fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's

# fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's

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153. An elaborate ceremony used to celebrate a person's emergence into adulthood is an example of a A. schema. B. critical period. C. secure attachment. D. rite of passage.D
154. Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared to previous centuries? A. It begins earlier in life and ends earlier in life. B. It begins later in life and ends earlier in life. C. It begins earlier in life and ends later in life. D. It begins later in life and ends later in life.C
155. A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called A. puberty. B. maturation. C. emerging adulthood. D. postconventional morality.C
156. Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during A. late adolescence. B. early adulthood. C. puberty. D. middle adulthood.B
157. Menopause refers to A. the cessation of menstruation. B. the loss of male sexual potency. C. irregular timing of menstrual periods. D. the loss of sexual interest in late adulthood.A
158. African infants have had a greater chance of survival if they have a living maternal grandmother who is without young children of her own. This fact has been used to support an evolutionary explanation of A. conservation. B. habituation. C. stranger anxiety. D. menopause.D
159. As men advance through middle adulthood they experience a gradual decline in A. testosterone level. B. sperm count. C. ejaculation speed. D. all of these things.D
160. Between the middle of the last century and the early years of the current century A. human birthrates have increased and life expectancy at birth has increased. B. human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has decreased. C. human birthrates have increased and life expectancy at birth has decreased. D. human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has increased.D
161. The ratio of males to females first begins declining during A. prenatal development. B. childhood. C. adolescence. D. adulthood.A
162. Aging cells may die without being replaced due to the shortening of A. critical periods. B. teratogens. C. plaques. D. telomeres.D
163. In one 15-year period, more Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on the two days before Christmas. It has been suggested that this illustrates A. a death-deferral phenomenon. B. a critical period. C. terminal decline. D. habituation.A
164. Lewis is a 70-year-old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably A. does not hear as well. B. is more susceptible to catching the flu. C. has significantly fewer neural connections. D. has all of these problems.A
165. Older people are NOT increasingly susceptible to A. pneumonia. B. Parkinson's disease. C. common cold viruses. D. dementia.C
166. Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related differences in A. role confusion. B. object permanence. C. crystallized intelligence. D. information-processing speed.D
167. Research on older people has shown that A. they grow increasingly fearful of death. B. they become increasingly prone to car accidents. C. they experience less life satisfaction than younger adults. D. all of these statements are true.B
168. Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in A. object permanence. B. basic trust. C. menarche. D. memory.D
169. Dementia is most commonly associated with A. menopause. B. role confusion. C. Alzheimer's disease. D. crystallized intelligence.C
170. During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can't find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of A. crystallized intelligence. B. menopause. C. habituation. D. Alzheimer's disease.D
171. Alzheimer's disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce A. dopamine. B. telomeres. C. acetylcholine. D. epinephrine.C
172. Researchers have detected unusually diffuse brain activity while people suffering from ________ are trying to memorize words. A. autism B. fetal alcohol syndrome C. Alzheimer's disease D. infantile amnesiaC
173. When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age. A. 2 and 5 B. 5 and 10 C. 10 and 30 D. 30 and 50C
174. When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated A. no decline in either recall or recognition. B. a decline in recognition but not in recall. C. a decline in recall but not in recognition. D. a decline in both recognition and recall.C
175. On which of the following tasks is a 20-year-old most likely to outperform a 70-year-old? A. recalling previously presented nonsense syllables B. recognizing previously presented foreign language words C. recalling previously presented names of cities D. recognizing previously presented names of fruits and vegetablesA
176. A cross-sectional study is one in which A. the same people are retested over a period of years. B. different age groups are tested at the same time. C. different characteristics of a given individual are assessed at the same time. D. the behavior of a group is assessed by different researchers.B
177. Cross-sectional research indicated that during early and middle adulthood, aging is associated with ________ levels of intelligence. Longitudinal research indicated that during this period of life, aging is associated with ________ levels of intelligence. A. increasing; declining B. declining; stable C. increasing; increasing D. stable; decliningB
178. Which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills? A. fluid intelligence B. concrete operational intelligence C. formal operational intelligence D. crystallized intelligenceD
179. Older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningful material does not decline as much as their capacity to learn and remember meaningless material. This best illustrates the value of A. concrete operational thought. B. crystallized intelligence. C. formal operational thought. D. fluid intelligence.B
180. Fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's A. accumulated knowledge. B. ability to reason speedily and abstractly. C. ability to assume the perspective of others. D. ability to utilize diffuse brain regions for storing memories.B
181. The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________. A. concrete operations; formal operations B. formal operations; concrete operations C. crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence D. fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligenceD
182. To qualify for the office manager's job, 55-year-old Mariel must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ________ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken it as a 25-year-old. A. general knowledge B. spelling C. abstract reasoning D. vocabularyC
183. Explaining why the best work of scientists is often produced in early adulthood while that of novelists often originates during middle adulthood requires a distinction between A. initiative and generativity. B. concrete and formal operations. C. fluid and crystallized intelligence. D. conventional and postconventional morality.C
184. The terminal decline phenomenon involves a decrease in mental ability that accompanies the approach of A. menopause. B. retirement. C. death. D. any critical period.C
185. Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of A. job dissatisfaction and career change. B. marital dissatisfaction and divorce. C. anxiety and emotional instability. D. none of these feelings or events.D
186. The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the country's ________ has been altered. A. social clock B. developmental norm C. maturation cycle D. family calendarA
187. Those who criticize theories of age-linked adult developmental stages are most likely to emphasize the importance of ________ on adult development. A. fluid intelligence B. genetic predispositions C. the midlife transition D. the social clockD
188. Identical twins with similar values and preferences are not very strongly attracted to one another's fiancs. This fact has been used to suggest that romantic attraction is influenced by A. fluid intelligence. B. the social clock. C. secondary sex characteristics. D. chance encounters.D
189. Professor Parker suggested that heterosexual adults are genetically predisposed to form monogamous bonds because this practice facilitated the cooperative nurture and survival of children. The professor's suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective. A. authoritarian B. postconventional C. psychosocial D. evolutionaryD
190. Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago, American men today are marrying A. at a younger age and American women are marrying at an older age. B. at an older age and American women are marrying at a younger age. C. at an older age and American women are marrying at an older age. D. at a younger age and American women are marrying at a younger age.C
191. After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that A. they have more positive attitudes toward the institution of marriage than the average couple. B. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of being successful. C. most of their college friends and acquaintances have viewed their cohabitation negatively. D. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.D
192. The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the A. frequency of their sexual intimacy. B. intensity of their passionate feelings. C. ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other. D. experience or nonexperience of a prior marriage.C
193. Among employed women, the task of raising children is especially likely to be associated with ________ marital satisfaction. The departure of mature children from the home is typically associated with ________ marital satisfaction. A. increasing; decreasing B. decreasing; increasing C. increasing; further increasing D. decreasing; further decreasingB
194. When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling A. depressed. B. bored. C. happy. D. anxious.C
95. Marie feels socially useful in her career as a financial investment advisor. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of A. lower; higher B. higher; lower C. lower; lower D. higher; higherC
196. Happiness is slightly ________ among young adults than among middle-aged adults and slightly ________ among older adults than among middle-aged adults. A. lower; higher B. higher; lower C. lower; lower D. higher; higherC
197. As people progress into late adulthood, they increasingly use words that convey ________ emotions, and the amygdala shows diminishing activity in response to ________ events. A. negative; negative B. positive; positive C. negative; positive D. positive; negativeD
198. Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults experience A. positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with more intensity. B. positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with less intensity. C. positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with less intensity. D. positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with more intensity.C
199. Compared with when she was an adolescent, elderly Mrs. Packer is likely to experience a sad mood with A. less intensity and for a longer period of time. B. more intensity and for a shorter period of time. C. less intensity and for a shorter period of time. D. more intensity and for a longer period of time.A
200. An integrated understanding of successful aging in terms of appropriate nutrition, family support, and an optimistic outlook is most clearly provided by A. a cross-sectional study. B. social intuitional theory. C. a biopsychosocial approach. D. Piaget's cognitive development theory.C
201. During the time following the death of a loved one A. integrity. B. autonomy. C. generativity. D. intimacy.A
202. According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as late adulthood is to A. integrity. B. autonomy. C. generativity. D. intimacy.A
203. Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of A. basic trust. B. intimacy. C. autonomy. D. integrity.D
204. Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of A. nature or nurture. B. behavior or mental processes. C. continuity or stages. D. fluid or crystallized intelligence.C
346. Which of the following is true of physical development in adult life? A. The outward signs of advancing years are psychologically stressful for adults in every culture. B. Sensory ability and reaction time reach their peak by the midtwenties. C. Most adults are keenly aware of the first signs of physical decline. D. None of these statements are true.B
347. Judy has recently had periods of mild physical discomfort, and her doctor notes that she is no longer able to become pregnant. It is most likely that Judy is experiencing A. menarche. B. dementia. C. menopause. D. autism.C
348. As men progress through middle adulthood they experience a ________ in sperm count and a ________ in testosterone level. A. rise; decline B. decline; rise C. rise; rise D. decline; declineD
349. Which of the following describes gender differences in life expectancy? A. The number of newborn females is equal to the number of males, and females have a longer life expectancy than do males. B. The number of newborn females is larger than the number of males, and females have a shorter life expectancy than do males. C. The number of newborn females is equal to the number of males, and females have a shorter life expectancy than do males. D.The number of newborn females is smaller than the number of males, and females have a longer life expectancy than do males.D
350. Evolutionary biologists have suggested that the symptoms of physiological degeneration that accompany old age in humans are a A. by-product of crystallized intelligence. B. genetically predisposed outcome. C. hindrance to natural selection. D. threat to the survival of the human species.B
351. The increase in death rates among older people when they reach a life milestone such as a birthday provides evidence of A. habituation. B. a death-deferral phenomenon. C. a critical period. D. terminal decline.B
352. Research on people aged 65 and over has shown that A. most older people become increasingly fearful of death as they age. B. most older people experience a noticeable loss of visual sensitivity. C. most victims of Alzheimer's disease can reverse the disorder by becoming physically active. D. about 25 percent of those over 65 reside in health care institutions such as nursing homes.B
353. As people progress into old age, their disease-fighting immune systems become A. more effective in resisting most life-threatening ailments. B. less effective in resisting common cold viruses than in resisting cancer. C. more effective in resisting upper respiratory flu than in resisting pneumonia. D. completely ineffective in resisting any diseases without specific medication.C
354. Judson is a 70-year-old retired automobile mechanic. In contrast to when he was 20, he now probably A. has a greater fear of death. B. is less susceptible to catching colds. C. experiences less life satisfaction. D. would not do as well on a vocabulary test.B
355. Compared with younger adults, older adults take ________ time to solve perceptual puzzles and ________ time to remember names. A. more; more B. less; less C. more; less D. less; moreA
356. As people progress through late adulthood, they typically experience a slight A. decrease in brain weight. B. increase in colds and flu. C. increase in life satisfaction. D. increase in fluid intelligence.A
357. Physical exercise helps maintain the ________ protecting the ends of chromosomes. A. telomeres B. myelin C. teratogens D. schemasA
358. The deterioration of memory and thinking caused by ailments such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of small strokes is called A. crystallized intelligence. B. role confusion. C. dementia. D. menarche.C
359. An irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of one's normal reasoning and memory skills is called A. menarche. B. autism. C. infantile amnesia. D. Alzheimer's diseaseD
360. An early sign of Alzheimer's disease would most likely be A. an inability to recognize oneself in a mirror. B. the use of profane and abusive language. C. an increase in crystallized intelligence. D. difficulty in naming familiar objects or people.D
361. Twenty-year-olds would most likely outperform 60-year-olds on an art history exam in which they were asked to A. list as many famous artists as possible. B. match paintings with famous painters. C. pick an artist's country of birth from a list of four possibilities. D. respond to true-false statements regarding important events in artists' lives.A
362. In recall and recognition tests of memory for recently learned material, older adults are more likely than young adults to have difficulty A. recalling meaningful material. B. recognizing meaningful material. C. recalling meaningless material. D. recognizing meaningless material.C
363. As adults grow older, they are most likely to show a decline in their ability to remember A. nonsense syllables. B. musical lyrics. C. famous people. D. practical skills.A
364. Tonya asks people of different ages to complete a measure of life satisfaction. She then looks for life satisfaction differences across different age levels. Tonya is conducting a ________ study. A. longitudinal B. preoperational C. crosssectional D. concrete operationalC
365. In which research method are the same people retested over a period of years? A. longitudinal B. experimental C. chronological D. crosssectionalA
366. The idea that adult intelligence declines with age has been challenged most effectively by A. crosssectional research. B. research on fluid intelligence. C. tests that assess formal operational thinking. D. longitudinal research.D
367. Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to New York Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of A. habituation. B. fluid intelligence. C. concrete operational thought. D. crystallized intelligence.D
368. Crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person's A. accumulated knowledge and verbal skills. B. ability to reason speedily and abstractly. C. ability to assume the perspective of others. D. willingness to revise beliefs in light of new information.A
369. Which of the following terms refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly? A. crystallized intelligence B. concrete operational intelligence C. sensorimotor intelligence D. fluid intelligenceD
370. Formal operational thought is most similar to A. fluid intelligence. B. generativity. C. conventional morality. D. crystallized intelligence.A
371. Research suggests that during early and middle adulthood A. crystallized intelligence increases and fluid intelligence decreases. B. crystallized intelligence decreases and fluid intelligence increases. C. crystallized intelligence increases and fluid intelligence increases. D. crystallized intelligence decreases and fluid intelligence decreases.A
372. On which of the following tasks are 55-year-old adults most likely to perform just as effectively as they could 30 years earlier? A. writing a story B. solving an abstract geometry problem C. recalling previously presented nonsense syllables D. repeating numbers in the opposite order they were presentedA
373. Adults are ________ likely to divorce in their early forties than in their early twenties. They are ________ likely to commit suicide in their early forties than in their early seventies. A. less; less B. more; more C. less; more D. more; lessA
374. Emotional instability has been found to be A. highest among 30-year-olds. B. highest among 40-year-olds. C. highest among 50-year-olds. D. similar among adults at all of these ages.D
375. The term social clock refers to A. the culturally preferred time to leave home, marry, have children, and retire. B. the pace of life in a culture as assessed by its level of industrialization. C. the average age of people in different social groups and organizations. D. the different ways in which societies evaluate the physical and cognitive changes accompanying the aging processA
376. Erik Erikson maintained that the two basic aspects of life that dominate adulthood are A. identity and independence. B. intimacy and identity. C. intimacy and generativity. D. independence and generativity.C
377. Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago, Americans are marrying at a(n) A. older age and are experiencing more marital satisfaction. B. younger age and are experiencing less marital satisfaction. C. older age and are experiencing less marital satisfaction. D. younger age and are experiencing more marital satisfaction.C
378. Rising divorce rates over the past 40 years are partly a consequence of A. increasing marital expectations and the increasing economic independence of women. B. decreasing marital expectations and the decreasing economic independence of women. C. increasing marital expectations and the decreasing economic independence of women. D. decreasing marital expectations and the increasing economic independence of women.A
379. Compared with non-cohabiting couples, which of the following is true of couples who live together before marriage? A. They are initially more committed to the ideal of an enduring marriage, and they become increasingly more marriage-supportive while cohabiting. B. They are initially less committed to the ideal of an enduring marriage, and they become increasingly more marriage-supportive while cohabiting. C. They are initially more committed to the ideal of an enduring marriage, and they become increasingly less marriage-supportive while cohabiting. D. They are initially less committed to the ideal of an enduring marriage, and they become increasingly less marriage-supportive while cohabiting.D
380. Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple A. live together for a time before they marry. B. focus their time and energy on their growing children's needs. C. engage in less frequent sexual interactions. D. engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other.D
381. Kathryn and Rafael's third and last child is leaving home for college next year. Their empty nest is likely to be a(n) ________ place. A. depressed B. happy C. anxious D. boringB
382. Research suggests that college or university students A. should develop clear occupational goals before they begin school. B. will shift from their initially intended majors. C. will complete a graduate school program after their undergraduate education. D. should pursue specific vocational training programs rather than a broad liberal arts education.B
383. Research on people's feelings of satisfaction with their lives indicates that A. adolescents report being slightly happier than people over 65 years of age. B. people over 65 years of age report being slightly happier than adolescents. C. middle-aged adults report being slightly happier than both adolescents and people over 65 years of age. D. young and older adults report being slightly happier than middle-aged adults.D
384. Compared with young adults, the amygdala in older adults shows A. diminishing activity in response to positive events. B. enhanced activity in response to negative events. C. diminishing activity in response to negative events. D. enhanced activity in response to positive events.C
385. As adults advance in age, their positive and negative moods become A. less extreme and more enduring. B. more extreme and less enduring. C. less extreme and less enduring. D. more extreme and more enduring.A
386. Professor Appledorn emphasizes that whether people flourish in later life depends on a continuous interaction among their inborn temperaments, their personal relationships, and their mental expectations regarding the aging process. The professor's viewpoint best illustrates A. longitudinal study. B. an evolutionary perspective. C. a social intuitionist theory. D. a biopsychosocial approach.D
387. The grief experienced over the death of a loved one is especially severe when death is experienced A. as a time that requires sharing honest emotions with others. B. after years of anticipating the death of one's loved one. C. as a time for celebrating the life and memory of the deceased person. D. as coming before it's expected time on the social clock.D
388. In Erikson's theory, the sense of integrity achieved in late adulthood refers to the feeling that A. one's life has been meaningful. B. one is healthy and not dependent upon others. C. one is acting ethically. D. one's life is full of close friendships.A
389. Ross believes that personality development is a matter of sudden qualitative changes at various turning points in the life span. His viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of A. imprinting or object permanence. B. nature or nurture. C. assimilation or accommodation. D. continuity or stages.D
390. Researchers who emphasize learning and experience tend to view development as A. a continuous process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a sequence of stages. B. a sequence of stages, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a continuous process. C. a cognitive process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a social process. D. a social process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a cognitive process.A
391. A stage theory of development was advanced by A. Kohlberg. B. Erikson. C. Piaget. D. all of these people.D
392. Stage theories of adult development are most likely to be criticized for exaggerating the A. importance of social influence. B. predictability of development. C. importance of fluid intelligence. D. interaction of nature and nurture.B
393. Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of A. continuity or stages. B. fluid or crystallized intelligence. C. stability or change. D. nature or nurture.C
394. The conflicting results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of aging and intelligence are of greatest relevance to the issue of A. continuity or stages. B. stability or change. C. assimilation or accommodation. D. concrete or formal operational thought.B
395. As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of A. conventional or postconventional morality. B. fluid or crystallized intelligence. C. stability or change. D. concrete or formal operations.C
396. Human personality shows the greatest stability during A. preschool years. B. late childhood. C. teenage years. D. adulthood.D
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