venous valves are responsible for

venous valves are responsible for


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1) Which of the following is a true statement a) Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by precapillary sphincters. b) Large veins, medium veins, and venules have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. c) Blood flow is pulsatile in arteries and veins, but it is steady in capillaries. d) Most tissue fluid is reabsorbed by the lymphatic system. e) Decompensated shock is normally corrected by the body's homeostatic mechanisms.a) Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by precapillary sphincters.
2) Which of the following is a false statement a) Generalized vasomotion can raise or lower blood pressure throughout the body. b) Increased capillary filtration, reduced reabsorption, or obstruction of lymphatic drainage can lead to edema. c) The greatest outflow from the dural venous sinuses is via the internal jugular vein. d) The pulmonary circuit is the only route in which arteries carry less oxygen than veins. e) Lung tissue receives nourishment and waste removal from the pulmonary circuit.2) Which of the following is a false statement a) Generalized vasomotion can raise or lower blood pressure throughout the body. b) Increased capillary filtration, reduced reabsorption, or obstruction of lymphatic drainage can lead to edema. c) The greatest outflow from the dural venous sinuses is via the internal jugular vein. d) The pulmonary circuit is the only route in which arteries carry less oxygen than veins. e) Lung tissue receives nourishment and waste removal from the pulmonary circuit.
3) Which of the following is a False statement a) Blood filtered through the hepatic sinusoids exits the liver via the hepatic veins. b) Arterial flow to the lower limb comes from the external iliac artery. c) The radial artery is lateral to the ulnar artery. d) The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries. e) The brachial vein is the most common site of blood pressure measurement with the sphygmomanometer.d) The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries.
4) Which of the following is a false statement a) The walls of veins are thicker than those of arteries. b) The endothelial lining of an artery has a pleated appearance. c) Most arterioles vasoconstrict under sympathetic stimulation. d) Capillaries are the blood vessels whose walls generally permit exchange between the blood and interstitial fluids. e) Blood pressure in veins is lower than that in arteries.a) The walls of veins are thicker than those of arteries. .
5) Arteries are sometimes called the _______________ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have strong-resilient tissue strucure. a) resistance b) capacitance c) hydrodynamic d) compliance e) fenestrateda) resistance
6) _____________ have the thickest tunica media. a) Small arteries b) Small veins c) Large arteries d) Large veins e) Capillariesc) Large arteries
7) The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the ______ and in large arteries and veins contains the ________. a) tunica media; smooth muscle b) tunica externa; vasa vasorum c) tunica externa; valves d) tunica intima; endothelium e) tunica intima; basement membraneb) tunica externa; vasa vasorum
8) Most blood is in the a) pulmonary circuit. b) heart. c) arteries. d) veins. e) capillaries.d) veins.
9) Vasomotion is associated with the presence of a) collagen and elastic tissue in the tunica media. b) elastic tissue in the tunica externa. c) endothelium in the tunica interna. d) smooth muscle in the tunica media. e) fenestrations in the tunica externa.d) smooth muscle in the tunica media.
10) What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively? a) 45 mm Hg b) 80 mm Hg c) 87.5 mm Hg d) 90 mm Hg e) 175 mm Hgb) 80 mm Hg
12) The medullary ischemic reflex results in a) increased circulation to the brain. b) reduced circulation to the brain. c) ischemia of the medulla oblongata. d) increased circulation to the adrenal medulla. e) hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla when perfusion drops.a) increased circulation to the brain.
14) Reactive hyperemia is a result of _________ to increase perfusion into a tissue. a) urinary control b) neural control c) hormonal control d) local control e) respiratory controld) local control
15) All of these increase blood pressure except a) norepinephrine. b) antidiuretic hormone (ADH). c) angiotensin II. d) aldosterone. e) atrial natriuretic peptide.e) atrial natriuretic peptide.
16) The vasomotor center of the _______ controls blood vessels throughout the body. a) hypothalamus b) medulla oblongata c) spinal cord d) cerebellum e) cortexb) medulla oblongata
17) ______ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and ___________ also increases heart rate. a) Norepinephrine and antidiuretic hormone (ADH); antidiuretic hormone (ADH) b) Norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); norepinephrine c) Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine d) Epinephrine and aldosterone; epinephrine e) Epinephrine and antidiuretic hormone (ADH); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)c) Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
19) The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is a) oncotic pressure. b) tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressure. c) blood colloid osmotic pressure. d) interstitial hydrostatic pressure. e) blood hydrostatic pressure.e) blood hydrostatic pressure.
20) ________________ by the capillaries at their venous end. a) Waste products are taken up b) Oxygen and glucose are taken up c) Oxygen and glucose are given off d) Wastes are given off e) Organic nutrients are taken upa) Waste products are taken up
21) The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is a) oncotic pressure. b) tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressure. c) blood colloid osmotic pressure. d) interstitial hydrostatic pressure. e) blood hydrostatic pressure.a) oncotic pressure
22) All these can lead to edema except a) obstruction of lymphatic vessels. b) liver disease. c) famine. d) hyperproteinemia. e) hypertension.d) hyperproteinemia.
23) ____________ would not increase capillary filtration. a) Blockage of lymphatic capillaries b) Dehydration c) Increased capillary permeability d) Dietary protein deficiency e) Obstructed venous returnb) Dehydration
24) A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause _____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause _____________. a) neurogenic shock; syncope b) neurogenic shock; cardiogenic shock c) compensated shock; decompensated shock d) syncope; neurogenic shock e) syncope; cerebral edemae) syncope; cerebral edema
25) ______________ does not contribute to venous return. a) The difference of pressure between venules and the venae cavae b) The expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity during ventilation c) The suction created by the atria slightly expanding during ventricular systole d) Widespread vasodilation e) Contraction of skeletal muscles of the limbsd) Widespread vasodilation
26) __________ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration. a) Anaphylactic b) Cardiogenic c) Hypovolemic d) Venous pooling (vascular) e) Neurogenicc) Hypovolemic
27) ________ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability. a) Compensated b) Anaphylactic c) Neurogenic d) Cardiogenic e) Septice) Septic
28) A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which causes ___________ and a(n) _____________ in arterial blood pressure. a) vasodilation; decrease b) vasodilation; increase c) vasoconstriction; decrease d) D. vasoconstriction; increase e) vasoconstriction; oscillationa) vasodilation; decrease
29) Myocardial infarction can lead to _______________ shock. a) neurogenic b) cardiogenic c) obstructed venous return d) venous pooling (vascular) e) hypovolemicb) cardiogenic
30) The most important force in venous flow is a) cardiac suction. b) the pressure generated by the heart. c) the skeletal muscle pump. d) the thoracic (respiratory) pump. e) one way flow due to valves.b) the pressure generated by the heart.
33) The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the a) right pulmonary artery. b) left pulmonary artery. c) pulmonary veins. d) bronchial arteries. e) lobar arteries.d) bronchial arteries.
34) There are no ________________ in humans. a) right and left common carotid arteries b) right and left brachiocephalic arteries c) right and left brachiocephalic veins d) right and left subclavian veins e) right and left subclavian arteriesb) right and left brachiocephalic arteries
35) The _______________ supplies 80% of the cerebrum. a) superficial temporal artery b) occipital artery c) internal carotid artery d) anterior cerebral artery e) middle cerebral arteryc) internal carotid artery
36) The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is a) an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland. b) a portal system connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary. c) a short anastomosis found in the cerebellum. d) formed by the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses. e) an anastomosis circling the entire cortex.a) an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland
37) From superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are a) celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries. b) celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries. c) superior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries. d) superior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries. e) superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, and common iliac arteriesa) celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
38) The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by way of a) the branches of the celiac trunk. b) the azygos system. c) mesenteric circulation. d) the hepatic portal system. e) the coronary and pulmonary veins.b) the azygos system
39) These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except a) the hepatic veins. b) the internal and external iliac veins. c) the inferior phrenic veins. d) the vertebral veins. e) the lumbar veins.d) the vertebral veins.
40) These are all veins of the upper limb except a) the cephalic vein. b) the great saphenous vein. c) the basilic vein. d) the median antebrachial vein. e) the ulnar vein.b) the great saphenous vein.
42) This is the longest vein, and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery. a) the inferior vena cava b) the femoral vein c) the deep femoral vein d) the great saphenous vein e) the common iliac veind) the great saphenous vein
45) The following is a list of the vessels that blood passes through from the heart and back to the heart. 1. venules 2. arterioles 3. capillaries 4. elastic arteries 5. medium veins 6. large veins 7. muscular arteries The correct order in which blood passes through these structures from leaving the heart until its return is b) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6. c) 5, 6, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4. d) 2, 7, 6, 3, 1, 5, 6. e) 7, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6. f) 6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4.b) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6.
50) Blood flow through a capillary is regulated by the a) Capillary plexus. b) Precapillary sphincter. c) Vasa vasorum. d) Central channel. e) Arterial anastomosis.b) Precapillary sphincter.
51) Blood moves forward through veins by all of the following, except..................... a) Because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein. b) With the aid of the thoracoabdominal pump. c) With the aid of contractions of skeletal muscles. d) Because valves in the veins prevent the backflow of blood. e) Because the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.a) Because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.
52) Blood flow through the circulatory system is affected by all of the following, except a) The presence or absence of collateral systems. b) The amount of friction in the blood vessels. c) Pressure differences. d) The length and diameter of the blood vessels. e) The viscosity of the blood.a) The presence or absence of collateral systems.
53) Vascular resistance is related to all of the following, except the a) Viscosity of the blood. b) Osmolarity of interstitial fluids. c) Length of a blood vessel. d) Nature of the blood flow. e) Diameter of a blood vessel.b) Osmolarity of interstitial fluids.
54) As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the a) Flow increases. b) Resistance increases. c) Pressure increases. d) Viscosity increases. e) Diameter of the blood vessels increases.b) Resistance increases.
56) Blood pressure is determined by measuring the a) Degree of turbulence in a closed vessel. b) Force of contraction of the right ventricle. c) Pressure in the left ventricle. d) Force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff. e) Size of the pulse.d) Force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff.
60) Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space?..................................................... a) Blood hydrostatic pressure forces fluid from the capillary to the interstitial space. b) The blood hydrostatic pressure and the blood osmotic pressure are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. c) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is less than the blood osmotic pressure. d) Blood osmotic pressure moves fluid from the interstitial space to the capillary. e) The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid does not oppose the movement of fluid from the capillary.b) The blood hydrostatic pressure and the blood osmotic pressure are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
61) Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure except a) Increased levels of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor). b) Increased levels of aldosterone. c) Decrease in blood volume. d) Decreased peripheral resistance. e) Activation of kinins.b) Increased levels of aldosterone
62) Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except a) Increased blood volume. b) Increased levels of aldosterone. c) Increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). d) Increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone). e) Increased levels of angiotensin II.c) Increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).
65) Each of the following arteries carries blood to the heart, except the a) Common carotid artery. b) Left descending artery. c) Right coronary artery. d) Left circumflex artery. e) Marginal artery.a) Common carotid artery.
66) Each of the following arteries contributes to the circle of Willis, except the a) Posterior cerebral artery. b) Posterior communicating artery. c) Basilar artery. d) Anterior communicating artery. e) Anterior cerebral artery.c) Basilar artery.
66) Which of the following arteries contributes to the circle of Willis: a) Posterior cerebral artery. b) Posterior communicating artery. c) Anterior communicating artery. d) Anterior cerebral artery. e) All of the abovee) All of the above
68) Blood from the brain returns to the heart by way of the ________ vein. a) internal jugular b) innominate c) azygos d) external jugular e) vertebrala) Internal jugular
69) The goal of cardiovascular regulation includes all of the following, except to ensure that a) Changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure. b) Blood flow changes occur in the appropriate area. c) Sufficient concentrations of blood cells are present to meet emergency situations. d) Changes occur without drastically altering blood flow to a vital organ. e) Blood flow changes occur at the appropriate time.c) Sufficient concentrations of blood cells are present to meet emergency situations.
70) Anxiety can result in a) Decreased blood pressure. b) Decreased heart rate. c) Increased stimulation of the cardioinhibitory center by higher brain centers. d) Increased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers. e) both C and Dd) Increased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers.
71) During increased exercise a) Both cardiac output and stroke volume decrease. b) Venous return increases. c) Vasoconstriction occurs at the active skeletal muscles. d) all of the above e) A and C onlyb) Venous return increases.
72) In response to hemorrhage, there is a) Mobilization of the venous reserve. b) Decreased vasomotor tone and peripheral vasodilation. c) Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart. d) all of the above e) both A and Ca) Mobilization of the venous reserve.
73) Symptoms of shock include all of the following, except a) Acidosis. b) Hypotension. c) Decreased urine formation. d) Profuse sweating. e) Rapid, weak pulsed) Profuse sweating
74) Homeostatic mechanisms can compensate for circulatory shock during the ___ stage. a) reversible b) progressive c) irreversible d) ischemic e) compensatede) compensated
75) Branches off the aortic arch include the a) Left common carotid and right axillary arteries. b) Brachio and right axillary arteries. c) Right and left subclavian arteries. d) Left subclavian artery. e) both A and Cd) Left subclavian artery.
76) Major branches of the subclavian artery include the ________ artery (is). a) internal thoracic b) brachial c) radial d) digital e) both B and CInternal thoracic
78) In the upper arm, the axillary artery becomes the ________ artery. a) subclavian b) brachial c) ulnar d) digital e) radialb) brachial
79) The brachial artery branches to form the radial and ________ arteries. a) brachiocephalic b) digital c) axillary d) subclavian e) ulnare) ulnar
80) The two vertebral arteries fuse to form a large artery, the a) Internal carotid artery. b) External carotid artery. c) Basilar artery. d) Common carotid artery. e) Circle of Willis.c) Basilar artery.
81) At the carotid sinus, a) Veins and arteries anastomose. b) The external carotid forms the internal carotid. c) The common carotid forms an internal and an external branch. d) The internal carotids fuse with the vertebral arteries. e) The aorta gives rise to the common carotids.c) The common carotid forms an internal and an external branch
83) Branches of the thoracic aorta include all of the following, except the ______ arteries. a) gastric b) intercostal c) bronchial d) superior phrenic e) esophageala) gastric
84) Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ________ arteries. a) common iliac b) tibial c) popliteal d) common carotid e) femorala) common iliac
85) The external iliac artery branches to form the ________ arteries. a) femoral and tibial b) radial and ulnar c) femoral and deep femoral d) femoral and popliteal e) tibial and poplitealc) femoral and deep femoral
86) In the lower leg, the femoral artery becomes the ________ artery. a) peroneal b) tibial c) popliteal d) deep femoral e) iliacc) popliteal
87) Branches of the popliteal artery include the a) Plantar arch. b) Iliac artery. c) Posterior tibial artery. d) Femoral artery. e) Dorsalis pedis.posterior tibial artery
89) Small veins of the brain empty into the a) dural sinuses. b) vertebral veins. c) Coronary sinuses. d) Circle of Willis. e) External jugular vein.a) dural sinuses.
90) The superior sagittal sinus collects blood from the a) Brain. b) Arms. c) Legs. d) Lungs. e) Heart.a) Brain.
91) The superficial veins of the forearm drain into the ________ vein(s). a) radial and ulnar b) innominate c) axillary d) cephalic and basilic e) cephalic and brachiald) cephalic and basilic
92) Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm? a) basilic b) cephalic c) hemiazygos d) azygos e) radiale) radial
93) The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ________ vein. a) hemiazygos b) brachial c) basilic d) azygos e) axillaryb) brachial
94) At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the ________ vein. a) innominate b) azygos c) external jugular d) subclavian e) cephalicd) subclavian
95) The vein that is formed from the fusion of the subclavian with the internal and external jugulars is the ________ vein. a) Hemiazygos b) brachiocephalic (Innominate) c) Axillary d) Iliac e) azygosb) brachiocephalic (Innominate)
96) The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins forms the a) Inferior vena cava. b) Azygos vein. c) Subclavian vein. d) Superior vena cava. e) Innominate vein.d) Superior vena cava.
97) The deep veins of the lower leg include the ________ veins. a) small saphenous and posterior tibial b) internal iliac c) anterior and posterior tibial and peroneal d) peroneal and popliteal e) small saphenous and poplitealanterior and posterior tibial and peroneal
98) Blood from capillaries on the superior surface of the foot drain into a(n) a) Small saphenous vein. b) peroneal vein. c) plantar vein. d) iliac vein. e) dorsal venous arch.e) dorsal venous arch.
99) Blood from the dorsal venous arch is drained by the ________ vein(s). a) greater saphenous b) femoral c) peroneal d) posterior tibial e) iliaca) greater saphenous?
100) At the knee, small saphenous, tibial, and peroneal veins unite to form the __ vein. a) popliteal b) femoral c) inferior vena cava d) external iliac e) internal iliaca) popliteal
101) When the popliteal vein reaches the femur, it becomes the ___ vein. a) Lumbar b) deep femoral c) internal iliac d) femoral e) external iliacFemoral
102) the fusion of greater saphenous, femoral, and deep femoral veins form the a) common iliac b) internal iliac c) inferior vena cava d) external iliac e) azygousd) external iliac
103) The two common iliac veins form the a) innominate vein. b) femoral vein. c) Inferior vena cava. d) Greater saphenous vein. e) Hepatic portal vein.c) Inferior vena cava.
104) Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the a) Hepatic vein. b) Azygos vein. c) Inferior vena cava. d) Superior vena cava. e) Hepatic portal vein.e) Hepatic portal vein.?
107) ________ from the ________ produce localized changes in blood flow and capillary permeability. a) Kupffer cells; liver of the digestive system b) Plasma cells; bone marrow of the skeletal system c) T-lymphocytes; lymphatic system tissue d) Mast cells; integumentary system e) Microglia; nervous system tissued) Mast cells; integumentary system
109) The layer of a blood vessel that separates the tunica media and the tunica externa is the a) Tunica externa. b) Internal elastic membrane. c) Tunica media. d) External elastic membrane. e) Tunica intima.d) External elastic membrane.
111) Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers? a) tunica media b) tunica intima c) tunica externa d) internal elastic membrane e) external elastic membranetunica externa
113) Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue? a) external elastic membrane b) internal elastic membrane c) tunica intima d) tunica externa e) tunica mediae) tunica media
115) In arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the a) Tunica intima. b) Internal elastic membrane. c) External elastic membrane. d) Tunica media. e) Tunica externab)internal elastic membrane
117) Which type of artery has a poorly defined tunica externa? a) connective b) arterioles c) muscular d) elastic e) vascularb) arterioles
121) You are caring for a patient who just underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. In nursing school you learned that complications such as ________ could result from the abdominal aorta being clamped too long during the surgical procedure. a) Hypertension b) Tachycardia c) Rupture of the aneurysm d) Loss of urinary e) paraplegiad) Loss of urinary function
122) Which of the following can result from an aneurysm in the brain? a) hypertension b) quadriplegia c) myocardial infarction d) stroke e) all of the aboved) stroke
124) Arteriosclerosis can lead to a) Coronary artery disease. b) Tachycardia. c) Hypertension. d) both A and C e) all of the aboved) both A and C
128) Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels? a) venous valves b) large veins c) medium veins d) venules e) arteriovenulesd) venules
129) Arterial pressure is equal to a) Peripheral pressure. b) Blood pressure. c) Capillary hydrostatic pressure. d) Venous pressure. e) none of the aboveb) Blood pressure.
130) Venous valves are responsible for a) Pushing blood toward the heart. b) Pushing blood away from the heart. c) Preventing back flow. d) both A and B e) both A and Ce) both A and C
31) Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial system. a) decreases; doubles b) doubles; decreases c) increases; reduces d) reduces; increases e) none of the aboved) reduces; increases
33) Compared with other vessels of the human vascular system, ________ pressure is usually low. a) venous b) blood c) capillary hydrostatic d) peripheral e) none of the abovea) venous
135) Thin-walled medium-sized vessels that appear collapsed and that may tear easily in gross dissection are a) Metarterioles. b) Arteries. c) venules. d) arterioles. e) veins.c) venules.
137) Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is a) The brachial artery. b) The external carotid artery. c) The femoral artery. d) The subclavian artery. e) none of the aboved) The subclavian artery.
139) Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased a) Blood volume. b) Venous return. c) Fluid loss through the kidneys. d) Sodium ion levels in blood. e) B and Cc) fluid loss through the kidneys
141) You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries in a) The pancreas. b) The spleen. c) Cardiac muscle. d) Skin. e) Skeletal muscles.a) The pancreas.
142) A sample of tissue displays many large flattened spaces lined by endothelium and filled with blood. Blood enters these spaces by way of arterioles and is drained by venules. This tissue sample may have come from the a) Heart. b) Kidneys. c) Liver. d) Lungs. e) Skin.c) Liver.
144) Which of the following contains the greater volume of blood? a) the normal blood volume of the venous system b) the normal blood volume of the arterial system c) Neither is greater.a) the normal blood volume of the venous system
145) Compression of the common carotid artery at the carotid sinus would result in a) Unconsciousness. b) Kidney damage. c) Liver damage. d) Pulmonary embolism. e) Heart attack.a) Unconsciousness.
149) How would increased sympathetic stimulation of a blood vessel affect the critical closing pressure of the vessel? a) It would decrease. b) It would remain the same. c) It would increase.c) It would increase.
154) If a person has a blood pressure of 120/80, their mean arterial pressure would be ________ mm Hg. a) 200 b) 100 c) 93 d) 80 e) 40c) 93
155) The continual movement of fluid through the interstitial spaces functions in all of the following, except to a) Flush hormones and wastes from the interstitial spaces. b) Flush carbon dioxide from the interstitial spaces. c) Accelerate the distribution of nutrients and hormones. d) Help carry toxins and bacteria to cells of the immune system. e) Assist the transport of insoluble substances that cannot enter the capillaries.b) Flush carbon dioxide from the interstitial spaces.
156) Edema would likely occur when a) The heart is an insufficient pump. b) Blood hydrostatic pressure at the capillary decreases. c) The concentration of protein in the blood increases. d) Hemorrhage occurs. e) The blood hydrostatic pressure in a capillary is equal to the blood osmotic pressure.a) The heart is an insufficient pump.
160) When a person rises quickly from a prone position, a) Venous return is increased. b) Reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs. c) The carotid baroreceptors become less active. d) Heart rate decreases. e) The cardioaccelerator center in the medulla becomes less excited.b) Reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs
162) Which of the following would be most likely to have the highest pulse pressure? a) an athlete b) an infant c) an individual with aortic regurgitation d) a 60-year-old individual e) a teenagerc) an individual with aortic regurgitation
163) The loss of vasomotor tone without a simultaneous loss of the sympathetic neural control of the heart would result in a) Increased frequency of action potentials from the baroreceptors. b) A decrease in arterial blood pressure, followed shortly by a reflex rise in blood pressure. c) Inhibition of vasomotor tone. d) A slower heart rate. e) A decrease, then a reflex rise in the total peripheral resistance.b) A decrease in arterial blood pressure, followed shortly by a reflex rise in blood pressure.
164) Paul falls on an axe and cuts several major blood vessels in his leg. As a result of this injury, you would expect to observe all of the following, except a(n) a) Increased total peripheral resistance. b) Increased secretion of renin by the kidneys. c) Decreased secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone. d) Increased heart rate. e) Increase in blood pressure.e) Increase in blood pressure.
165) Each of the following conditions would probably result in an elevation of angiotensin II in the blood of a normal adult, except a) Decreased cardiac output. b) Decreased blood flow to the kidneys. c) Essential hypertension. d) Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. e) Vasoconstriction of the renal arteries.c) Essential hypertension.
66) The ________ are small blood vessels that carry blood to the tunica media of large arteries and veins. a) Vasa vasorum b) Venules c) Capillariesa) Vasa vasorum
167) The process of cyclic changes in vessel diameter that occurs at the origin of a capillary is called ________. a) Venous return b) Vasomotor c) Autoregulationb) Vasomotor
169) The direct interconnection of two arteries is called an arterial ________. a) Anastomosis b) Collaterala) Anastomosis
170) In the condition known as ________, the wall of an artery becomes thicker and tougher. a) Arteriosclerosis b) atherosclerosisa) Arteriosclerosis This condition is characterized by the formation of fatty plaques in the lining of arteries.
172) ____ are the distinctive sounds heard during the measurement of blood pressure. a) Korotkoff's sounds b) Korsakof sounds c) Corticoid soundsa) Korotkoff's sounds
In large arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called theinternal elastic membrane
These vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply.vein
Which of the following lumen diameters would be typical of a muscular artery?0.4 cm or 4.0 mm
Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ________ percent of deaths in the United States.50
RBCs move single file through this structure.capillary
The thoroughfare channel ends at thevenule
The common iliac artery is an example of which type of artery?elastic
Relative to the lumen, which of these vessels has the thickest tunica media?arterioles
Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?tunica externa
Elastic fibers in the walls of these vessels are stretched during systolearteries
A sample of tissue displays many large flattened spaces lined by fenestrated endothelium. Blood moves slowly through these spaces. This tissue sample most likely came from theliver
You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries inthe pituitary
Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?venules
Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space? The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid is largely unimportant in determining fluid movement. Blood hydrostatic pressure forces fluid from the capillary to the interstitial space. Blood osmotic pressure moves fluid from the interstitial space to the capillary. The net filtration pressure is usually zero. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is less than the blood osmotic pressure.The net filtration pressure is usually zero.
Edema is favored whenthe plasma concentration of protein is reduced, endothelial permeability goes up, and capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated.
Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries?both decreased plasma albumen and increased blood hydrostatic pressure
Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the osmolarity of interstitial fluids. blood viscosity. flow characteristics. blood vessel diameter. length of a blood vessel.osmolarity of interstitial fluids
The main control of peripheral resistance occurs in thearteriole
The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on theconcentration of plasma proteins
When a person rises quickly from a sitting position,the carotid baroreceptors become less active. reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs. venous return is decreased. heart rate is reflexly elevated
When carotid and aortic baroreceptors slow their dischargeboth heart rate and stroke volume increases
Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increasedsalt and water loss through the kidneys
Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors reflexly results inincreased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system.
When carotid and aortic baroreceptors slow their discharge,both heart rate and stroke volume increases
Which of the following are characteristics of cardiovascular regulation? blood flow through tissues meets the demand for oxygen changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure blood flow through tissues meets the demand for nutrients blood flow changes to match tissue responses all of the aboveall of the above
Vickie has a tumor that secretes excess amounts of the hormone aldosterone. Because of the elevated level of hormone, she exhibitsboth increased blood pressure and increased body stores of sodium ion.
Fear can result inincreased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers.
Which of the following is greater? normal stroke volume stroke volume during circulatory shock Both are about the same.normal stroke volume
In response to hemorrhage, there isperipheral vasoconstriction and mobilization of the venous reserve only
In comparing a trained athlete to a nonathlete, which of these comparisons is false? The athlete has a higher exercise stroke volume. Both hearts weigh about the same. The athlete has a lower resting heart rate. The athlete has a higher exercise cardiac output. The athlete has a higher resting stroke volume.both hearts weigh about the same
If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be ________ mm Hg.100
Which of the following conditions is least likely to lead to renin release?hypertension
The internal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis called thecerebral arterial circle
The two vertebral arteries fuse to form a large artery, thebasilar artery
The external iliac artery branches to form the ______ arteriesfemoral and deep femoral
Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ________ arteries.common iliac
Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm? basilic cephalic hemiazygos radial azygosradial
The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins forms thesuperior vena cava
The ________ vein is formed by the fusion of the greater saphenous vein, femoral vein, and deep femoral vein.external iliac
Blood from the brain returns to the heart through the ________ vein.internal jugular
The vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is thesuperior vena cava
The superior sagittal sinus collects blood from thebraIn
The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ________ vein.brachial
An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the ________ artery.internal carotid
Branches off the aortic arch include the left common carotid artery. left subclavian artery. brachiocephalic trunk. left subclavian artery and left common carotid artery only all of the aboveall of the aboe
Near the carotid sinus,the common carotid divides into an internal and an external branch.
Where the common carotid divides into an internal and an external branch?Near the carotid sinus
Veins of the upper arm include the ________ vein(s).basilic, cephalic, brachial
The vein that is formed from the fusion of the subclavian with the internal and external jugulars is the ________ vein.Brachiocephalic
Which of the following obeys the rule that arteries carry blood away from the heart? common carotid artery marginal artery left descending artery right coronary artery left circumflex arterycommon carotid artery
Each of the following arteries is a component of the cerebral arterial circle, except the anterior communicating artery. posterior cerebral artery. anterior cerebral artery. basilar artery. posterior communicating artery.basilar artery
Components of the cerebral arteries circleAnterior and posterior communicating artery Anterior and posterior cerebral artery
Major branches of the subclavian artery include the ________ artery(ies)lateral thoracic
Branches of the thoracic aorta include all of the following, except the ________ arteries. basilar esophageal bronchial superior phrenic intercostalbasilar
Branches of thoracic aorta includeesophageal, bronchial, superior phrenic, intercostal
venous valves
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