the functional connection between two neurons is a

# the functional connection between two neurons is a

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dendritesThe cytoplasmic extensions that provide the main receptive surfaces (sensory input) for neurons are the ______________.
neurons neuroglia___________ and __________ are the two types of cells of the nervous system.
synapseThe functional connection or space between two neurons is the __________.
Detect changes (sensory) Integrate information Control movement of muscles or glandular function (motor)The three primary functions of the nervous system are to:
Motor NeuronsNeurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to the muscles or glands are __________ __________.
sensory receptorsNeurons that monitor light, sound, and detect changes in and outside the body are said to be _________ _______.
axon dendritesA neuron will have one _________ but may have many ____________.
neurofibrils_______________ provide support to the axon from within.
trueTrue or false...every neuron has a cell body.
trueTrue or false...chromatophilic substance is unique to neurons.
myelin_______________ consists of layers of lipids and proteins that wrap around an axon.
myelinated unmyelinatedA ________ nerve fiber is white, whereas an _______ nerve fiber is gray.
lipidsMyelin is rich in what macromolecule?
neurogliaAstrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells are all what type of nerve cell?
oligodendrocytes________________ produce myelin in the central nervous system (CNS).
NeurilemmaeAxons in the CNS are unable to regenerate after injury because they lack __________ as are present in the PNS.
multipolarMost neurons in the brain and spinal cord are of what structural classification?
basement membranes connective tissuesIn order for severed peripheral nerves to regenerate and recover their original function, nerve fibers must sprout and enter tubes formed by ___________ __________ and ___________ _______________.
neuroglia PNSSchwann cells are __________ found in the ________.
unipolarDendrites on _________ neurons are parts of sensory neurons
divergenceAxons that amplify an impulse by contacting many neurons with the same information do so by a process known as ________________.
gangliaClusters of neuron cell bodies in the PNS are referred to as ____________.
neuroglia PNSSatellite cells are _________ and are part of the ________.
axonsSynaptic knobs are found at the ends of which part of the neuron?
exocytosisPresynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles by a process called _________.
calcium ionsWhen an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles are released in response to the presence of _________ ________.
facilitatedIf a neuron receives a series of stimuli whose effect is excitatory but subthreshold, the neuron is temporarily more excitable to incoming stimulation and is said to be ________________.
presynaptic neurotransmitterTransmitting an impulse from one neuron to another involves an impulse stimulating a _______________ axon to release a ________________ into a synaptic cleft.
trueTrue or false...action potentials are related to impulses conducted along an axon in that propagation of a series of action potentials along a nerve cell fiber constitutes an impulse.
thresholdA stimulus great enough to change the membrane potential and propagate an action potential is said to have reached ____________.
sodium potassiumWhen a nerve fiber is polarized, the concentration of _____ is higher on the outside of the membrane and the concentration of ______ is higher on the inside.
fasterSaltatory conduction by a myelinated nerve is ________ than conduction on an unmyelinated fiber.
thickThe most rapid conduction of an impulse along an axon occurs on a fiber that is ________ and myelinated.
potassium_________ ions can cross the neuron cells most readily.
hyperpolarizedIf a resting potential becomes more negative (i.e. moves from -70mV to -90mV), the membrane is said to be _______________.
Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward Membrane depolarizes Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward Membrane repolarizesBeginning at sodium ions moving in a the postsynaptic membrane, what is the correct order of sequences from depolarization to repolarization?
beta endorphinsWhat molecule is responsible for runners high, a good feeling that accompanies long-distance running?
15 millisecondsAn excitatory postsynaptic potential lasts for about _____ ______________.
trueTrue or false...Each neuron in the CNS may receive input from thousands of axons.
False...IPSPs are inhibitory. If EPSPs overpower IPSPs then an action potential will be generatedTrue or false...an action potential is generated if IPSPs overpower EPSPs.
acetylcholineThe neurotransmitter _____________ controls skeletal muscle contraction.
monoaminesDopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine are all modified amino acid neurotransmitters or also known as ____________.
depressionDrugs that increase the actions of norepinephrine and/or serotonin by keeping them in synapses longer are most likely used to treat ___________.
reputake_________ is the process in which a neurotransmitter that has already been released into the synaptic cleft is taken back into the presynaptic neuron by endocytosis.
increasedDrugs that inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase allow for __________ activity of norepinephrine.
interneuronsThe types of neurons that perform integration and are organized into neuronal pools are _______________.
convergence______________ is where axons from neurons in different parts of the nervous system contact or convey information to the same neuron.
migrain headaches___________ ___________ result from a release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from the trigeminal nerves at the base of the brain, in response to a spreading wave of excitation followed by lack of response from the cortex.
multiple sclerosis___________ ___________ is caused by an immune response that affects the myelin coating on axons throughout the spinal cord and brain, triggering inflammation and damage and ultimately scarring.
trueTrue or false...medications that decrease membrane permeability to sodium are used as local anesthetics, prevent nerve impulses from passing through the affected body part, and ultimately lessen pain.
trueTrue or false...opiate drugs derived from poppies relieve pain in humans because the human nervous system has receptors for endogenous opiate forms.
The number of receptors to which the drug binds on neurons has declinedWhat is the cause behind individuals requiring a higher dosage to achieve the same affect as originally received in cases of drugs such as anti-anxiety medication?
dopamine____________ is the neurotransmitter most likely produced when a person uses a drug that creates a sense of well-being.
False...a nerve is a basically a bundle of axonsTrue or false...a nerve is a single neuron that transmits impulses.
trueTrue or false...neurons are specialized to react to environmental changes and neuroglia support neurons.
False...the brain and spinal cord doesTrue or false...the brain and spinal nerves comprise the central nervous system.
trueTrue or false...sensory receptors are part of the peripheral nervous system.
False... Somatic = voluntary Autonomic = involuntaryTrue or false...the autonomic nervous system controls voluntary actions and the somatic nervous system oversees involuntary actions.
collateralsBranches off of axons are referred to as _______________.
trueTrue or false...myelin is composed largely of lipids.
False...they are narrow gapes in the myelin sheath in between Schwann cells (cheese puffs )True or false...Nodes of Ranvier lie between neurons.
true CNSTrue or false...Astrocytes structurally support neurons and also provide important signals and nutrients to neurons. They are found where?
false Sensory receptors detect and transmit this information Interneurons function in integration of that information in the CNSTrue or false...interneurons are specialized to carry impulses from receptor cells in the CNS.
trueTrue or false...a mixed nerves include both motor and sensory fibers.
falseTrue or false...the space between neurons is called the neuronal space.
False...in the refractory period, an axons voltage-gated sodium channels are completely unresponsive (page 377)True or false...during the absolute refractory period, a stimulus of high intensity may trigger a nerve impulse.
trueTrue or false...because the response of a nerve fibers is all-or-none, a greater intensity of stimulus does not produce a stronger impulse.
true neuropeptideTrue or false...Enkephalins are a form of neurotransmitter. More specifically...they are a ________________.
convergenceThe process where two or more incoming fibers contact a single neuron is known as _______________.
False...convergence requires summation and ultimately a net output Divergence will result in amplification of impulsesTrue or false...several nerve fibers converging onto one neuron amplifies impulses.
neuroglia____________ are cells in the nervous system that fill spaces and support neurons both physically and nutritionally.
effectors____________ are muscles and glands that respond to nervous stimulation.
schwannSheaths of __________ cells often enclose the larger axons outside of the central nervous system.
synapseThe junction between neurons is known as the _____________.
resting potentialThe difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a polarized neuron cell membrane is called the _________ ____________.
action potentialsAn impulse conducted along an axon consists of a wave of _________ ____________ moving away from a point of stimulation.
summationA series of similar stimuli that increases change in the local membrane potential is called ____________.
neuromodulatorsNeuropeptides that affect a neurons response to other neurotransmitters are called __________________.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentialIf a neurotransmitter hyperpolarizes a cell membrane and an action potential is less likely, the change is called ___________ ___________ ____________.
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