emt final exam

# emt final exam

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As an EMT you may be authorized to administer aspirin to a patient with chest pain based onyour local EMS protocols
The determination that prompt surgical care in the hospital is more important than performing time-consuming procedures in the field on a major trauma patient is based mostly onEMS research
What is the most significant factor in determining if a person will become ill from certain germsimmunity
Is HIV, more contagious than HEP B, easily transmittable in the EMS field, transmitted exclusively vis blood or HIV has no vaccineThere is no vaccine against HIV infection
CO blocks the ability of the blood to oxegenate the body because itbinds with the hemoglobin in the red blood cells
What 3 bones make up the shoulder girdle?acromion, clavicle and scapula
As the bronchus divides into smaller broncioles, the terminal ends of these smaller passages formalveoli
During each heartbeat _______ is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume.70-80 mL
The kidneys and pancreas are called retroperitoneal organs because theyare located behind the abdominal cavity
The primary organ responsible for absorption of digestion is thesmall intestine
Which of the following patients does not have an altered mental status? 1. a patient with an acute allergic reaction and dizziness 2. a diabetic who opens their eyes when you ask questions 3. a patient with a head injury who is slow to answer questions 4. a patient who overdosed and moans when he is toucheda patient with an acute allergic reaction and dizziness
If a patient develops difficulty breathing after your primary assessment you should immediatelyreevaluate his airway status
The normal respiratory rate for an adult should range from12-20 breaths per minute
Cyanosis of the skin is caused bydecreased blood oxygen
An unstable patient should be reassessed at least every5 minutes
The _______ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynxcriciod
Patients breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate. True or False?True
An oxygen cylinder should be take out of service and refilled when the pressure inside is less than500 p.s.i
How does positive pressure ventilation affect cardiac output?It increases intrathoracic pressure, which decreases venous return to the heart and causes a decrease in cardiac output.
You are attempting to ventilations with a bag mask device, after repositioning the mask several times you are unable to effectively ventilate the patient. You should....hyperextend the patients head and reattempt ventilations
A patient should be placed in the recovery position when sheis unconscious, uninjured and breathing adequately
In 2 rescuer CPR you should deliver a compression to ventilation ratio of30:2
The main benefit of using a mechanical piston or load-distributing band device for chest compressions isthe elimination of rescuer fatigue that results from manual compressions
Which of the following is NOT an indication to stop CPR once you have started? 1. pulse and respirations return 2. you are physically exhausted 3. a physician directs you to do so 4. care is transferred to a bystandercare is transferred to a bystander
The MOST appropriate treatment for a patient with a mild upper airway obstruction includesadministering oxygen and transporting immediately
Which of the following MOST accurately depicts informed consent? 1. A patient advises and EMT of why she is refusing care. 2. An EMT advises a patient of the risks of receiving treatmentAn EMT advises a patient of the risks of receiving treatment
What type of consent allows treatment of a patient who is unconscious or mentally incapacitatedimplied
A patient regains consciousness en route he tells you he is fine and does not want to go to the hospital. You shouldassess whether or not the patients mental condition is impaired
Which of the following is NOT considered protected health information (PHI) 1. patent history 2. location of calllocation of call
During your monthly internal QI meeting you review several patient care reports. You identify the patients name, age and sex. By taking this approach to the QI process you...are in violation of HIPPA because you did not remove the protected health information from the PCI beforehand
In order for a DNR to be valid it mustclearly state the patients medical problem
When faced with a patient in cardiac arrest and a living will or DNR cannot be found you should...begin resuscitation at once
Where would you MOST likely find information regarding a patients wishes to be an organ donor?drivers license
The EMT's scope of practice within his response area is defined by themedical director
When does and EMT not have a duty to act?in response to a motor vehicle crash when off duty
What is ethnocentrism?considering your own cultural values as more important when interacting with people of a different culture
Calming and reassuring an anxious patient can be facilitated bymaintaining eye contact with the patient whenever possible
In what manner should you act and speak with a patientCalm and confident
Any radio hardware containing a transmitter and a receiver that is located in a fixed location is called abase station
You attempt to contact the dispatcher while on a call with your portable radio but are unsuccessful you should...use the mobile radio in the ambulance to contact dispatch
A ______ receives messages and signals from one frequency and then automatically retransmits then on a second frequencyrepeater
What type of communications equipment functions as a radio receiver and searches across several frequenciesscanner
What is not a function of the FCC?maintaining communications equipment on the ambulance
Immediately after being dispatched on a call you shouldconfirm with dispatch that you received the call information
When providing a patient report via radio you should protect the patients privacy bynot disclosing their name
The anterior fontanelle fuses together between the ages of9 and 18 months
Which of the statements regarding psychosocial behavior in the adolescent age group is correct? 1. Antisocial behavior and peer pressure peak around 14- 16 years of age 2. Family conflict decreases as the adolescent gains control of his lifeAntisocial behavior and peer pressure peak around 14- 16 years of age
When assessing an elderly patient who has fallen and struck his ribs you must recall thathis ability to physiologically compensate for his injury may be impaired due to an inability to increase cardiac output
When communicating with an older patient it is important to remember thatage-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears
An infant or small childs airway can be occluded if it is overextended or overflexed becausethe occiput is proportionately larger and trachea is flexible
Which is an anatomic difference between adults and children? 1. The ribcage of an infant is less flexible than an adults 2. the infants tongue is proportionately larger than an adultsthe infants tongue is proportionately larger than an adults
According to the terminal drop hypothesismental function is presumed to decline in the 5 years preceding death
The pulse rate of a child 6 -12 years old is approximately70-120 beats per minute
An infant or small toddler would MOST likely gain trust in an individual whoprovides and organized routine environment
What should you remember about a 4 month old infant in respiratory distress?small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times
Which of the following is an over the counter medication? 1. Lasix 2. MotrinMotrin
Which of the following has the slowest rate of absorbtion? 1. oral 2. rectal 3. inhalation 4. subligualoral -- 1 hour slow rectal -- rapid inhalation -- quickly/rapid sublingual --minutes/ rapid
The ____ of a medication usually dictates the route by which it will be administeredform
Activated charcoal is an example ofa suspension
After administering oxygen to a 39 female having an allergic reaction who hands you her epinephrine auto injector you shouldcall medical control
An EMT may administer aspirin to a patient ifauthorization from medical control has been obtained
in ______ administration , you are administering medication to yourself or a partnerpeer-assisted
A 49 y.o male with cadiac history is experiencing an MI. His medications include nitroglycerin, Viagra, Vasotec. His BP is 140/90 his HR is 110 in addition to administering oxygen you shouldask if he took viagra in the last 24 hours
which of the following statements about the epinephrine auto injector are correct? 1. The adult auto-injector delivers .5 to 1 mg of epinephrine 2. The epinephrine auto-injector delivers a preset amount of the drugThe epinephrine auto-injector delivers a preset amount of the drug
One of the primary waste products of normal cellular metabolism that must be removed from the body by the lungs iscarbon dioxide
Pulmonary edema and impaired ventilation occur duringcardiogenic shock
Which of the following injuries would most likely cause obstructive shock? 1. liver laceration 2. cardiac tamponadecardiac tamponade
Distributive shock occurs whenwidespread dilation of the blood vessels causes blood to pool in the vascular beds
Clinical signs of compensated shock include all of the following except: 1. cool and clammy skin 2. absent peripheral pulses 3. restlessness and anxiety 4. rapid shallow breathingabsent peripheral pulses
IN infants and children a capillary refill time that is greater than ___ seconds is a sign of poor peripheral perfusion2
a 59 year old male presents with severe vomiting and diarrhea of 3 days duration. He is confused and diaphoretic his radial pulses are absent, his BP is 78/50, you give oxygen what should you do nexthe is in decompensated hypovolemic shock and needs immediate transport
You are transporting a 33 y.o male. You have addressed all immediate and potentially life-threatening conditions and have stabilized his condition with the appropriate treatment. With an ETA of 20 min to the hospital you should assess every ___ minutes5 minutes, stable currently could become unstable
A 27 y.o male has been stabbed in the chest the knife is still there, before you make physical contact with the patient it is MOST important tofollow standard precautions
A construction worker fell 30 ft. He is semi-conscious with rapid shallow respirations. His BP is 70/50, pulse is 66 skin warm and dry. In addition to spinal immobilization and rapid transport the MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includesassisted ventilations, thermal management, and elevation of the lower extremities
In contrast to the assessment of a trauma patient assessment of a medical patient ....is focused on the NOI, the patients chief complaint, and their symptoms
Which is NOT categorized as a psychiatric conditionsubstance abuse
The greatest danger in displaying a personal bias or labeling a patient who frequently calls EMS isoverlooking a potentially serious medical condition
You and your partner arrive at the residence of a 50 y.o man who complains of weakness. Your primary assessment reveals he is critically ill and will require aggressive treatment. The closest hospital is 25 miles away you shouldmanage all threats to airway, breathing anfdcirculation and consider requesting an ALS unit
In addition to looking for severe bleeding, assessment of circulation in the conscious patient should involvechecking the radial pulse and noting the color, temperature, and condition of their skin
When caring for a patient with multiple medications it is best totake all the medications with you to the hospital and document them on your patient care report
The secondary assessment of a medical patientis not practical if the patient is critically ill or your transport time is short
When performing a secondary assessment of a conscious patient with nontraumatic abdominal pain and stable vital signs you shouldfocus on their chief complaint
It is especially important to assess pulse, sensation and movement in all extremities as well as pupillary reactions in patients with a suspected _____ problemneurologic
The primary prehospital treatment for most medical emergenciesaddresses the patients symptoms more than the actual disease process
Dyspnea is MOST accurately defined asshortness of breath or difficulty breathing
In order for efficient pulmonary gas exchange to occuroxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing? 1. 22 breaths/min w/ an irregular pattern of breathing and cyanosis 2. 24 breaths/mim w/bilaterally equal sounds and pink skin24 breaths/mim w/bilaterally equal sounds and pink skin
An alert patient with a regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation and breath sounds that are clear and equal on both sides of the chest. What is this an example ofadequate air exchange
When administering supplemental oxygen to a hypoxemic patient with a chronic lung disease you shouldadjust the flow rate accordingly until you see symptom improvement but be prepared to assist hi breathing
What is SARS?a viral infection that often begins with flulike symptoms
A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined asfluid accumulation outside the lung
Alkalosis is a condition that occurs whenblood acidity is reduced by excessive breathing
Common signs and symptoms of acute hyperventilation syndrome includetachypnea and tingling of the extremities
You are dispatched to a 21 y.o female who apparently overdosed on several narcotic medications. She is semiconscious and has slow, shallow respirations. You shouldinsert a nasopharangeal airway and begin assisted ventilations
Deoxygenated blood from the body returns to theright atrium
Which of the following is the MOST reliable method of estimating a patients cardiac output? 1. listen to heart sounds w/a stethoscope 2. access the heart rate and strength of the pulseaccess the heart rate and strength of the pulse
The posterior tibial pulse can be palpatedbehind the medial malleolus
Which of the following statements regarding the pain associated with an AMI is correct? 1. It is often described as a sharp feeling 2. It can occur during exertion or when the patient is at restIt can occur during exertion or when the patient is at rest
Ventricular tachycardia causes hypotension becasuethe left ventricle does not adequately fill with blood
Cardiogenic shock following an AMI is caused bydecreased pumping force of the heart muscle
What medication is commonly given to patients with chest pain to prevent blood clots from forming or getting bigger?aspirin
During your treatment of a patient in cadiac arrest you apply the AED analyse her cardiac rhythm and receive no shock advised message this indicates thatshe is not in ventricular fibrilation
Prior to attaching the AED to a cardiac patient the EMT shouldmake sure the chest is dry
A 67 y.o female with severe chest pain becomes unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic during transport. You shouldstop the ambulance begin CPR and attach the AED as soon as possible
The 3 major parts of the brain are thecerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem
The spinal cord exits the cranium through theformen magum
Successful treatment of a stroke depends on whether,....thrombolytic therapy is given withing 3 hours after the symptoms began
You are caring for a semiconcious man with left side paralysis. His airway is patent and his respirations are 14 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. Treatment for this patient should includeoxygen via nonrebreathing mask, left lateral recumbent position and transport
Muscle control and body coordination are controlled by thecerebellum
Define the steps of the Cincinnati Stroke ScaleSpeech, arm drift and facial droop
Individuals with chronic alcoholism are predisposed to intracranial bleeding and hypoglycemia secondary to abnormalities in theliver
A 29 y.o. with a migraine should be transported....by dimming the lights in the ambulance and transporting w/out light and sirens
You are assessing a 49 y.o male who experienced a sudden sever headache and passed out. He is unresponsive, has slow irregular breathing. His BP is 190/94 his pulse is 50 his wife tells you he has hypotension and diabetes. He has MOST likely experienced aruptured cerebral artery
During the assessment of a semiconscious 70 y.o female you shouldensure a patent airway and support ventilations as needed
Solid abdominal organs include thespleen, kidneys and pancreas
Erosion of the protective layer of the stomach or duodenum secondary to overactivity of digestive juices results in anulcer
Most patients with abdominal pain prefer to lie in what way?lie on their side with their knees drawn into the abdomen
a 35 y.o. mildly obese woman is complaining of localized pain in the RUQ with referred pain to the right shoulder. The MOST likely cause of her pain isacute cholecystitis
What is true about the pain associated with acute abdomen?the initial pain associated with an acute abdomen tends to be vague and poorly localized
The MOST important treatment for a patient with severe abdominal pain and signs of shock includestransporting the patient without delay
Which of the following statements regarding gastrointestinal bleeding is correct? 1. Bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract is a symptom of another disease not a disease itself. 2. In the majority of cases bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract occurs acutely and is severe.Bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract is a symptom of another disease not a disease itself
Patients with abdominal pain should not be given anything to eat or drink because....substances in the stomach increase the risk of aspiration
The kidneys help to regulate BP byremoving sodium and thus water from the body
The parietal peritoneum lines the....walls of the abdominal cavity
Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which ....NO insulin is produced by the body
Diabetic ketoacidocis occurs when....insulin is not available to the body
Assessment of a patient with hypoglycemia will MOST likely reveal...combativeness
A 19 y.o male complains of "not feeling right". His insulin and syringe are on a nearby table. The patient says he thinks he took his insulin and cannot remember whether he ate. He is also unable to tell you the time or what day it is. the glucometer reads 'error" after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to administering oxygen you should...contact medical control and administer oral glucose
During your assessment of a 19 y.o. male you are told he being treated for factor VII. This indicates that....he has hemophilia A
A 37 y.o female with a history of diabetes presents with polyuria and weakness of 2 days duration. You apply 100% oxygen and access her blood glucose level which reads 320 mg/dL. If this patients condition is not promptly treated, she will most likely develop ...acidosis and dehydration
A 28 y.o. female is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only Her roommate tells you she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further states that the patient has been urinating excessively and has progressively worsened over the last 24-36 hours. On the basis of this patients clinical presentation, you should suspect that she...is significantly hyperglycemic
Which of the following statements regarding diabetic coma is correct? 1. Diabetic coma can be prevented by taking smaller insulin doses 2. Diabetic coma typically develops over a period of hours or daysDiabetic coma typically develops over a period of hours or days
In contrast to insulin shock, diabetic coma...can only be corrected in a hospital setting
Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of ...blindness
You respond to the residence of a 55 y.o. female with a possible allergic reaction to peanuts that she ate approximately 30 min ago. The patient is conscious and alert, but has diffuse urticaria and the feeling that she has a lump in her throat. As your partner applies oxygen to the patient you should...ask her if she has prescribed epinephrine
A 75 year old man presents with a generalized rash, which he thinks may have been caused by an antibiotic that he recently began taking. He has a history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and emphysema. He is conscious and alert, his BP is 144/94 and his pulse is 64 and regular. You auscultate his breath sounds and hear scattered wheezing, although he is not experiencing respiratory distress. In addition to administering oxygen you should....contact medical control if needed, transport the patient and monitor him for signs of deterioration
A raised swollen well-defined area on the skin that is the result of an insect bite or sting is called....a wheal
The 2 most common signs of anaphylaxis are...wheezing and widespread uticaria
Because the stinger of a honeybee remains in the wound following a sting...It can continue to inject venom for up to 20 minutes
A 19 y.o female was stung multiple times on the legs by fire ants. She states that she is allergic to them but does not carry her own epi-pen. What do you do?administer oxygen and transport
What physiologic reaction does epinephrine produce when administered?vasoconstriction and bronchodilation
Urticaria is the medical term for...hives
The effects of epinephrine are typically observed within _____ following administration.1 minute
A 38 y.o female was bitten by fire ants. She is semi-conscious, has profoundly labored breathin and a rapid thready pulse. She has a red rash on her entire body and her face is very swollen. You shouldassist her ventilations with 100% oxygen
Your paramedic partner administers atropine to a 49 y.o with bradycardia. What side effects would you expect to see?dry mucous membranes
The poison control center will be able to provide you the most information regarding the appropriate treatment for a patient with a drug overdose if you provide the center with....the name of the substance involved
Your unit is dispatched to the county jail for an intoxicated inmate. He is responsive to painful stimuli only and has slow shallow respirations. You should be MOST concerned that this patient....may vomit and aspirate
Airborne substances are diluted withoxygen
A 4 y.o male ingested an unknown quantity of tylenol about 20 minutes ago. After contacting medical control you should...administer up to 25 g of activated charcoal.
The major side effect associated with ingestion of activated charcoal isblack stools
A hypnotic drug is one thatinduces sleep
A 49 y.o. male presents with confusion, sweating and visual hallucinations. His wife tells you he is a heavy drinker and she thinks he had a seizure shortly before your arrival. The patient is most likely experiencing theDT's
You and your paramedic partner are caring for a patient who ingested codeine, tylenol, and Darvon. The patient is unresponsive his breathing is slow and shallow and his pulse is weak and slow. Treatment for this patient would include....assisted ventilation, Narcan and rapid transport
You are dispatched to a local greenhouse, the patient is lying on the floor. She is semi-conscious, drooling and is incontinent of urine. Her pulse is very slow. INITIAL management should include...assisted ventilations with a bag mask device
A 66 y.o man presents with bizarre behavior. His daughter tells you he did not recognize her. You patient is conscious and has a patent airway and adequate breathing. You should ask...the daughter how her father normally behaves
When assessing a patient with a behavioral crisis you shouldbe direct and clearly state your intentions
General guidelines for managing a patient with a behavioral emergency includebeing prepared to spend extra time with the patient
You respond to a call for an unknown emergency. The husband tells you she has been depressed and is locked in the bedroom where he keeps his gun. You should...remain in a safe place and request law enforcement
When assessing a patient who is displaying bizarre behavior the EMT should....consider that an acute medical illness may be causing the patients behavior.
A 40 y.o male intentionally cut his wrist. law enforcement has secured the scene. You should...calmly identify yourself to the patient.
The single most significant factor that contributes to suicide is...depression
Common causes of acute psychotic behavior include ...intense stress, schizophrenia, and mind altering substances.
Of the following which is the LEAST likely to result in a change in behavior? 1. low blood glucose levels 2. antihypertensive medications 3. exposure to excess heat or cold 4. inadequate blood flow to the brainantihypertensive medications
A 78 y.o female presents with an acute change in her behavior. She has type 2 diabetes and was diagnosed with Alzheimers 6 months ago. The patients speech is slurred and she is not alert to her surroundings. You shouldinquire about the possibility of head trauma.
The physical examination of a sexual assault victim should be ...limited to a brief survey of life threatening injuries
Which of the following conditions does not typically present with vaginal discharge? 1. chlamydia 2. gonorrhea 3. genital herpes 4. PIDgenital herpes
When documenting a call in which a female was sexually assaulted you should...keep the report concise and record only what the patient stated in her own words
General treatment for a woman with vaginal bleeding and shock following sexual assault includes all of the following except... 1. supplemental oxygen and lower extremity elevation 2. refraining from placing any dressings in the vagina 3. carefully removing any foreign bodies from the vagina 4. treating external lacerations with moist sterile compressescarefully removing any foreign bodies from the vagina
A 26 y.o female presents with heavy vaginal bleeding. She is conscious but restless. Her BP is 84/54, pulse is 120 resp 22 with adequate depth. She tells you she inserted a tampon 2 hours ago. You Should....administer high flow oxygen place a sterile pad over her vagina keep her warm elevate her lower extremities and transport without delay.
When caring for a woman who is experiencing a gynecologic emergency the EMT's main focus should be to...maintain her ABC's and transport without delay
What is rape defined as...a legal diagnosis not a medical one.
In anticipation of receiving a fertilized ovum the lining of the uterine wall...becomes engorged with blood
When a woman presents with abdominal pain or other vague symptoms the EMT is often unable to determine the nature of the problem until she ....has gathered patient history information
If a woman with vaginal bleeding reports syncope the EMT must assume that she is ...in shock
When a motor vehicle strikes a tree while traveling at 40 mph the unrestrained occupant ...remains in motion until acted upon by an external force..newtons 1st law
Evaluation of the interior of a crashed motor vehicle during extrication will allow the EMT to...identify contact points and predict potential injuries
The cervical spine is most protected from whiplash style injuries when theheadrest is properly positioned
Approximately 25% of severe injuries to the aorta occur duringlateral collisions
A small compact car was involved in a rollover crash and the roof is significantly collapsed. The patient reports severe pain in his neck and the top of his head. What injury mechanism is MOSt likely responsible for his condition?compression of his head against the roof
When evaluating the MOI of a car vs. pedestrian collision you should first ...approximate the speed of the vehicle that struck the pedestrian
A 15 was struck by a car while riding her bicycle. She was wearing a helmet and was thrown to the ground. In addition to the ABC's it is MOST important for you to ...stabilize the entire spine
Internal injuries caused by gunshot wounds are difficult to predict because...the bullet may tumble or ricochet within the body
A young male sustained a gunshot wound to the abdomen during an altercation with a rival gang member. As you are assessing and managing the airway you should control the obvious bleeding and ....assess for an exit wound
During your assessment of a blast victim with a depressed area in the front of his skull. This injury is MOST likely from which blast wave?Secondary phase.
Which of the following body systems or components is the LEAST critical for supplying and maintaining an adequate blood flow to the body? 1. and effectively pumping heart 2. an intact system of blood vessels 3. adequate blood in the vasculature 4. the filtering of blood cells in the spleenthe filtering of blood cells in the spleen
WHich organ can tolerate inadequate perfusion for up to 2 hours?skeletal muscle
In which of the following situations would external bleeding be MOST difficult to control? 1. femoral artery laceration and a BP of 140/90 2. jugular vein laceration and systolic BP of 90femoral artery laceration and a BP of 140/90
A fractured femur can result in the loss of _____ or more of blood into the soft tissues of the thigh.1 L
A 67 y.o. male presents with weakness, dizziness and melena that began approximately 2 days. He denies a history of trauma. His BP is 90/50 and pulse is 120. You should be most suspicious that this patient is experience..gastrointestinal bleeding
GI bleeding should be suspected if patient presents with...hematemesis ( vomited blood), melena ( blood in stools)
A 39 y.o male accidentally cut his wrist how would you treat this patient?control bleeding with direct presure
You arrive at the home of a 50 y.o. with severe epistaxis. As you are treating her it is MOST important to recall that...the patient is at risk for vomiting and aspiration
A 43 y.o is experiencing a severe nosebleed his BP is 190/110 his HR is 90 beats and bounding. Appropriate treatment for this patient includespinching the nostrils and having him lean forward
Bleeding from the nose following head trauma is a sign ofa skull fracture and should not be stopped
The germinal layer of the epidermis contains pigment granules that are responsible for skin...color
A 30 Y.o. male trapped his arm. Your assessment reveals that his arm is obviously deformed and swollen and is cold, and pale. Further assessment reveals an absent radial pulse. You should be MOST concerned that this patient has...compartment syndrome
Which open soft tissue injury is limited to superficial layer of the skin and results in the least amount of blood loss?abrasion
What is a laceration?a jagged cut caused by a sharp object or blunt force trauma.
Which of the following statements regarding penetrating injuries is correct? 1. External bleeding may be minimal but internal injuries can be extensive. 2. The degree of internal injury can often be estimated by the external injuryExternal bleeding may be minimal but internal injuries can be extensive.
A 35 y.o has an evisceration to the LQ of the abdomen. After managing his ABC's and assessing for other life threatening injuries how do you care for this wound?cover it with a moist sterile gauze dressing and secure with an occlusive dressing
Which is a severe burn in a 35 y.o patient. 1. circumferential partial-thickness burn to the chest 2. full thickness burn to 5% of the body surface areacircumferential partial-thickness burn to the chest
A burn that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a ...first degree burn
Burns to a pediatric patients are generally considered more serious than burns to adults becasue...pediatric patients have more surface area relative to total body mass
When treating a partial thickness burn you should..avoid the use of creams lotions or antiseptics
The superficial temporal artery can be palpated where?just anterior to the tragus
What is the function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?allows movement of the head
What is the vitreous humor?a clear jelly-like substance near the back of the eye that cannot be replaced if it is lost
The conjunctiva are kept moist by fluid produced by the ....lacrimal gland
Facial injuries should be identified and treated as soon as possible becauseof the risk of airway problems
A woman was in a moor vehicle crash. She has glass impaled in her left eye and a large laceration of her left forearm with active venous bleeding . As your partner stabilizes her head you should....apply direct pressure to her arm wound
The term hyphema is defined asblood in the anterior chamber of the eye
Following blunt trauma to the face a 21 y.o complains of a severe headache and a decreased ability to move his eyes, The patients clinical presentation is MOST consistent with ....a blowout fracture
A patient who is complaining of seeing flashing lights, specks or floaters in his or her field of vision has MOST likely experienced...a detached retina
a 44 year old male sustained a laceration to his left ear during a minor car accident. Your assessment reveals minimal bleeding. Appropriate care for this injury includes...padding between the ear and the scalp
What do motor nerves do?they carry information from the central nervous system to the the muscles
Which of the nerves allow sensory and motor impulses to be sent from one nerve directly to another>connecting
When activated the sympathetic nervous system produces what effects?increase in heart rate, shunting of blood to vital organs, dilation of the bronchiole smooth muscle
The cervical spine is composed of ____ vertabrae7
Rapid deceleration of the head such as when it impacts the windshield causes....compression injuries or bruising to the anterior portion of the brain and stretching or tearing to the posterior portion of the brain (coup counter coup)
The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury isacute hypotension
An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined asbleeding between the skull and dura matter
Bleeding within the brain tissue itself is called aintracerebral hematoma
Once a cervical collar has been applied to the patient with a possible spinal injury, it should not be removed unless...it causes a problem managing the ABCs
A female patient with a suspected spinal injury is breathing with a marked reduction in tidal volume. The MOST appropriate airway management for her includes...assisting ventilations at an age appropriate rate
Very young children tend to breathe predominately with their diaphragm becausetheir intercostal muscles are not fully developed
Elevation of the rib cage during inhalation occurs whenthe intercostal muscles contract
What nerves control the diaphragm?phrenic
Irritation or damage to the pleural surfaces that causes sharp chest pain during inhalation is called...pleurisy
A patient who presents with profound cyanosis following a chest injury...requires prompt ventilation and oxygenation
While jogging a 19 y.o. experienced an acute onset of shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. He is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Your assessment reveals that he has diminished breath sounds over the left side of the chest. You should...a total collapse of the affected lung
You respond to a 40 y.o. who was assaulted by her husband. She is semiconscious with severely labored breathing. Further assessment reveals a large bruise to the left anterior chest, jugular vein distention, and unilaterally absent breath sounds. As your partner is assisting her ventilations you should...immediately request ALS support
Following a stab wound to the left anterior chest a 25 y.o. presents with decreased LOC and signs of shock . What assessment finding would increase your index of suspicion of cardiac tamponade?engorged jugular veins, narrowing pulse pressure and muffled heart sounds
A flail chest occurs when ...a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage
Pleural fluid is contained between thevisceral and parietal pleurae
The phrenic nerves control the diaphragm and exit the spinal cord at...C3, C4, and C5
If the patient with a chest injury is only able to inhale small amounts of air per breath he .....must increase his respiratory rate to maintain adequate minute volume
Hemoptysis is defined ascoughing up blood
How would you treat paradoxical movement of the chest wall?stabilize the chest wall with a bulky dressing
You have sealed the open chest wound of a patient stabbed in the anterior chest. Your assessment reveals that he is experiencing increasing respiratory distress and tachycardia and is developing cyanosis. You should...partially remove the dressing
While jogging a 19 y.o male experienced an acute onset of shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. He is conscious and alert with stable vital signs . You assessment reveals that he has diminished lung sounds over the left side of the chest. You shouldadminister oxygen and transport to the hospital (spontaneous pneumothorax)
A rapid irregular pulse following blunt trauma to the chest is MOST suggestive of a...myocardial contusion
A 19 y.o male is unresponsive, apneic and pulseless after being struck in the center of the chest with a softball. Based on the MOI what MOST likely occurred?ventricular fibrillation when the impact occurred during the critical portion of the cardiac cycle (commotio cordis)
You arrive at the scene of a motor vehicle crash. The patient was removed from the vehicle prior to your arrival. The patient is unconscious, tachycardic, and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals bilaterally clear and equal breath sounds, a midline trachea, and collapsed jugular veins. You should most suspicious that this patient has experienced...a laceration of the aorta
What are the hollow organs of the abdomen?bladder, ureters, stomach
Compression injuries to the abdomen that occur during a motor vehicle crash are typically due to a...poorly placed lap belt
While assessing a patient who struck a tree head on with an airbag deployment. You should...lift the airbag and look for deformity of the steering wheel
Because the depth of an open abdominal wound is often difficult to determine, what you assume and do?rapid transport and assume organ damage
A 20 y.o male was accidentally shot in the RUQ with an arrow. Prior to your arrival the patient removed the arrow. What should you assume about the injury?assume the arrow injured an internal organ
Early bruising following abdominal trauma often manifests asred areas of skin
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who was kicked in the abdomen by her boyfriend. While enroute to the scene you should ask the dispatcher if....law enforcement is at the scene
A 40 y.o male presents with severe abdominal pain following blunt trauma, He is diaphoretic, intensely thirsty, and has a weak rapid pulse. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes...treating for shock, prompt transport, and administering oxygen
a 54 y.o male experienced an avulsion of his penis when his foreskin got caught in his zipper. Besides calling a Rabbi what is the MOST appropriate treatment?applying direct pressure with a dry sterile dressing
A 33 y.o. female was sexually assaulted. Police are on scene. As you are talking to her you notice an impressive amount of blood in the groin area, Her BP is 98/55 pulse is 130 and resp. are 24. You should...control any external bleeding, administer oxygen and transport at once.
The musculoskeletal system refers to the...bones and voluntary muscles of the body
A ____ is a musculoskeletal injury in which a partial or temporary separation of the bone ends as well as a partial stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments.sprain
An open fracture is defined as ...the overlying skin is no longer intact
How long does compartment syndrome take to develop?typically 6-12 hours after the injury
When should the EMT splint an injured limb in the position of a deformity?if resistance is encountered or if the patient experiences severe pain.
The MOST significant hazard associated with splinting is...delaying transport of a critically injured patient
A 17 y.o male has a dislocated shoulder. He is holding his arm in a fixed position away from his body. There is an obvious anterior bulge to the area of injury, You should...assess distal pulse, motor and sensory functions
A 45 y.o. female was involved in a car accident she is complaining of knee pain. She is conscious and alert. There is visible damage to the dashboard. IN addition to fractures or dislocations of the knees you should be MOST suspicious for ....posterior hip dislocation
Femoral shaft fractures can result in up to ____ mL of internal blood loss.1000
The MOST common and significant complication associated with fractures or dislocations of the knee is...neurovascular compromise
Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature falls below....95 degrees
The bodys natural protective mechanisms against heat loss are...vasoconstriction and shivering
What terms are used to describe a cold body part that is not frozen?frostnip, chilblains, trench foot
A frostbitten foot can be identified by the presence of ...mottling and blisters
Hypothermia can worsen bleeding secondary to ...blood clotting abnormalities
In order for sweating to be an effective cooling mechanism it must be able to what?evaporate from the body
High humidity reduces the bodys ability to lose heat through...evaporation
Signs of LATE heatstroke include...a weak and rapid pulse
You find a male floating face down in the water you should FIRST...move him to a supine position
The MOST prominent symptom of decompression sickness is....abdominal or joint pain
As you and your partner are carrying a patient down a flight of stairs in a stair chair you feel a sharp pain in your lower back. you should....stop the move and request additional lifting assistance
When using a body drag to pull a patient who is on the ground you should....kneel to minimize the distance you have to lean over
To avoid injury when pushing a patient or other object you should,,,avoid pushing the patient with your elbows fully extended
When should you use the rapid extrication technique?a patient who blocks access to another seriously injured patient, a patient who needs immediate care that requires a supine position, a patient whose condition requires immediate transport to the hospital
A 56 y.o female is found supine in a narrow hallway how should you move this patient?extremity lift
In contrast to a typical wheeled ambulance stretcher a bariatric stretcher includes...increased stability due to a wider wheelbase, can carry up to 850 lbs and 1600 on the ground
You have 2 patients who were involved in a motor vehicle accident. One with neck pain and back pain. and the other with a deformed femur. The patient with the deformed femur states that he does not want to be placed on a hard board nor does he want a collar around his neck, What is the MOST appropriate and practical method of securing these patients and placing them in the ambulance?immobilize the patient with neck and back pain on a long backboard and place him on the wheeled stretcher, place the patient with the deformed femur on a folding stretcher secured to the squad bench
An unrestrained patient is sitting in his car after a crash. He is conscious and alert has no visible trauma and is complaining of neck and back pain, Before removing him from the car you should...apply a cervical collar and immobilize him with a vest style device
When moving a conscious and weak patient down a flight of stairs you should...place the wheeled stretcher at the bottom of the stairs and carry the patient down the stairs in a stair chair
It is essential you _______ your equipment after each call to prevent the spread of disease.decontaminate
Equipment and supplies that are carried on an ambulance should be stored....according to the urgency and frequency of their use.
Minimum airway and ventilation equipment that should be carried on every ambulance include what?various sizes of oral and nasal airways, mounted and portable suction devices, adult and pediatric bag mask devices
Immediately upon arriving at the scene of an emergency call involving a traumatic injury you should notify the dispatcher of your arrival and then...observe the scene for safety hazards
The main objective of traffic control at the scene of a motor vehicle accident is to...warn oncoming traffic and prevent another crash
When transporting a patient to the hospital you should...be safe and get the patient to the hospital in the shortest practical amount of time
When transporting a patient who is secured to a backboard it is important to...place deceleration straps over the patients shoulders
If you properly assess and stabilize a patient at the scene, driving to the hospital with excessive speed....will decrease your reaction time
You are dispatched to a patient with chest pain you are unfamiliar with the address and a police officer offers to guide you to the scene. You should....turn off your lights and carefully follow the police office to the scene
It is 10:30 pm you have requested air medical transport.When you arrive the the LZ you should....survey the scene for power lines and other hazards
Typically medivac helicopters fly between...130 and 150 mph
A critical function of the safety officer is to...stop an emergency operation whenever a rescuer is in danger
As a triage supervisor you...must not begin treatment until all patients have been triaged
The ____ area is where incoming ambulances meet and await further instructions at the scene of a mass casualty accidentstaging
What are some injures or conditions that would be classified as first priority (red-tag)?severe medical problems, any airway or breathing difficulty, uncontrolled or severe hemorrage
You and your partner arrive at the scene where a truck has crashed into a small building injuring 8 people. You immediately request additional ambulances and begin the triage process. The first patient that you triage is a young female who is unconscious and apneic. She had an open head injury and her pulse is weak and thready, You should,,,,assign her a low priority and continue triaging
A tour bus has overturned, resulting in numerous patients. When you arrive you are immediately assigned to assist in the triage process. #1 is a middle-aged man with respiratory distress, chest pain, and a closed deformity to his right forearm. #2 is a young female who is conscious and alert but had a bilateral femur fracture and numerous abrasions to her arms and face. #3 is an older woman who complains of abdominal pain and has a history of cardiovascular disease. #4 is unresponsive not breathing has a weak carotid pulse and a grossly deformed skull. What triage category would you put each of them in?#1-- red, #2--delayed, #3--red, #4 --- black
A carboy is a container that would most likely be used to store and transport ...corrosives
Placards and labels on a storage container are intended to...give a general idea of the hazard inside that particular container
What is a correct statement about hazardous materials in relation to other chemicals?some substances are not hazardous by themselves but become toxic when mixed with another chemical
You are approaching an overturned tanker truck to assess the driver who appears to be unconscious. As you get closer to the vehicle you note the smell of noxious fumes and find you are in the midst of a vapor cloud. What should you do?Exit the area immediately and gather information for the hazmat team
If a pregnant patient requires spinal immobilization you should secure her to the backboard then...elevate the right side of the board with rolled towels or blankets
Braxton-hicks contractions are characterized by...alleviation of pain with movement or changing positions
by the20th week of pregnancy the uterus is typically at or above the level of the mothersbelly button
Abruptio placenta occurs whenthe placenta prematurely separates from the uterine wall
What questions would you ask a mother to determine if she will deliver in the next few minutes?When are you due, is this your first baby, do you feel the urge to push
What are the components of an Apgar scorepulse, activity, grimace
What are the normal physiologic changes that occur to the mothers respiratory system during pregnancy?increased respiratory rate and decreased respiratory reserve
When the mother is experiencing a contraction you should instruct her to...take quick short breaths
Following the delivery of a full term baby you have have properly cared for the baby and have cut and clamped the umbilical cord. During transport you note that the mother is experiencing moderate vaginal bleeding. You should...firmly massage the uterine fundus with a circular motion
You are assessing a 25 y.o who is 39 weeks pregnant. She is experiencing regular contractions that are approximately 3 min apart and states her amniotic fluid sac broke 2 hours ago. After taking the standard precautions you should...assess her for crowning
If the situation allows a child should be transported in a car seat if he or she weighs less than40 pounds
Submersion injuries in the adolescent age group are MOST commonly associated withalcohol
Cardiac arrest in the pediatric population is MOST commonly the result ofrespiratory or circulatory failure
children with N meningtides would MOST likely present withcherry red spots with a purplish rash
When inserting the oropharyngeal airway in an infant or child you should...depress the tongue with a tongue depressor
What groups are have the most risk of getting meningitis?newborns, geriatrics, males, children with shunts
What is the MOST common symptom of a head injury to a child vs and adult?nausea and vomiting
Signs of a severe airway obstruction in an infant or child include...an ineffective cough
In most children febrile seizures are characterized bygeneralized tonic-clonic activity a duration of less than 15 minutes and a short or absent postictal state
Blood loss in a child exceeding ______ of his total blood volume significantly increases the risk of shock25%
Which of the following organs or tissues can survice the longest w/out oxygen? 1. muscle 2.heart 3. liver 4, kidneysmuscle
A 29 y.o male with a head injury opens his eyes when you speak to him, is confused as to the time and date, and is able to move all of his extremities on command. His glascow coma scale is...13
You respond to a cal for a female pedestrian who has been struck by a car. As you partner maintains manual stabilization of the head you perform a primary assessment. She is conscious, has ineffective breathing and has blood secretions in her mouth you should...immediately suction her airway
Your ability to remain awake is a function of the...reticular activation system
Which of the following patients is breathing adequately? 1. conscious male with resp of 19 min pink skin 2. conscious female w/ facial cyanosis and rapid shallow resp. 3. conscious male w/resp of 18 min and reduced tidal volume 4. an unconscious 52 y.o female w/ snoring resp and cool pale skinconscious male with resp of 19 min pink skin
BLS is defined asnoninvasive emergency care that is used to treat conditions such as airway obstruction, respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest
a 51 y.o female presents with a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in complete sentences, Her resp. are 22 and regular you should...administer 100% oxygen via a non rebreathing mask
in infants and small children skin skin color should be assessed where?palms and soles
The goal of the primary assessment is to...identify and rapidly treat all life-threatening conditions
An appropriate demonstration of professionalism when your patient is frightened demanding or unpleasant is to...continue to be non-judgmental compassionate and respectful
A 5 y.o boy has fallen and has as severe deformity of the forearm near the wrist. He has probably sustained a fracture of the : 1. proximal forearm 2. superior forearm 3. dorsal forearm 4. distal forearmdistal forearm
Abnormalities in metabolizing glucose are MOST likely caused by disfunction of the...pancreas
a 60 y.o males is found unresponsive pulseless and apneic you shouldbegin CPR until and AED is available
Trendelenburgs position is MOST accurately defined as asupine position with the legs elevated 6" to 12" higher than the head
A critical incident stress debriefing should be conducted no longer than ___ hours following the incident72
What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 150ML and a resp rate of 16 per min8000 ML tidal volume x frequency
While providing care to a patient blood got onto the stretcher. Because the stretcher was properly cleaned a virus was transmitted to another EMT. What route of transmission does this describe?indirect
while enroute to the scene of a shooting the dispatcher advises you that the caller states that the perpetrator has fled the scene. You shouldconfirm this information with law enforcement personnel at the scene
Structure of the lower airway include..alveoli, trachea, broncioles
You are dispatched to a residence where a middle aged man is found unconscious in his front yard. You find him in the prone position. What is your first action?Log roll him as a unit to a supine position
In MOST cases cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is caused byrespiratory arrest
When you us the palpation method to obtain a blood pressure the measurement you obtain is thesystolic BP
Laypeople are often trained to perform what skills?one or two rescuer CPR, splinting of a possible fracture, control of life threatening bleeding
Several attempts to adequately open a trauma patients airway with a jaw thrust maneuver have been unsuccessful, You shouldcarefully perform the head tilt chin lift maneuver
Large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated whenthe cells function with adequate oxygen
A young male sustained a gunshot wound to the abdomen as your partner is assessing and managing his airway you should control the obvious bleeding and....assess for an exit wound
a utility worker was electrocuted he fell about 20 feet and is lying unconscious on the ground the power line is across his chest you shouldrapidly assess the patient after ensuring that the power line is not live
During an altercation at a bar two patrons got into a fist fight. One was struck in the mouth and refuses EMS care the second one has a small laceration to her knuckle and also refuses EMS cares. Who is at the most risk for infection?the one with the laceration to her knuckle
The direct carry is used to transfer a patient ..from a bed to am ambulance stretcher
Which injury would be MOST likely to occur as a direct result of the third collision in a motor vehicle crash? 1. flail chest 2. aortic ruptureaortic rupture
As red blood cells clump together to form a clot _______ reinforces the clumped red blood cellsfibrinogen
Following blunt trauma to the abdomen a 21 y.o female complains of LUQ pain with referred pain to her left shoulder, Your assessment reveals that her abdomen is distended and tender to palpation, On the basis of these findings you should be MOST suspicious of injury to the ....spleen
Patients develop septic shock secondary to...poor vessel function and severe volume loss
A 21 y.o male was thrown over the handlebars of his motorcycle. He was wearing a helmet. He is conscious but restless and has closed deformities to both of his femurs,. His skin is pale, his HR is rapid and weak,and his resp are rapid and shallow. In addition to applying high flow oxygen and protecting his spine you should...bind his legs together on the backboard keep him warm, and transport without delay
The MOST appropriate carrying device to use when moving a patient across rough or uneven terrain is...a basket stretcher
When the body senses a state of hypoperfusion the sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine the effect of which includetachycardia
According to the rule of palms the palm of the hand is equal to ___% of his total BSA.1%
Which of the following is the LEAST critical for supplying and maintaining adequate blood flow to the body? 1. an effectively pumping heart 2. an intact system of blood vessels 3. adequate blood in the vacsculature 4. the filtering of blood cells in the spleenthe filtering of blood cells in the spleen
When assessing a patient who experienced a blast injury it is important to remember that...primary blast injuries are the most easily overlooked
In order to facilitate a safe and coordinated move the team leader shoulduse preparatory commands to initiate any moves
A 30 y.o male sustained a stab wound to the neck. During your assessment you should be MOST alert forairway compromise
when immobilizing a patient to a longboard you shouldensure that secure the torso before securing the head
A 22 y.o was ejected form her car when she hit a tree as you approach you notice obvious closed deformities to both her femurs,she is not moving and does not appear to be conscious you should...stabilize her head and perform a primary assessment
A 40 y.o male presents with severe abdominal pain following blunt trauma. He is diaphoretic, intensely thirsty and has a weak rapid pulse. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes...covering him with a warm blanket, prompt transport, administering supplemental oxygen
Coordination of balance and movement is controlled by thecerebellum
A subluxation occurs whena joint is incompletely dislocated
Shock is result ofhypoperfusion to the cells of the body
The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury is acerebral fracture
A football player was struck in the right flank area just below the posterior rib cage. He complains of sever pain and point tenderness in the area. Your assessment reveals that there is a small amount of blood in his underwear. You should be MOST suspicious for...blunt injury to the kidney
Which of the following medications increases a persons risk of a heat-related emergency? 1. Motrin 2. diureticsdiuretics
An EMT would be MOST likely to be held liable for abandonment if she did not...make provisions for continued care of an injured patient
The bodys natural cooling mechanism in which sweat is converted to a gas is calledevaporation
A 62 y.o presents with crushing chest pain. He has prescribed nitroglycerin but states he has not taken any. after administering 100% oxygen and contacting medical control you should...assist him with his nitroglycerin unless his systolic BP is less than 100
Significant trauma to the face should increase the EMT's index of suspicion for aspinal cord injury
The upper jawbones are called themaxillae
When can a mentally competent adult withdraw his consent to be treated?at any time
In what manner should you act and speak to the patient?calm and confident
Elevation of the rib cage during inhalation occurs when ..the intercostal muscles contract
What type of consent allows treatment of a patient who is unconscious or mentally incapacitated?implied
A 33 y.o. female presents with mower abdominal pain. She is conscious and alert but in moderate pain. While your partner is asking her questions about her medical history you take her vital signs. While you assess her radial pulse you are unable to locate it you should..assess the rate regularity of her carotid pulse
Subcutaneous emphysema is an indication that...air is escaping into the chest wall from a damaged lung
Syphilis is abloodborne disease that can successfully be treated with penicillin
When assessing a patient with a medical complaint which of the following would MOST likely reveal the cause of her problem? 1. history taking 2. rapid body scanhistory taking
What are the properties of epinephrine?secreted naturally by the adrenal glands, dilates passages in the lungs, constricts blood vessels, increases HR and BP
The diving reflex may allow a person to survive extended periods of submersion in cold water secondary to ...bradycardia and a slowing of the metabolic rate
The eyeball itself is referred to as theglobe
Which of the following is the MOST rapidly acting medication administration route> 1. sublingual 2. intravenous 3. subcutaneous 4. intramuscularintravenous
Ethnocentrism is defined asconsidering your own cultural values as more important when interacting with people of a different culture
Following blunt trauma to the face a 21 y.o male complains of a severe headache and decreased ability to move his eyes the patients clinical presentation is MOST consistent witha blowout fracture
A patient who presents with profound cyanosis following a chest injury requires...prompt ventilation and oxygenation
A 28 was struck in the chest with a baseball bat. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid irregular pulse. In addition to applying 100% oxygen you should..prepare for immediate transport
Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature falls below...95 degrees
Subcutaneous injections deliver medicationsbetween the skin and muscle
You and your partner are attempting to resuscitate a female in cardiac arrest. because of the remote location you are unable to contact medical control you should..follow locally established protocols or standing orders
What is a simple partial seizure?a seizure that begins in one extremity
The head and brain receive their supply of oxygen from the ____ arteriescarotid
A 30 y.o woman with a history of alcoholism presents with severe upper abdominal pain and is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool pale and clammy, her HR is 120 and weak, her BP is 70/50. Your MOST immediate action would be to...protect her airway from aspiration
A 59 y.o male presents with a sudden onset of severe lower back pain. he is conscious and alert but very restless and diaphoretic Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbillicus. You should,..administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport
Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes ...assessing mental status, checking the medications exp date, requesting permission from medical control
A dissecting aortic aneurysm occurs when..the inner layers of the aorta become separated
Hypoglycemic crisis tends to develop more often and more severely in children becasue...they do not always eat correctly and on schedule
Major risk factors for AMI include....hypertension, diabetes mellitis and elevated cholesterol
An alert patient presents with a regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation and breath sounds that are clear and equal on both sides these findings are consistent with ....adequate air exchange
Patients who a miss a dialysis treatment often present with ......weakness
Dyspnea is MOST accurately defined as...shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
In a healthy individual the brain stem stimulates breathing on the basis of ...increased carbon dioxide levels
Define SARS...a viral infection that often begins with flulike symtoms
The MOST common and significant complication associated with an acute abdomen is....peritonitis
A 22 y.o female is complaining of dyspnea and numbness and tingling in her hands and feet after an argument. Her resp are 40. You should,,,provide reassurance and oxygen as needed
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when...the normal body processes destroy a clot in the cerebral artery
A 30 y.o female presents with severe acute pain to the LUQ of her abdomen. During your assessment she tells you she has sickle cell disease. You should suspect that...her spleen is enlarged because of red blood cell engorgement
The left cerebral hemisphere controls..the right side of the body
In sickle cell disease the __ __ blood cells are _____ shaped and less able to carry ____red, abnormally, oxygen
What are some signs and symptoms associated with malfunction of an implanted cardiac pacemaker?syncope or dizziness, heart rate less than 60 beats/min, generalized weakness
A 42 y.o male is found unresponsive on his couch by a neighbor,. During your assessment you find no signs of trauma and the patients blood glucose level is 75. His BP is 168/98 his HR is 45 and bounding, his resp are 8 and irregular. He is wearing a medic alert bracelet that states he has hemophillia. You should...suspect he has intracranial bleeding assist his ventilations and transport at once
A patient without a history of seizures experiences a sudden convulsion the LEAST likely cause of this seizure isepilepsy
The important aspect in the treatment of a patient with severe abdominal pain is to...provide emotional support en route to the hospital
General treatment for a woman with vaginal bleeding and shock following a sexual assault includes...supplemental oxygen and lower extremity elevation, refraining from placing and dressings into the vagina, treating external lacerations with moist sterile compresses
While using lights and siren most state laws permit an ambulance to...carefully exceed the posted speed limit
The first step in the START triage system is to...move all walking patients to the designated area
DT's is a syndrom associated with withdrawal fromalcohol
When being tailgated by a vehicle while responding to an emergency you should...slow down and allow the driver to pass
A 22 y.o male is found lying supine on the floor. Is is unconscious and cyanotic. An empty bottle of hydromorphone is found nearby. You shouldopen his airway and assess his respirations
The physical exam of a sexual assault victim should be...limited to a brief survey for life threatening injuries
An overdose of acetaminophen will MOST likely causeliver failure
What is an anatomic difference of the upper airway between a child and an adultThe infants tongue is proportionately larger than an adult
After the primary triage the triage supervisor should communicate to the medial branch officer what information?total # of patients that have been triaged, recommendations for movement to the treatment area., # of patients in each category
A 40 y.o male intentionally cut his wrist. Law enforcement is on scene. You shouldcalmly identify yourself to the patient
Why do middle adults have financial concerns?They are preparing for retirement but must still manage everyday financial concerns
What kind of diagnosis is rape?a legal diagnosis not a medical one
Your paramedic partner administers atropine to a patient with bradycardia what side effects would you expect to see?dry mucous membranes
You respond to a college campus for a young male who is acting strangely. After law enforcement has secured the scene you enter the patients room to find him sitting on the edge of his bed, he appears agitated, As you approach him you note he has dried blood around both nostrils. He is breathing adequately, his pulse is rapid and irregular and his BP is 200/110 . Treatment for this patient includesattempting to calm him and giving him oxygen if tolerated.
When assessing a 80 y.o patient in shock it is important to remember that...age related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion
When a rehabilitation area is established at the scene of a mass casualty incident it should...be in a location that prevents visualization of the scene itself
You have just delivered a major trauma patient to the hospital, shortly after departing the hospital dispatch advises you of another call. The back of the ambulance is contaminated with bloody dressings and is in disarray. you are in need of airway equipment and numerous other supplies you should,,,advise the dispatcher that you are out of service and to send another unit
When a female has reached menarche she...is capable of becoming pregnant
In general medivac helicopters should be utilized when...a patient has a time-dependant injury and traffic conditions would cause a significant delay in definitive care
Breathing is often more labor intensive in older adults becasue...the elasticity of the lungs decreases
You have a critically injured patient in the back of the ambulance ready to be transported. There are injured patients at the scene and it will be approximately 10 min before another unit arrives You should..remain at the scene until at least one other ambulance arrives
The single most significant factor that contributes to suicide isdepression
what is a common symptom of gonorrhea?painful urination
To minimize distractions and confusion when assessing an older patient you shouldhave only one EMT speak to the patient at a time
Blood pressure is usually not assessed in children younger than ___ years3
Most medical models base a pregnant womans dues date onthe first day of her last menstrual cycle
With regard to the implications of child abuse the EMT must...report all suspected cases of child abuse
The EMT should suspect left-sided heart failure in the geriatric patient who presents withtachypnea and paroxysmal nocturnal edema
Which ECG lead views the lateral wall of the left ventricle?V5 and V6
Early signs of respiratory distress in a pediatric patient include ...tachypnea, retractions, abnormal airway noise
Fractures of the pelvis in older patients often occurs as the result of a combination of...osteoporosis and low-energy trauma
What are examples of biologic agents or diseases that can be transmitted from person to person?smallpox, pneumonic plague, inhalation anthrax
A viral infection that may cause obstruction of the upper airway in a child is calledepiglottitis
When performing your secondary assessment on an older patient that has been injured it is important to ...recall that it will take a less severe MOI to cause significant injuries
Common duties and responsibilities of EMS personnel at the scene of at motor vehicle accident crash include...assigning all patients a triage category, preparing all patients for transportation, and continual assessment of critical patients
A mother who is pregnant with her first baby is typically in the first stage of labor for approximately16 hours
By the 20th week of pregnancy the uterus is typically at or above the level of the mothers...belly button
The purpose of a saline lock is tomaintain an active IV site without running fluids through the vein
Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash you can see three patients one who is entrapped and two who have been ejected you should ...immediately request additional resources
The tip of a central venous catheter rests in thevena cava
When assessing or providing care to a patient with a developmental disability you shouldbe observant for signs of fear or reluctance from the patient
Following delivery of a full term baby during transport you note that the mother is experiencing moderate vaginal bleeding you shouldfirmly massage the uterine fundus with a circular motion
A significant number of patients with cerebral palsy also havea seizure disorder
Common signs of an allergic reaction includeabdominal cramps, flushing of the skin, itchy watery eyes, and a persistent dry cough
The hearts primary pacemaker is theSA (sinoatrial) node
Which of the following chemicals is a nerve agent? 1. phosgene 2. somansoman
The purpose of the pediatric assessment triangle is toallow you to rapidly and visually form a general impression of the child
When assessing a geriatric patient who has possibly experienced an acute ischemic stroke it is most important todetermine the onset of the patients symptoms
Once entrance and access to the patient have been provided you shouldperform a primary assessment
Nerve agents a class of chemicals called organophosphates were first discovered while in search of a superiorpesticide
A pregnant trauma patient may loose a significant amount of blood before showing signs of shock becausepregnant patients have an overall increase in blood volume
Down syndrome is a genetic defect that occurs as the result ofa triplication of chromosome 21
In contrast to a automated implanted cardioverter/defribillator an internal cardiac pacemakerregulates the patients heart rate if it falls below a preset value
Characteristic anatomic features of down syndrome includea round head with a flat occiput
When enlisting the help of an interpreter who signs it is important for you to ask the interpreter toreport exactly what the patient says and not to add commentary
A tube from the brain to the abdomen that drains excessive cerebrospinal fluid is called ashunt
EMS personnel would most likely be called to the residence of a patient receiving home health care when the home health care provider ...has noticed a change in the patients health status
In contrast to conductive hearing loss sensorineural hearing loss is caused bynerve damage
The purpose of a ventricular peritoneum shunt is toprevent excess cerebrospinal fluid from accumulating in the brain
A person is said to be obese when he or she is ____ over his or her ideal weight20-30%
To date the preferred weapon of mass destruction for terrorists has beenexplosive weapons
The primary clinical feature associated with exposure to phosgene oxime isskin blistering
Initial signs and symptoms associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers includeheadache and sore throat
You are assessing a patient who presents with respiratory distress after opening a letter of white power. This patient has most likely been exposed toanthrax
Unlike bacterial agents viral agents ...are usually not treatable
Most cases of anthrax begin withflulike symptoms
Unlike viruses and bacteria neurotoxins ..are not contagious
The type and severity of wounds sustained from incendiary and explosive devices primarily depend on thepatients distance from the epicenter of the explosion
Which of the following agents blocks the bodys ability to use oxygen and possesses an odor similar to almondshydrogen cyanide
Which of the following catheters would deliver fluid a the slowest rate? 1. 14 gauge 2. 22 gauge22 gauge
Obtaining an accurate ECG tracing can be difficult in patients experiencing a cardiac emergency becausethe patient is often diaphoretic
IT does not matter if you place the arm leads on the patients shoulders or arms as long asthe are at least 10 cm from the heart
A major benefit of using a multilumen airway device is thatmaintenance of a mask to face seal is not required
Vasovagal reactions that occur in patients receiving IV therapy are most often the result of ..the fear of needles or the sight of blood
Regardless of the size of the ET tube you will use to intubate your patient you should...have one tube smaller and one tube larger
D5W is most commonly used for...mixing and administering medications
During visualized orotracheal intubation the straight bladedirectly lifts the epiglottis and exposes the vocal cords
Sinus tachycardia is differentiated from a normal sinus rhythm by theirregular heart rate
Approximately 20 minutes after initiating an iV line of normal saline your patient complains of generalized itching and develops a rash. These are signs and symptoms of anallergic reaction
emt final
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