which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?

# which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?

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Endocrine System-regulates metabolism and maintains homeostasis
Endocrine Glands-glands that secrete or release chemicals that are used inside the body
Insulin-a hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans (endocrine gland located throughout the pancreas) that enables glucose in the blood to enter cells -used in synthetic form to treat and control diabetes mellitus
Hormone-a chemical substance produced by a gland that regulates the activity of organs and tissues
Glucose-one of the basic sugars -it is the primary fuel, in conjunction with oxygen, for cellular metabolism
Diabetes Mellitusa metabolic disorder in which the ability to metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) is impaired, usually because of a lack of insulin
Type 1 Diabetes-the type of diabetic disease that typically develops in childhood and requires synthetic insulin for proper treatment and control
Type 2 Diabetesthe type of diabetic disease that typically develops in later life and often can be controlled through diet and oral medications
Polyuriathe passage of an unusually large volume of urine in a given period -in diabetes, this can result from the wasting of glucose in the urine
Polydipsia-excessive thirst that persists for long periods, despite reasonable fluid intake -often the result of excessive urination
Polyphagiaexcessive eating -in diabetes, the inability to use glucose properly can cause a sense of hunger
Acidosis-a pathologic condition that results from the accumulation of acids in the body
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)a form of hyperglycemia in uncontrolled diabetes in which certain acids accumulate when insulin is not available
Kussmaul Respirations-deep, rapid breathing -usually the result of an accumulation of certain acids when insulin is not available in the body
Hyperglycemia-an abnormally high glucose level in the blood
Hypoglycemiaan abnormally low glucose level in the blood
Hyperglycemic Crisis-a state of unconsciousness resulting from several problems, including ketoacidosis, dehydration because of excessive urination, and hyperglycemia
Normal range for glucose levels in blood in nonfasting adults and children:80 to 120 mg/dL -the blood glucose level in neonates should be above 70 mg/dL
Hematologythe study and prevention of blood-related disorders
Sickle Cell Diseasea hereditary disease that causes normal, round red blood cells to become oblong, or sickle shaped
Vaso-Occlusive Crisis-ischemia and pain caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells that obstruct blood flow to a portion of the body
Aplastic Crisisa condition in which the body stops producing red blood cells -typically caused by infection
Hemolytic Crisisa rapid destruction of red blood cells that occurs faster than the body's ability to create new cells
Splenic Sequestration Crisisan acute, painful enlargement of the spleen caused by sickle cell disease
Thrombosisa blood clot, either in the arterial or venous system
Thrombophilia-a tendency toward the development of blood clots as a result of an abnormality of the system of coagulation
Hemophilia-a congenital abnormality in which the body is unable to produce clots, which results in uncontrollable bleeding
The signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of:-decreased blood glucose levels
Glipizide, a non-insulin-type medication, is another name for:-Glucotrol
Common signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include all of the following, EXCEPT:cool, clammy skin
Insulin shock will MOST likely develop if a patient:takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?the brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen
Metformin, a non-insulin medication, is another name for:Glucophage
Diabetes is MOST accurately defined as a/an:disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
Insulin shock will MOST likely develop if a patient:takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin
Diabetic coma is a life-threatening condition that results in:hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and dehydration
Ketone production is the result of:fat metabolization when glucose is unavailable.
Assessment of a patient with hypoglycemia will MOST likely reveal:bizarre behavior
Excessive eating caused by cellular "hunger" is called:polyphagia
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes experience polyuria because:excess glucose in the blood is excreted by the kidneys
Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when:insulin is not available in the body.
Normal blood glucose levels, as measured by a glucometer, are:80-120 mg/dL
Type I diabetes:is a condition in which no insulin is produced by the body.
The signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of:decreased blood glucose levels
Insulin shock tends to develop more often and more severely in children because:they do not always eat correctly and on schedule.
Which of the following statements regarding diabetic coma is correct?Diabetic coma typically develops over a period of hours or days.
Common signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include all of the following, EXCEPT:cool, clammy skin
Insulin functions in the body by:enabling glucose to enter the cells
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen
Kussmaul respirations are an indication that the body is:attempting to eliminate acids from the blood.
Classic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include:cool, clammy skin; weakness; tachycardia; rapid respirations
Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of developing?Blindness
In contrast to insulin shock, diabetic coma:can only be corrected in the hospital setting.
You respond to a residence for a patient who is "not acting right." As you approach the door, the patient, a 35-year-old male, begins shouting profanities at you and your partner while holding a baseball bat. The man is confused and diaphoretic, and is wearing a medic-alert bracelet. You should:retreat at once and call law enforcement.
Glutose is a trade name for:oral glucose
You are treating a 40-year-old male with a documented blood sugar reading of 300 mg/dL. The patient is semiconscious and breathing shallowly, and is receiving assisted ventilation from your partner. You should recognize that definitive treatment for this patient includes:insulin
When obtaining a SAMPLE history from a diabetic patient, it would be MOST important to determine:if he or she has had any recent illnesses or excessive stress.
To which of the following diabetic patients should you administer oral glucose?A confused 55-year-old male with tachycardia and pallor
You are treating a 20-year-old male with a history of diabetes. The patient states that he is not feeling well. His vital signs are stable; however, he is confused and his skin is cool and clammy. You attempt to obtain a blood glucose reading with your glucometer; however, it reads "error" after three attempts. After administering 100% oxygen, you should:perform a detailed physical exam at the scene.
A 37-year-old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days' duration. You apply 100% oxygen and assess her blood glucose level, which reads 320 mg/dL. If this patient's condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop:acidosis and dehydration
Patients with type II diabetes usually control their disease with all of the following, EXCEPT:supplemental insulin
Hypoglycemic crisis tends to develop more often and more severely in children because:they do not always eat correctly and on schedule.
When assessing an unconscious diabetic patient, the primary visible difference between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is the:rate and depth of breathing
Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:ensuring the absence of a gag reflex.
Common signs a nd symptoms of diabetic coma include all of the following, EXCEPT:cool, clammy skin
You respond to a movie theater for a 70-year-old male who is confused. His wife tells you he has type 2 diabetes but refuses to take his pills. Your assessment reveals that the patient is diaphoretic, tachycardic, and tachypneic. Initial management for this patient should include:applying a nonrebreathing mask at 15 L/min.
A man finds his 59-year-old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should:open and maintain her airway and assess breathing.
The normal blood glucose level, as measured by a glucometer, is between:80 and 120 mg/dL.
An acute accelerated drop in the hemoglobin level, which is caused by red blood cells breaking down at a faster rate than normal, occurs during a __________ crisis.hemolytic
During your assessment of a 19-year-old male, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that:he has hemophilia A
Diabetic coma is a life-threatening condition that results from:hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and dehydration.
A 28-year-old female patient is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only. Her roommate states that she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further tells you that the patient has been urinating excessively and has progressively worsened over the last 24 to 36 hours. On the basis of this patient's clinical presentation, you should suspect that she:significantly hyperglycemic
A 19-year-old male complains of "not feeling right." His insulin and a syringe are on a nearby table. The patient says he thinks he took his insulin and cannot remember whether he ate. He is also unable to tell you the time or what day it is. The glucometer reads "error" after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:contact medical control and administer oral glucose.
Glipizide, a non-insulin-type medication, is another name for:Glucotrol
A 29-year-old female presents with confusion and disorientation. Her respirations are rapid and shallow and her pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. She is markedly diaphoretic and has an oxygen saturation of 89%. You should:provide ventilatory support.
A 42-year-old male is found unresponsive on his couch by a neighbor. During your assessment, you find no signs of trauma and the patient's blood glucose level is 75 mg/dL. His blood pressure is 168/98 mm Hg, his heart rate is 45 beats/min and bounding, and his respirations are 8 breaths/min and irregular. The patient is wearing a medical alert bracelet that states he has hemophilia. You should:suspect that he has intracranial bleeding, assist his ventilations, and transport rapidly to an appropriate hospital.
Patients with type II diabetes usually control their disease with all of the following, EXCEPT:supplemental insulin
Insulin shock will MOST likely develop if a patienttakes too much of his or her prescribed insulin
Diabetic coma is a life-threatening condition that results inhyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and dehydration
Which of the following statements regarding diabetic coma is correct?Diabetic coma typically develops over a period of hours or days
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen
Patients with which type of diabetes are more likely to have metabolic problems and organ damage?Type 1
A sickle cell crisis caused by an acute drop in hemoglobin levels is known as a(n):hemolytic crisis
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the hormone ____________ is missing or ineffective.insulin
Emergency care of a patient with hemophilia includes all of the following EXCEPT:oxygen at 4 L/min
The accumulation of ketones and fatty acids in blood tissue can lead to a dangerous condition in diabetic patients known as:diabetic ketoacidosis
The term for excessive eating as a result of cellular "hunger" is:polyphagia
Insulin is produced by the:pancreas
Factors that may contribute to diabetic coma include:infection alcohol consumption insufficient insulin
The only organ that does not require insulin to allow glucose to enter its cell is the:brain
The sweet of fruity odor on the breath of a diabetic patients is caused by ___________ in the blood.ketones
It is uncommon to encounter ____________ patients with thrombophilia.pediatric
Oral diabetic medications include:Micronase Glucotrol Diabinese
__________ is one of the basic sugars in the body.Dextrose
____________ is the hormone that is normally produced by the pancreas that enables glucose to enter the cells.Insulin
The term for excessive urination is:polyuria
When fat is used as an immediate energy source, __________ and fatty acids are formed as waste products.ketones
An African American patient complaining of severe, generalized pain may have undiagnosed:sickle cell disease
The onset of hypoglycemia can occur within:minutes
Without __________, or with very low levels, brain cells rapidly suffer permanent damage.glucose
____________ is/are a potentially life-threatening complication of insulin shock.Hypotension
Blood glucose levels are measured in:milligrams per deciliter
Diabetic coma may develop as a result of:too little insulin
Always suspect hypoglycemia in any patients with:an altered mental status
The most important step in caring for the unresponsive diabetic patient is to:open the airway
Determination of diabetic coma or insulin shock should:be based upon your knowledge of the signs and symptoms of each condition
When obtaining the medical history of a patient experiencing a sickle cell crisis, you should:ask the patient if he has been compliant with his medication
Contraindications for the use of oral glucose include:unconsciousness
When reassessing the diabetic patient after administration of oral glucose, watch for:airway problems seizures sudden loss of consciousness
Signs and symptoms associated with hypoglycemia include:anxious or combative behavior
The patient in insulin shock is experiencing:hypoglycemia
Signs of dehydration include:sunken eyes
Hospital interventions for hemophilia may include:blood transfusion analgesics for pain intravenous (IV) therapy
Causes of insulin shock include:taking too much insulin vigorous exercise without sufficient glucose intake nausea, vomiting, and anorexia
Insulin shock can develop more often and more severely in children than in adults due to their:high activity level and failure to maintain a strict schedule of eating
Because diabetic coma is a complex metabolic condition that usually develops over time and involves all the tissues of the body, correcting this condition may:take many hours in a hospital setting
A patient in insulin shock or a diabetic coma may appear to be:intoxicated
True or False: When patients use fat for energy, the fat waste products increase the amount of acid in the blood and tissue.True
True or False: The level of consciousness can be affected if a patient has not exercised enough.False
True or False: People with sickle cell crisis disease have red blood cells that survive for only 120 days.False
True or False: If blood glucose levels remain low, a patient may lose consciousness or have permanent brain damage.True
True or False: Signs and symptoms can develop quickly in children because their level of activity can exhaust their glucose levels.True
True or False: Hemophilia types A and B have the exact same signs and symptomsTrue
True or False: Diabetic emergencies can occur when a patient's blood glucose level gets too high or drops too lowTrue
True or False: Diabetic patients may require insulin to control their blood glucoseTrue
True or False: Insulin is one of the basic sugars essential for cell metabolism in humansFalse
True or False: A clot that forms deep in a vein is called aplastic crisisFalse
True or False: Diabetes can cause kidney failure, blindness, and damage to the blood vessels.True
True or False: Most children with diabetes are insulin dependentTrue
True or False: Within the red blood cells, leukocytes are responsible for carrying oxygen.False
True or False: Many adults with diabetes can control their blood glucose levels with diet aloneTrue
The full name of diabetes is ___________ __________.diabetes mellitus
A(n) ____________ crisis is an acute accelerated ___________ in the patient's hemoglobin level.hemolytic; drop
Type 1 diabetes is considered to be a(n) ____________ problem, in which the body becomes allergic to its own tissues and literally destroys them.autoimmune
An African American patient or any patient of __________ descent who complains of severepain may have undiagnosed __________ ___________ disease.Mediterranean; sickle cell
Diabetes is defined as a lack of or ____________ action of insulin.ineffective
Too much glucose by itself does not always cause _____________ __________, but on some occasions it can lead to it.diabetic coma
____________ is the study and prevention of blood-__________ diseaseHematology; related
A patient in insulin shock needs ___________ immediately, and a patient in a diabetic coma needs _____________ and IV fluid therapy.sugar; insulin
Inherited disease that affects red blood cellsSickle Cell Disease
Altered level of consciousness cause by insufficient glucoseInsulin shock
Diabetes that usually starts in childhood; requires insulinType 1 diabetes
Excessive eatingpolyphagia
Deep, rapid breathingKussmaul respirations
Excessive urinationpolyuria
A tendency to develop blood clotsthrombophilia
Excessive thirst persisting for a long period of timepolydipsia
Diabetes with onset later in life; may be controlled by diet and oral medicationType 2 diabetes
Chemical produced by a gland that regulates body organsHormone
Literal meaning: "A passer through; a siphon"Diabetes
Extremely high blood glucose levelhyperglycemia
Pathologic condtion resulting from the accumulation of acids in the bodyacidosis
Disorder that causes an inability to develop blood clotshemophilia
Hormone that enables glucose to enter the cellsinsulin
Primary fuel, along with oxygen, for cellular metabolismglucose
State of unconsciousness resulting from several problems, including ketoacidosis, dehydration, and hyperglycemiaDiabetic coma
Normal red blood cells live for _______ days before they are replaced by new cells; hemoglobin S cells live only _____ days.120; 16
Hemophilia A is associated with low levels of factor _______; whereas Hemophilia B is associated with a deficiency of factor ______.VIII; IX
The EMT shows that she understands the difference between classic angina and an acute myocardial infarction (MI) when she states:"An acute myocardial infarction results in the death of cardiac tissue; classic angina does not."
A person has high blood pressure. a medication that can effectively serve to lower his blood pressure is one that:dilates the arteries.
Your patient has chest pain, and you have just assisted him in taking his nitroglycerin table. Which one of the following patient statements is the cause for greatest concern?"The chest pain does not feel any differernt.
You are caring for an alert and oriented patient with chest pain. He is receiving high-flow oxygen, and two nitroglycerin tablets and an aspirin have been administered. Vital signs are stable, but he states that the chest pain seems to be worsening. When transporting him on the stretcher, which position is best?Position of comfort.
If a patient has a clot occluding the blood flow through his left coronoary artery, which one of the following will occur first?The flow of oxygen-rich blood to muscle of the left ventricle will be decreased.
You are transporting a patient who had an episode of chest pain. On scene you assisted him in taking his nitroglycerin, which completely, alleviated the chest pain. En route to the hospital, he asks you why the nitroglycerin takes the chest pain away. Which one of the following is the most appropriate response?"It dilates the blood vessels, which decreases the workload of the heart."
You have been called for a 58-year-old male with an unknown medical emergency. On scene you find the alert and oriented patient to be complaining of headaches as well as weakness and "tingling" to his right arm and leg. He is diabetic and suffers from high blood pressure, for which he takes the appropriate medications. When asked, he states that he thinks he may have passed out earlier in the day, immediately after taking his morning dose of insulin. His pulse is 96, 16 and blood pressure 146/90 mmHg. Based on this presentation, you should treat the patient for:stroke.
You are assessing a 73-year-old male complaining of altered mental status and shortness of breath. The patient is conscious, but confused. He is breathing at a rate of 20 breaths per minute. His pulse is rapid and weak, and his skin cool and diaphoretic. An Emergency Medical Responder provides you with the following vital signs: pulse 136, respirations 20, blood pressure 168/88, and SpO2 at 89%. Family states that he is diabetic and takes insulin. He also has a history of hypertension, colon cancer, irregular heartbeat, and transient ischemic attacks. Which one of the following should you do next?Apply high-flow oxygen.
Which one of the following patient statements should make an EMT suspect primary hypertension?"The doctor does not know what is causing my blood pressure to be high."
Which one of the following statements about cardiac compromise or acute coronary syndrome should the EMT recognize as true?Cardiac compromise should be suspected for any patient with chest discomfort.
You are treating a patient complaining of altered mental status, shortness of breath, and chest pain. A paramedic has just administered a medication that causes the sympathetic nervous system to increase its influence in the body. Which one of the following actions should you anticipate?Increased heart rate.
Which one of the following is a typical statement made by a patient with unstable angina?"The chest pain awakens me from my nighttime sleep."
After being dispatched for a male patient experiencing shortness of breath, you arrive to find a 67-year-old man sitting upright at his kitchen table in severe respiratory distress. He is responsive to verbal stimuli, but confused, and has an open airway. His breathing is extremely labored and inadequate, and hs skin is cool, diaphoretic, and dusky in color. Family states a history of hypertension and angina, for which he takes nitroglycerin. Your immediate action in caring for this patient is to:start positive pressure ventilation.
Which one of the following patient statements should cause the EMT to suspect an abdominal aortic aneurysm?"I have belly pain that I also feel in my back."
You suspect that a patient with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is suffering from right ventricular disease. From your assessment, which one of the following findings reinforces your suspicion?Edema to the feet.
When treating a patient with chest pain in the prehospital setting, the primary goal of the EMT is to:recognize the possibility of cardiac compromise and provide proper care.
Regarding arteries, the EMT should recognize that all arteries:carry blood away from the heart.
Your patient is complaining of chest pain that radiates into his neck and arms. The primary assessment reveals a patent airway, adequate breathing, and a strong, regular radial pulse. His skin is warm and dry, and it reveals no signs of inadequate perfusion. Which one of the following should you do next?Administer oxygen.
The EMT shows she is correctly administering aspirin to a patient with chest pain when she provides:325 mg of baby aspirin and instructs the patient to chew it.
You have been called for a patient with angina. On scene the 67-year-old man reports that he has a history of angina and the pain started when he was moving firewood from the garage into his house. Unfortunately, the pain has yet to go away, despite three nitroglycerin tablets and 20 minutes of rest. Your next action should be to:provide high-flow oxygen through a nonrebreather mask.
An alert and oriented patient presents with shortness of breath, crackles in both lungs, jugular venous ditention, and edema to the feet and ankles. Her pulse is 132, respiration 24, blood pressure 160/86, and SpO2 at 88%. Based on this, the EMT should suspect.congestive heart failure.
You are by the side of a patient complaining of severe chest pain that radiates into his right arm and neck. He is alert and oriented with an open airway and adequate breathing. His radial pulse is strong, and his skin is cool and diaphoretic. Your partner reports his pulse rate is 84, respirations are 18, blood pressure is 86/62 mmHg, and SpO2 is 98% on a nonrebreather mask. You have obtained a medical history and performed the secondary assessment. The patient states that he has had two heart attacks in the past and is allergic to aspirin and sulfa medications. Which one of the following should you do next?Transfer him to the stretcher and transport.
Prior to administering nitroglycerin to a patient with chest pain, the EMT must ensure that the:nitroglycerin is prescribed for the patient.
When assessing a patient in the prehospital setting, which one of the following does the EMT recognzie as an indication for aspirin.Chest discomfort that is suggestive of a heart attack.
You are transporting a patient with chest pain to the hospital emergency department. In regards to possible fibrinolytic therapy, which one of the following should you relay as a possible relative contraindication to this therapy.Use of anticoagulant medication.
When obtaining a medical history, which one of the following patient statements seemingly indicates that he is suffering from classic angina?"When I stopped cutting the grass, the pain went away."
A TV reporter has been assigned to your ambulance for a ride-along. He is doing a segment on the local EMS services fro EMS week. In your down time at the station, he tells you that his wife was diagnosed with atherosclerosis. He is unsure what the condition is and asks you to explain it to him. Which one of the following is the most appropriate response?"The coronary arteries become narrowed by fat deposits."
Which portion of the heart, when weakened by a heart attack, is responsible for causing fluid to back up in and fill the lung tissue?Left ventricle.
In the blood, which one of the following is responsible for the formation of blood clots?Platelets.
A patient has a low platelet count in his blood. Based on this, for which one of the following is he at risk?Bleeding.
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