which of the following is true of manic-depressive disorder and bipolar disorder?

# which of the following is true of manic-depressive disorder and bipolar disorder?

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Which of the following is a disorder that primarily involves a significant disturbance in a persons emotional state?Mood disorder
Which of the following is true of major depressive disorders?A mood disorder in which the individual experiences acute, but time-limited, episodes of depressive symptoms.
A period in which an individual experiences acute but time-limited periods of intense psychological and physical symptoms related to a dysphoric mood is referred to as a(n)Major depressive disorder
The major difference between major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder is thatA major depressive disorder is a mood disorder in which the individual experiences acute, but time-limited, episodes of depressive symptoms. A dysthymic disorder is a mood disorder involving chronic depression of less intensity than major depressive disorders. (The individual does NOT experience a major depressive episode).
Which of the following is a symptom of major depressive disorder?*Depressed mood most of the day, *markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all or most daily activities, significant unintended weight loss or unusual increase or decrease in appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation observable by others, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, difficulty maintaining concentration or making decisions, recurrent thoughts of death or having suicidal thoughts, plans, or attempts. (* at least one of the first two symptoms must be present, and all but suicidality must be present nearly every day).
During his tenure as a prosecutor, Larson had once helped to book an innocent man in a murder trial. Following this incident he lost his appetite leading to weight loss and developed insomnia. Of late he has also become dysphoric and has developed suicidal tendencies. Identify the disorder from which Larson is suffering.Major depressive disorder
Women are almost _____ times more likely to experience major depressive disorder at some point in life than men.70%
Mary has been in a continual state of dysfunction that has kept her from feeling truly happy or well-adjusted. However, she has never had a full-blown depressive episode. Mary is most likely suffering from _____ disorder.Dysthymic disorder
Individuals suffering from dysthymic disorder typically suffer from some of the same symptoms as people with major depressive disorder. However, individuals suffering from dysthymic disorder do notExperience a major depressive episode.
Older individuals with dysthymic disorder or depression are more likely to report problems in which of the following areas of functioning?Physical rather than psychological functioning.
Which of the following is a depressive disorder involving chronic depression of less intensity than a major depressive disorder?Dysthymic disorder
The overwhelming feeling of sadness a depressed person feels is referred to asDysphoria.
Kiara has been experiencing depressed moods and feelings of guilt, ever since she had an abortion three years ago. She believes that she lost her baby due to her own negligence. From the given information, identify the chronic disorder Kiara is suffering from.Dysthymic disorder.
Which of the following is a mood disorder in which mood alternations are the primary characteristic?Bipolar disorder [and cyclothymic disorder].
Which of the following mood disorders involves extreme swings in mood?Bipolar disorder
The milder form of mood disorder that involves a less intense vacillation between states of euphoria and dysphoria is known asCyclothymic disorder
The difference between dysthymic disorder and bipolar disorder is thatDysthymic disorder: chronic, less intense, no major depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder involved an intense and very disruptive experience of a euphoric mood, which may also occur in alternation with major depressive episdoes.
Bipolar disorder was formerly referred to asManic depressive disorder
A state in which a person feels more cheerful and elated than average is referred to asEuphoric mood
In order for a clinician to diagnose a person with bipolar disorder, an individual must experienceManic episodes
Jules has been suffering from a form of mood disorder. She experiences insomnia and feels low on energy at times and then at other times she seems to be very energetic and experiences a state of ecstasy. Identify the mood disorder affecting Jules.Bipolar disorder
A period of euphoric mood with symptoms involving abnormally heightened levels of thinking, behavior, and emotionality is referred to as a(n)Manic episode
Which of the following is a typical symptom of a hypomanic episode?Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking, flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing, distractibility, increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences.
Kim has been experiencing an abnormally euphoric mood for quite some time. She remains hyperactive throughout the day even though she merely gets two hours of sleep at night. It is most likely that Kim is suffering fromBipolar disorder
Which of the following refers to a period of elated mood?Euphoric mood
_____ is a term that describes a state of mild manic symptoms.hypomanic episode
The difference between a manic and a hypomanic episode is thatHypomanic episodes involve a shorter duration (4 days instead of 1 week).
Joe has a mood disorder in which he experiences alternating episodes of severe depression and mild bouts of mania. Which of the following diagnoses would best describe Joes condition?Bipolar disorder
In order to be diagnosed withN/A
Of all the psychological disorders, we most likely associate substance abuse withBipolar disorder
Which of the following statements about the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population is CORRECT?lifetime prevalence rate of 3.9% in the US; 12-month prevalence of 2.6%.
Clinicians are most likely to diagnose people who have four or more episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania, or mixed symptoms withthe rapid-scycling form of bipolar disorder.
Samantha has bipolar disorder and has had eight alternating manic/depressive episodes within a year. Which of the following forms of bipolar disorder does Samantha have?Rapid-cycling form of bipolar disorder
Richard has been diagnosed with chronic bipolar disorder and hypothyroidism. Because of these coexisting conditions, he may have a higher risk of developing the _____ type of bipolar disorder.Rapid-cycling
Which of the following is a less severe form of bipolar disorder?Cyclothymic disorder
Mood changes that range from dysphoria to hypomania are characteristic ofBipolar II disorder
The difference between bipolar disorder and cyclothymic disorder is thatCyclothymic disorder: more chronic & less severe than those of bipolar disorder.
Allan suffers from mild mood swings that range from dysphoria to hypomania. His mood can change rapidly and at times his behavior borders on eccentric, but he still holds down a job at the neighborhood hardware store. Allan is most likely suffering fromCyclothymic disorder
Which of the following is true of cyclothymic disorders?Cyclothymic disorder is a mood disorder with symptoms that are more chronic and less severe than those of bipolar disorder.
Based on numerous studies, comparing identical or monozygotic twins with fraternal or dizygotic twins, researchers concluded that genetic influences on major depressive disorder are in the range of30-40%
Altered serotonin functioning causes genetically predisposed individualsto develop major depressive disorder.
Which of the following is an amino acid that aids the body in manufacturing serotonin?Tryptophan
Which of the following is the main function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor?BDNF is a protein involved in keeping neurons alive and able to adapt and change in response to experience.
A person with lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is most likely to bediagnosed with major depressive disorder due to lower levels in the brain regions involved in controlling mood.
Which of the following disorders exhibits the strongest pattern of genetic inheritance?Bipolar disorder
Which of the following is an effect of using SSRIs?Block the uptake of serotonin enabling more availability of this neurotransmitter for action at the receptor sites.
Which of the following is a side effect of using SSRIs?Nausea, agitation, and sexual dysfunction.
The use of SNRIs causeSuicidal thoughts or attempts, allergic symptoms, gastrointestinal disturbances, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, irritability, and panic attacks.
Which of the following is an example of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor?Fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zooft).
Which of the following is an example of a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor?Duloxetine (Cymbalta), venlafaxine (Effexor), and desvenlaxafine (Pristiq).
Which of the following is an example of a tricyclic antidepressant?Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), desipramine (Norpramin), imipramine (Tofranil), and nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor).
Which of the following is an effect of using a tricyclic antidepressant?*can't find in book*
The enzyme monoamine oxidaseconverts the biogenic amines, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, into inert substances, so that they cannot excite the postsynaptic neurons.
Which of the following is an example of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor?Phenelzine (Nardil) and tranylcypromine (Parnate).
Which of the following is an effect of using MAOIs?*maybe* Cannot be taken with certain allergy medications or with ingested foods or beverages containing a substance called tyramine (beer, cheese, chocolate) because the combination can bring on a hypertensive crisis in which the person's blood pressure rises dramatically and dangerously.
Which of the following is most likely to be the outcome if a person under MAOI medication drinks beer regularly?Hypertensive crisis - blood pressure rises dramatically and dangerously.
Which of the following is strictly restricted for patients under MAOI medication?Foods or beverages containing tyramine.
It takes approximately _____ weeks for antidepressant medications to have an effect on a patients mood.2-6
Which neurotransmitter is directly affected by the medications Prozac and Paxil?Serotonin
Tricyclic antidepressants work byblocking the premature reuptake of biogenic amines back into the presynaptic neurons, thus increasing their excitatory effects on the postsynaptic neurons.
MAOIs work byinhibiting the enzyme monamine oxidase, which converts the biogenic amines, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, into inert substances, so that they cannot excite the postsynaptic neurons. MAOIs prolong the life of neurotransmitters, thus increasing neuronal flow.
The traditional treatment for bipolar disorder isLithium carbonate, referred to as lithium.
Studies that fail to establish significant benefits of an intervention like medication are often never submitted for publication and instead filed away. The problem with this approach is thatthis bias toward publishing only positive results severely limits our ability to evaluate the efficacy of antidepressants because we are only seeing a slice of the actual data. Further, some researchers have questioned whether people with less than severe depression might have experienced positive results because of their expectation of benefit, otherwise known as the placebo effect.
The phenomenon in which studies that fail to establish significant benefits of an intervention, such as a medication, are never submitted for publication is referred to as the"file drawer problem" phenomenon
Which of the following is one of the effects of lithium carbonate?Mild central nervous system disturbances, gastrointestinal upsets, and more serious cardiac effects.
The use of lithium carbonate is most likely tointerfere with the euphoria that can accompany, at least, the beginnings of a manic episode. Sometimes making people resist taking the medication.
Debra has been diagnosed with the rapid cycling type of bipolar disorder. Which of the following types of medication is most likely to help her improve?Lithium
Which of the following is an advantage of using light therapy over antidepressants?Side effects are minimal and are almost entirely gone after the reduced dosage or discontinued treatment.
The use of genetic testing to determine who will and will not improve with a particular medication is referred to asPharmacogenetics
_____ are the daily variations that regulate biological patterns such as sleep-wake cycles.Circadian rhythms
Early psychoanalytic theories of mood disorders proposed thatpeople with depressive disorders had suffered a loss early in their lives that affected them at a deep, intrapsychic level.
According to Bowlby, who is at a greater risk for developing a depressive disorder in adulthood?People with an insecure attachment style
Psychoanalytic explanations of bipolar disorder propose that manic episodes aredefensive responses through which individuals stave off feelings of inadequacy, loss, and helplessness. They develop feelings of grandiosity and elation or become hyperenergetic as an unconscious defense against sinking into a state of gloom or despair.
Dr. Taylor feels that Veronicas manic episode is an unconscious defense that she is using to guard against sinking into a state of gloom and despair. Based on this information, we can say that Dr. Taylors orientation is most likelypsychoanalytic
According to Bemporad, insecurely attached children are most likely tobecome preoccupied with the need to beloved by others. As adults, they form relationships in which they overvalue the support of their partners. When such relationships end, they become overwhelmed with feelings of inadequacy and loss.
Elton always wanted to play golf but he lacked the confidence. One day, he pushes himself, pulls out his clubs, heads for the golf course, and plays a decent round. For the next few days, he makes the effort and goes out golfing several times and is satisfied with his improvement. Eltons behavior is increasing in frequency because of what Lewinsohn callsBehavioral activation
The increase in the frequency of behaviors that results because these actions produce pleasure is what Lewinsohn callsBehavioral activation
According to Lewinsohn, depressed people havelow rate of "response contingent positive reinforcement behaviors" that increase in frequency as the result of performing actions that produce pleasure.
Leon is undergoing treatment for his depression. In the course of his treatment, his therapist encourages him to take up new ventures and tries to build up his confidence through positive reinforcement. This therapeutic technique is most likely based on thebehavioral approach (behavioral activation)
A behaviorally oriented therapist would be likely to employ all of the following techniques to help a client overcome depression EXCEPThelp clients make changes in their environments and teach them necessary social skills, encourage them to increase their involvement in activities that they find positively rewarding, provide education to the client, assign goal orientated homework exercises, behavioral contracting combined with self-reinforcement, *extensive instruction, modeling, coaching, role playing, and rehearsal, perhaps in a real world setting*
The therapy for depression in which the clinician helps the client identify activities associated with positive mood isBehavioral activation
Which of the following is a part of Becks cognitive triad?A negative view of self, the world, and the future.
The statement My girlfriend dumped me; all women must hate me shows that the speaker is affected by the cognitive distortion referred to by Beck asthe cognitive triad.
I got a 96% on this exam but the four I missed were easy. I must be stupid. This statement shows that the speaker is affected by the cognitive distortion referred to by Beck asthe cognitive triad.
Which of the following approaches primarily focuses on the clients dysfunctional thoughts and tries to change the thought process that is likely to be the cause of depression?CBT - Cognitive Based Therapy
Larry was dumped by his girlfriend and ever since he has been unable to trust another person. He feels that he is not fit to be in any kind of relationship. His therapist encourages him to reconsider this overgeneralization and see that it is his own thought that is keeping him from being happy. Based on this information, identify the method of treatment being employed in this case.CBT - Cognitive Based Therapy
The similarity between behaviorally oriented therapy and cognitively based therapy is thatclinicians work with their clients to try to change the nature of their thought processes so that they will be less depressed. They both involve an active collaboration between the client and the clinician.
The difference between behaviorally oriented therapy and cognitively based therapy is thatCBT focuses additionally on the client's dysfunctional thoughts and how to change them through cognitive restructuring.
Which of the following theories is based on the assumption that interpersonal stress induces an episode of depression in a person who is genetically vulnerable to this disorder?Interpersonal therapy (IPT)
The first phase of interpersonal therapy typically involvesassessing the magnitude and nature of the individual's depression using quantitative assessment measures.
The second phase of the interpersonal therapy typically involvesthe therapist and the client collaborate in formulating a treatment plan that focuses on the primary problem.
Clinicians who employ the interpersonal therapy primarily focus onthe here and now, rather than past childhood or developmental issues.
Which of the following is true of the interpersonal therapy?It frames techniques in a systematic approach, including manuals to guide them in applying the method.
Which of the following is a biopsychosocial approach to treating people with bipolar disorder that proposes that relapses can result from the experience of stressful life events, disturbances in circadian rhythms and problems in personal relationships?Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT)
According to the _____ model, bipolar mood episodes are likely to spring from medication non-adherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms.IPSRT (Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy)
According to the IPSRT model, mood episodes are likely to emerge frommedication non-adherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms.
Clinicians who adhere to the _____ model believe that the reduction of interpersonal stress in clients with bipolar disorder is important because stressful events affect circadian rhythms, cause changes in daily routines, and affect ones mood.IPSRT (Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy)
The interpersonal therapy assumes that _____ trigger(s) depressive episodes in people who are genetically vulnerable to the disorder.Interpersonal stress
Tripp is suffering from bipolar disorder. Dr. Jones, his therapist, encourages Tripp to explore his feelings about the disorder, and helps him to develop insight about the ways in which the disorder has altered his life. Identify the approach employed by Dr. Jones.Interpersonal therapy
A 30-year, large-scale analysis demonstrated that _____ was significantly more effective than cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications,interpersonal therapy
According to the sociocultural perspective, the primary reason behind depressive disorders isstressful life circumstances.
Which of the following countries has the highest suicide rate for males?Ukraine
Which of the following countries has the highest suicide rate for females?Sri Lanka
According to data on the characteristics of individuals who are suicidal, which of the following individuals would be LEAST likely to commit suicide?non-white male (?)
Approximately what percentage of individuals who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychological disorder?90%
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