gender identity refers to quizlet

gender identity refers to quizlet


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Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture, in turn, affects genes.
What is a "critical period" of development?When certain things must occur for normal development.
Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?Historical.
An individual's socioeconomic status includesLevel of education.
The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people has developed over the years as a design are referred to as theirCulture.
When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior?Mirror neurons were activated.
Social learning theory emphasizesObservation and imitation.
Piaget's view of cognitive development includes the idea thatCognitive development follows age-related changes in understanding.
When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this processAccommodation.
A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations and transitions that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as theDynamic-systems theory.
Which of the following is the best definition of "dependent variable"?It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental vehicle.
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was theViewing a violent film.
A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example ofCross-sectional research.
A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, in conductingLongitudinal research.
If you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude thatHigh attendance and high grades tend to occur together.
Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection?Interviewing of all the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions.
An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as itsGenotype.
Which of the following statements is true regarding monozygotic twins?Even though they begin with identical genotypes, their phenotypes may differ at birth
Dyzogtic twins are produced whenTwo ova are fertilized by two different sperm at roughly the same time.
Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they areIt is smaller than the other genes.
A gene is recessive whenIts influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene.
The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar areHeart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.
Which of the following terms describes the level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful?Threshold effect.
If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skins, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed to a(n) ____________ fashionAdditive.
Imagine that eye color is determined by only one pair of genes and that brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes. If you are blue-eyed and both your parents are brown-eyes, you know thatBoth your parents are carriers for blue eyes.
Low birth-weight is defined internationally as a body weight of less than5 1/2 pounds.
Bill is a genetic counselor. In his position, he has an ethical obligation toGive clients factual information about their tests and risks that a child may have a genetic disorder.
Most of us are aware of some of the characteristics of persons with Down Syndrome (slanted eyes, thick tongue, round face), but fewer people are aware of the fact that theySeem to age more quickly, often develop dementias, are more prone to some cancers.
Which of the following factors related to sex and gender is most associated with nurture?Gender role.
Marsha and Jim have twins, a boy and a girl. The twins areDizygotic.
Which of the following is the most common risk factor for low-birth weight?Teen-pregnancy
What may be predisposing factors of postpartum depression?Coping with a newborn with sleep problems, changing hormones, pre-pregnancy depression.
Research on SIDS has shown that babies should bePut to sleep on their backs.
Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her toRefuse to cross over the visual cliff.
By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B.F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to hisParents' talking to him frequently.
Piaget believed children begin to develop cognitively atBirth.
The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explainThe universal inborn ability to learn language.
Newborns preferSpeech over most other sounds.
The sense that is least developed at birth isVision
Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show thatBreast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches.
Using the word more to mean "I want another cookie" is aHolophrase.
A baby sticks out its tongue and another person laughs. The baby joins in the laughter and deliberately sticks out its tongue again. Piaget would call thisSecondary circular reactions.
If you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji, but had never seen one before, you would be able to recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process isAssimiliation.
Piaget believed that object permanence developed at about 8 months of age. Which of the following is truePiaget was incorrect about because his methods confused an infants' motor abilities with their cognitive abilities and object permanence occurs earlier.
Human Milk Banks in the U.S. provide breast milk for infants primarily for which of the followingFor infants who cannot tolerate formula.
Ann-Marie started walking when she was 10 months old; Cynthia is just beginning to take steps by herself at 13 months. Which of the following is most likely?Both girls are developing normally.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, breastfeeding is not as popular as it should be able toLack of societal support, physician apathy and misinformation, and marketing by formula companies.
A toddler experimentally varies the way she handles a ballfirst squeezing it, then throwing it--in order to learn what effect each variation has. This child is demonstratingTertiary circular reactions.
"Constitutionally based individual differences in emotions, activity, and self-control" would be a useful and appropriate definition ofTemperament.
A parent and a toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will probablyAct anxious.
Which of the following is one of the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal Study?Slow to warm up.
Basically, the Strange Situation measures how a childResponds to separations and reunions with a caregiver.
Victor and Rosa want to enhance their synchrony with their 6-month-old daughter. They can best do this byImitating her vocal and facial expressions.
The new emotions that appear toward the end of the second year arepride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt.
According to Erikson's theory, which of the following is true of most toddlers?They want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies.
When parents find a way to provide a smooth interaction between their child's temperament and his social, family, and school life, they have achievedGoodness of fit.
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has someSelf-awareness.
When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is aDistant parent.
Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at9 months.
"Proximity-seeking" and "contact-maintaining" behaviors are displays ofAttachment.
Concerning temperament and personality, research has found thatTemperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy.
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to beA social smile.
Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is characteristic ofInsecure-avoidant attachment.
With respecting to toilet training, research indicates thatStarting training before 18mo is often related to slower completion.
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a childInteract with a mentor to accomplish a task.
Which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake?Eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods.
Mrs. Suttman helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Suttman is providingScaffolding.
Secondary prevention involvesResponding to the first warning signs of a problem.
The most common cause(s) of death of children worldwide is(are)Accidents.
The formation of overregulation in a child's speech patterns indicatesHe or she is able to apply grammatical rules, although incorrectly, to her vocalizations.
A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency toDemonstrate centration.
Four-year-old Jon is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hotdogs for lunch. Mom cuts Jon's hotdog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces. Jon protests because "Erin has more than me!" Which of the following abilities does Jon not yet demonstrate?Conservation.
MyelinationSpeeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
Krista understands that 4 + 6 = 10 but does not understand that 10 - 6 = 4. She is displayingIrreversibility.
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is calledIntuitive psychology.
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it toSocial activities guided by others.
Ryan suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to theLeft side of the brain.
An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test ofConservation of number.
Of the following types of child maltreatment, which is the most common?Neglect.
Risk factors for child maltreatment would includeExtreme poverty, a home that contains general domestic violence, and social isolation.
__________ is generally considered a more mature emotion than ___________ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awarenessGuilt;shame.
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?Parallel play.
A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity isAuthoritarian.
Janelle's usual bedtime is 8:30 p.m., and her parents strictly enforce this rule. One evening, Janelle is watching an educational program on the Discovery Channel, which ends at 9 p.m. She asks her parents if she can stay up this one night and watch the end of the program. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which type of parenting style are Janelle's parents?Authoritative.
The child most likely to have permissive parents isPaul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows olderHe will become aggressive himself.
Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifierRelational aggression.
Karen is trying to determine how long her 4-year-old daughter should sit in time-out for deliberately pouring her juice on the floor. If she uses the suggested estimate, her daughter will be in time-out for4 minutes
According to your text, _____________ differences are biological and ____________ difference are culturally prescribedSex;gender.
Freud believed that preschool boysSecretly want to replace their fathers.
Identify the scenario that best demonstrates learning theoriesChristine wears a dress, and both her parents tell her how pretty she looks.
Theorists who support a focus on children's understanding as opposed to observable behavior areCognitive theorists
The reason why watching violence on TV leads to aggression in children isThat they are disinhibited from being aggressive.
Physical punishmentTends to suppress behavior in the short term.
To make punishment more effectiveMake it consistent, make it age appropriate, and punish immediately after the infraction if possible.
When capable of concrete operational thought, childrenCan apply their reasoning to real situations.
The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is calledTransitive inference.
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is calledAutomatization.
As Jos walked to school with Tony, he saw Tony's notebook in his backpack. Jos rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook containing his homework. Jos's sensation on seeing Tony's notebook became a perception, which then triggered Jos'sWorking memory.
Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?Metacognition.
Although the test you are now taking measures many things, it is supposed to be a test ofAchievement.
Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling, some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is calledThe Flynn Effect.
A distinct type of intelligence described by Robert Sternberg isPractical.
Howard Gardner believes thatMusical ability is a type of intelligence.
David is excitable, impulsive, and very active in addition to having difficulty concentrating. He might haveADHD.
In early childhood, autistic children have difficultyWith communication.
The most devastating problem for autistic individuals as they grow up is their lack ofSocial understanding.
Piaget has provided us with the ____________ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the ______________.Individual context; social context.
Identify the statement that demonstrates the principle of reversibilityAddition can be used to undo subtraction.
Obesity in children is related toTV watching, lower SES, and an inactive lifestyle.
Treatments for obesity in childrenShould emphasize increased activity.
Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons willReduce her self-esteem.
The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow remains unscathed in the process is calledResilient.
Joshua and Jessica are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live with theirNuclear family.
Of the following children, who is at greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult?Richard, who is being raised by his single mom.
Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation areLow income and high conflict.
The family-stress model, as applied to economic conditions, illustrates thatThe parents' reaction to poverty is the crucial factor in family stress
When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure ofSocial cognition.
The best example of an aggressive-rejected child isVeru, who is disliked by most children because she is so uncooperative.
Girls who bully typicallyMock and ridicule their victim.
Kohlberg measured morality byAnalyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?Pre-conventional.
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of theFunctions of a family.
During the middle childhood, self-esteem typicallyDecreases.
Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n)Withdrawn-rejected child.
A Florida man killed a doctor who performed abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he could be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example ofPost-conventional morality.
Which of the following factors is related to resilience in at-risk childrenSelf-efficacy, having positive role models outside the family, and structures and rules within the household.
For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes isTestosterone.
Which of the following adolescents will be most likely to experience menarche first?Rebecca, who is of African descent.
What effect does malnutrition have on puberty?It tends to delay the onset of puberty.
Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experienceTeasing and name-calling from her classmates.
Because of the obsession with body image during adolescence, girls may ingest ________and boys may take____________Diet pills;steroids.
Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers fromBulimia nervosa.
Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing at eating disorder?The family sharing meals together.
Secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics thatAre not directly related to reproduction.
Which of the following is the most frequently reported STI?Chlamydia.
A characteristic of adolescent egocentrism isThe belief that one's emotional experiences are misunderstood by others.
The belief that one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt a normal person is referred to asThe invincibility fable.
Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probablyPut weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example ofDeductive reasoning.
Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver's license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, "Because I know other kids who do it, and it's just stupid that I have to wait another 3 months until I turn 16." This is an example of what kind of thinking?Intuitive.
Over the past 50 years or so, teen birthsHave decreased primarily due to greater use of contraceptives.
Effective treatments for anorexia may involveFamily therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and drug therapy.
According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is toForm a coherent identity.
The ultimate psychological goal, according to Erikson, is identityAchievement.
Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business - and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resistingIdentity foreclosure.
During an identity moratorium, adolescents typicallyAttempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary.
Gender identity refers to ____________, while sexual orientation refers to __________.Self-definition as male or female; erotic desires.
In the United States, parent-child conflict peaks inEarly adolescence.
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it isPart of a warm, supportive relationship.
Mikhael, who is 15, has just moved to the United States with his parents from Ukraine. Mikhael's English skills are good, but his parents speak no English at all. Which of the following is likely to be true of Mikhael and his family?Mikhael's family will depend on him to mediate between the family's old and new cultures.
A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found that 0.5 percent of American high school students identified themselves as homosexual, while a survey in Holland found that 8.5 % of students said that they were attracted to others of the same sex. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statistical difference?Open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the United States.
You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12-year-old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12-year-old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?The parents' answers grossly underestimate their daughters' behaviors.
According to international statistics, teenagers in the United States have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is thatTeenagers in the United States use less contraception than those in other countries.
Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents areLess self-confident than they were as children.
Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?Completed suicide.
One of the best ways to reduce drug use in adolescents isFor parents to forbid smoking and drink responsibly as role models.
The most common risk factor for suicide in general isA diagnosable psychiatric disorder.
In the U.S., suicide spikesIn the 15-24 and over 65 age groups.
Patricia and Raul live together as a romantic couple, but they are not married. They are engaging inCohabitation.
Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby was raised by his grandparents. Now, at age 22, Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by which of the following developmental concepts?The diathesis-stress model.
How do friends differ from family members?Friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions.
Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?Homeostasis.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults?Worldwide, emerging adults can now expect to live longer, healthier lives than a few decades ago.
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?OCD.
Thinking may become more _____________ and ______________ with each year of collegeReflective; expansive.
Theodore frequently hears voices and says that the KGB is coming to arrest him. His thinking seems very disorganized. From which of the following is Theodore most likely sufferingSchizophrenia.
If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?Personality is both continuous and discontinuous.
Which of the following is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?They are more likely to divorce if they marry.
Today's emerging adults have _____________ sexual partners and __________babies than the emerging adults of only a few years agomore; fewer.
If you were to ask a 22-year-old college student how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex isAcceptable.
During emerging adulthood, intimacy is found primarily inRelationships with friends, family, and sexual partners.
When asked to estimate how much their peers smoke, drink, and do other drugs, college students tend toOverestimate.
Emily is taking a mathematics exam and is concerned about the fact that her performance will confirm her friend's expectations that girls do not perform as well on mathematics exams as compared to boys. Emily is experiencingStereotype threat.
Research has shown that our attachment styles during childhoodAre related to our perspectives on romantic relationships in adulthood.
By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needsReading glasses.
Who will most likely have marked symptoms of menopause?Norma, who just had a hysterectomy.
One of the effects of moderate drinking isA reduction in coronary heart disease.
In middle adulthood, an individual is considered obese whoHas a BMI of 30 or more.
One measure of health is morbidity, whichIncludes both acute and chronic illnesses.
The ability to enjoy life is measured byMobility and vitality.
Gender differences in senescence indicate thatWomen age more slowly.
The idea that intelligence always declines throughout adulthood wasSupported by early cross-sectional studies.
The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in previous periods and with the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is calledCross-sequential research.
Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence isThe ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words.
The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthoodIs temporarily counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence.
Which of Sternberg's three aspects of intelligence could be called "street smarts"?Practical.
Which of the following affects the development of expertise?Talent, age, & practice.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal women involves takingEstrogen and estrogen/progesterone combination.
In general, post-menopausal women may reduce the severity of menopause if theyEat a healthful diet high in calcium, exercise, & avoid smoking.
Wendell has bone cancer and must use a wheelchair to accomplish his daily activities. He feels healthy and energetic and spends his days in a clown costume at the local children's hospital. Which of the following is true for Wendell?He is disabled and has a high level of vitality.
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results inStagnation and personal impoverishment.
In the United States today, the social clockAllows for greater diversity than in the past.
A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension calledOpenness.
The Big Five personality traitsBecome quite stable by age 30.
In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend toAssert themselves.
Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parentsImproves with age.
A break-up would be most stressful for which of the following individuals?Carlene, who is in a long-term marriage.
In the past two decades, every nation has seen _____________marriages and ________divorcesFewer; more.
Who is most likely to feel burdened with elder care?A daughter-in-law
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is thatThey do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly.
Limiting the time a person spends being ill or infirm is referred to asCompression of morbidity.
Research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that -Most visual and auditory losses can be compensated for.
The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called __________agingPrimary.
Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?Secondary.
Studies of centenarians indicate thatThey usually were able to handle stress well.
The person most likely to be a caregiver to adult who needs it would beThe patient's daughter.
The antithesis of disengagement theory isActivity theory.
A marked decrease in motor reaction time and brain processing in older adults may be attributed toShrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus.
After losing a spouse, older women typicallyEnjoy their independence, choosing not to remarry.
Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it. Their grand-parenting style isCompanionate.
Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly areHappier in their marriages.
At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustratesContinuity theory.
Which of the following is one of the ADLs?Bathing.
Recent research has indicated that most older adultsWant to retire as soon as they are eligible.
Most elder abuse is committed byFamily members.
Which of the following is a risk factor for elder abuse?Dementia in the abuse victim, dependence on the victim by the perpetrator, & social isolation.
One function of working memory isTemporary storage of information for conscious use.
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older peopleDevelop an appreciation for the aesthetic.
Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in adulthood, sheIs quite happy and enjoying her life.
The irreversible changes that occur naturally occur with time are called ________ agingPrimary.
Which of the following is one of the IADLs?Grocery shopping.
The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is beingOld.
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