reaction that produces CO2 c) between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to split a carbon from pyruvate, producing CO2 d) at the end of the citric acid cycle to regenerate citric acid e) at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2Oe) at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
Which of the following substances is/are involved in oxidative phosphorylation? (eText Concept 9.4) a) ADP b) oxygen c) ATP d) None of the listed responses is correct. e) The first three listed responses are involved in oxidative phosphorylation.e) The first three listed responses are involved in oxidative phosphorylation.
Which of the following best describes the electron transport chain? (eText Concept 9.4) a) Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step. b) Hydrogen atoms are added to CO2 to make an energy-rich compound. c) Electrons are pumped across a membrane by active transport. d) Glucose is broken down to a three-carbon compound in preparation for the citric acid cycle. e) Acetyl CoA is fully oxidized to CO2.a) Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.
If a compound that allows protons to freely diffuse across membranes is added to cells that are actively metabolizing glucose via cellular respiration, which of the following processes would stop? (eText Concept 9.4) a) electron transport b) glycolysis c) ATP synthesis d) All of the listed responses are correct. e) None of the listed responses is correct.e) None of the listed responses is correct.
Which of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria? (eText Concept 9.4) a) the production of NADH b) the components of the electron transport chain c) an ATP-dependent proton pump d) electrons moving down the electron transport chain e) ATPd) electrons moving down the electron transport chain
During respiration in eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain is located in or on the _____. (eText Concept 9.4) a) cytosol b) matrix of the mitochondrion c) inner membrane of the mitochondrion d) intermembrane space of the mitochondrion e) None of the listed responses is correct.c) inner membrane of the mitochondrion
The overall efficiency of respiration (the percentage of the energy released that is saved in ATP) is approximately _____. (eText Concept 9.4) a) 100% b) 0.5% c) 94% d) 35% e) 2%d) 35%
When solid tumors of animals reach a certain size, the center of the tumor begins to die. To prevent this, the tumor can recruit new blood vessels. What purpose does the recruitment of blood vessels to growing tumors serve? (eText Concept 9.4) a) It supplies oxygen so that aerobic cellular respiration can occur instead of fermentation. b) The second and third explanations together represent the best answer. c) The first and second explanations together represent the best answer. d) It supplies a non-oxygen electron acceptor to cells so that the cells can respire anaerobically. e) It supplies glucose to the rapidly dividing cells of the tumor.b) The second and third explanations together represent the best answer.
Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step _____. (eText Concept 9.5) a) removes poisonous oxygen from the environment b) extracts a bit more energy from glucose c) enables the cell to make pyruvate into substances it can use d) prevents pyruvate from accumulating e) enables the cell to recycle the reduced NADH to oxidized NAD+e) enables the cell to recycle the reduced NADH to oxidized NAD+
Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of which of the following compounds? (eText Concept 9.5) a) carbon dioxide b) ADP c) lactate d) oxygen e) ATPc) lactate
In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound? (eText Concept 9.5) a) carbon dioxide b) NAD+ c) glucose d) ethanol e) lactateb) NAD+
Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate to do which of the following? (eText Concept 9.5) a) produce additional CO2 b) utilize the energy in pyruvate c) get rid of pyruvate produced by glycolysis d) regenerate NAD+ e) speed up the rate of glycolysisd) regenerate NAD+
In brewing beer, maltose (a disaccharide of glucose) is _____. (eText Concept 9.5) a) the substrate for alcoholic fermentation b) a sweetener c) a substitute for pyruvate that cannot be made in yeast d) one of the enzymes for alcoholic fermentation e) the substrate for aerobic respirationa) the substrate for alcoholic fermentation
If muscle cells in the human body consume O2 faster than it can be supplied, which of the following is likely to result? (eText Concept 9.5) a) The muscle cells will have more trouble making enough ATP to meet their energy requirements. b) The cells will not be able to carry out oxidative phosphorylation. c) The cells will consume glucose at an increased rate. d) Only the first two answers are correct. e) The first three answers are correct.e) The first three answers are correct.
Of the metabolic pathways listed below, which is the only pathway found in all organisms? (eText Concept 9.5) a) the electron transport chain b) the citric acid cycle c) cellular respiration d) glycolysis e) fermentationd) glycolysis
When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, _____ are produced as waste. (eText Concept 9.6) a) ethanol and CO2 b) amino groups c) fatty acids d) molecules of lactate e) sugar moleculesb) amino groups
A gram of fat oxidized by respiration produces approximately twice as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate. Which of the following best explains this observation? (eText Concept 9.6) a) Fats are closely related to lipid molecules, the basic building blocks of cellular membranes. b) Fats are less soluble in water than sugars. c) Fats are produced when cells take in more food than they need. d) Fats do not form true macromolecules as sugars do. e) Fats are better electron donors to oxygen than are sugars.e) Fats are better electron donors to oxygen than are sugars.
If significant amounts of materials are removed from the citric acid cycle to produce amino acids for protein synthesis, which of the following will result? (eText Concept 9.6) a) Less ATP will be produced by the cell. b) Less CO2 will be produced by the cell. c) The four-carbon compound that combines with acetyl CoA will have to be made by some other process. d) The first two answers are correct. e) The first three answers are correct.e) The first three answers are correct.
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