the structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are

# the structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are

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TrueTrue or false...contraction of the heart, maintenance of muscle tone, and movement of bones/joints are all functions of muscles.
EpimysiumThe outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the _______________.
Actin MyosinMyofibrils are composed primarily of __________ and ___________.
Sarcomere organizationThe striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers results from the ____________ ____________.
Transverse tubulesA ____________ ___________ transmits muscle impulses into the cell interior.
Ruptured blood vesselsThe discoloration and swelling of a muscle strain is due to _________ ________ __________.
Tendon AponeurosisA __________ is cordlike and connects muscles to bones while a ___________ is a broad sheet of dense connective tissue that connects muscles to muscles.
SacromeresMuscle fibers are basically a collection of ___________.
False...they are well developed in skeletal and cardiac muscle fibersTrue or false...transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum are well developed in smooth muscle.
sacromereThe functional unit of a muscle contraction is the ____________.
Neurotransmitters______________ are stored in vesicles in motor neuron endings.
AcetylcholinesteraseThe enzyme _____________ serves to decompose acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft.
ATPCreatine phosphate supplies energy for the synthesis of ________.
Oxygen debtThe amount of oxygen liver cells require to support the conversion of lactic acid to produce glucose or glycogen is the _______ ________.
ATPA muscle cramp could come about due to electrolyte imbalance or due to a temporary deficit of ________.
MyosinBinding sites on the surface of actin allow the formation of cross-bridges with the heads of ________.
TrueTrue or false...athletes usually experience muscle fatigue less quickly than nonathletes because they produce less lactic acid.
Motor end plateAt a neuromuscular junction, the muscle fiber membrane folds, forming a ___________ _________ __________.
BotulismThe toxin that causes __________ prevents release of acetylcholine.
SacromereA ____________ is best described as a unit within a muscle fiber.
TrueTrue or false...rigor mortis affects skeletal muscles in a few hours after death due to a decrease in ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
TrueTrue or false...neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft at the neuromuscular junction.
Acetylcholine is released from the end of the motor neuronWhat is the first event to occur to lead to skeletal muscle fiber contraction?
False...the actin filaments slide across the myosin filamentsTrue or false...when a muscle contracts, the thin myosin filaments slide across the thick actin filaments.
synapseThe functional connection between a neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber is a ____________.
AcetylcholineAcetylcholinesterase degrades ______________, keeping it from accumulating in the synapse.
Impulse arrives at synapse and travels through transverse tubules Impulse reaches SR and Ca+ is released Ca+ floods sarcoplasm and binds to troponin Tropomyosin moves and myosin head binds to sites on actin Actin is pulled across myosin Muscle fiber shortens and contractsArrange the steps for muscle fiber contraction.
Lactic acid thresholdA shift in metabolism that breaks down pyruvic acid to lactic acid is called _______ _________ __________.
Oxygen debt_______ ________ in muscles may develop because of the inability of respiratory and circulatory systems to supply enough oxygen to skeletal muscles when used strenuously for a minute or two.
TrueTrue or false...Creatine phosphate plays a role in supplying energy to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate.
MyoglobinThe characteristic reddish brown color of skeletal muscle comes from __________.
Motor UnitA motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it are referred to as a(n) ________ ________.
ATPDuring muscle contraction ________ supplies energy for myofilament movement.
TrueTrue or false...skeletal muscle can help in maintaining body temperature in that the more active they are, the more heat is released.
Threshold stimulus_________ _________ is the minimum strength of stimulation required to contract a muscle fiber.
MyogramA ___________ is a recording of the events of a twitch.
IsometricContraction of a muscle without a change in length is known as a(n) ____________ muscle contraction.
TrueTrue or false...Exercise can lead to formation of new muscle by stimulating skeletal muscle cells to release IL-6, which stimulates satellite cells to divide, producing more muscle cells.
Muscle Tone_________ _______ is an example of a partial but sustained contraction.
FalseTrue or false...red fibers have fewer mitochondria than white.
RecruitmentThe increase in the number of motor units activated as a result of more intense stimulation is called _________.
Latent periodIn a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the time the muscle responds is called the _________ __________.
Complete sustained contractionA muscle fiber exposed to a series of stimuli of increasing frequency combines individual twitches (summation) which results in ___________ _________ _________.
TrueTrue or false...Muscle atrophy that progresses with aging is caused by reduction in ATP, myoglobin, and the sizes of muscle fibers.
Slow fatigue-resistant fibers (Type I)Activities such as distance swimming and distance running are most likely to stimulate development of _________ _________-___________ __________.
Smooth___________ muscle lacks transverse tubules and striations.
TrueTrue or false...Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder.
CalmodulinSmooth muscle has _________ rather than troponin as its binding site for calcium.
TrueTrue or false...a sign of aging of the muscular system is decreased supplies of myoglobin to muscles.
AtrophyA muscle may undergo _________ in response to disuse resulting in diminished size (including actin and myosin filaments getting smaller), and a reduction in capillary networks.
AgonistThe _________ is a muscle that causes an action, also known as the prime mover.
False...it contracts more slowly AND relaxes more slowlyTrue or false...compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle contracts more rapidly and relaxes more slowly.
Smooth muscle__________ ___________ is a type of muscle cell that lacks transverse tubules, has a single nucleus, and is under involuntary control.
TrueTrue or false...both acetylcholine and norepinephrine can affect smooth muscle contraction.
Intercalated discsThe structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are _________ _________.
LeversBones and muscles function as mechanical devices called _________.
insertionThe _________ end of a muscle is typically the more moveable end.
AntagonistThe _________ muscle is a muscle that opposed the particular action of another muscle.
Linea albaThe _________ _________ is a band of tough connective tissue to which abdominal wall muscles attach.
Cardiac muscle__________ _________ contracts as a syncytium, excites itself, and is only found in the muscular walls of the heart.
TrueTrue or false...smooth muscle fibers have short muscle cells with centrally located nuclei.
SynergistThe _________ is a muscle that assists the agonist.
BuccinatorThe _________ muscle is in the cheek.
CoracobrachialisThe _________ muscle adducts and flexes the arm.
SoleusThe _________ is a muscle that forms part of the calf.
FalseTrue or false...the zygomaticus is considered a muscle of mastication.
TrueTrue or false...the palmaris longus is unique in that its insertion is to fascia rather than bone.
Trapezius Latissimus dorsiThe triangle of auscultation, commonly used to hear sounds of respiratory organs, is located near the border of the __________ and ___________ _________.
Gluteus medius Gluteus minimusA gluteal gait, in which a person walks with a waddling limp, is usually caused by a disorder of what two muscles?
Myasthenia gravisPeople with _________ __________ have a deficiency of acetylcholine receptors.
TrueTrue or false... A weightlifter uses muscles so the muscles exert more than 75% of their maximum tension; this stimulates muscle fibers developing new filaments of actin and myosin.
TrueTrue or false... Fibers of muscle whose motor neurons are severed may be replaced by fat or fibrous connective tissue.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)___________ _______ syndrome causes headache, ringing in the ears, and a clicking sound from the jaw.
Endomysium___________ separates individual muscle fibers from each other.
TrueTrue or false...a motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it controls constitute a motor unit.
False Troponin in skeletal muscle and calmodulin in smooth muscleTrue or false... In the initiation of muscle fiber contraction calcium ions bind to tropomyosin, exposing active sites on actin for cross-bridge formation. What does it bind to?
TrueTrue or false... The enzyme ATPase occurs in the globular portion of myosin molecules.
False...it is released by the synaptic vesicles of the motor neuronTrue or false... Acetylcholine released by the myofibril crosses the synaptic cleft to bind to the motor neuron ending.
True...is needed to get myosin head to release from actinTrue or false... ATP is necessary for relaxation of a muscle.
AponeurosisA broad sheet of dense connective tissue that attaches the coverings of adjacent muscles is called a(n) _____________.
MyoglobinThe pigment responsible for the reddish brown color of skeletal muscle is _____________.
AcetylcholineIn order to stimulate skeletal muscle fibers, motor neurons release the neurotransmitter _____________.
Tetanic contractionA forceful, sustained contraction is called a _____________ ___________.
SummationThe combining of a series of twitches to produce a more forceful contraction is called _________.
PeristalsisThe rhythmic, wavelike motion produced by smooth muscles in tubular visceral organs is called ______________.
CardiacThe intercalated discs at the ends of ___________ muscle cells help to join cells.
SynergistsMuscles that assist an agonist are called ____________.
EpicraniusThe muscle that covers the upper part of the cranium is the ____________.
the structures
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