jane is diagnosed with bipolar ii disorder. you can expect that she will experience

# jane is diagnosed with bipolar ii disorder. you can expect that she will experience

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Prior to the DSM-IIIR, conditions that are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred to by several different names, including all of the following EXCEPT: A. depressive disorders B. affective disorders C. psychotic episodes D. depressive neurosesC. psychotic episodes
One of the symptoms of a mood disorder is called anhedonia, which means: A. a feeling of worthlessness B. an altered pattern of sleep C. indecisiveness D. an inability to experience pleasureD. an inability to experience pleasure
Mood disorders can range from mild to severe; the most severe type of depression is called: A. major depressive disorder B. dysthymia C. cyclothymia D. profound depressionA. major depressive disorder
Most episodes of major depression are time-limited, i.e., lasting up to ____, although about 10% last as long as two years. A. 3 months B. 6 months C. 9 months D. 1 yearC. 9 months
Which of the following is a symptom of the mood disorder known as mania? A. clear, coherent speech B. hypoactive behavior C. fatigue D. grandiosityD. grandiosity
When used in connection with mood disorders, flight of ideas means: A. anxiety about airplane travel B. rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once C. limited imagination reflected in a slow way of speaking D. repression of all creative ideasB. rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once
In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes and untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement? A. Depressive episodes generally last longer. B. Manic episodes generally last longer. C. Both types of episodes typically last about the same amount of time. D. This comparison cannot be made because depressive episodes are always treated.A. Depressive episodes generally last longer.
The physical or somatic symptoms of a major depressive disorder include: A. changes in appetite or weight B. decreased ability to concentrate C. increased energy D. orgasmic feelingsA. changes in appetite or weight
Which of the following symptoms characterize a manic episode? A. feelings of guilt B. irritability C. anhedonia D. loss of energyB. irritability
A 35-year-old individual named Manny has recently formulated an elaborate plan to cure AIDS with vitamin therapy. To provide funding for this cause he has withdrawn all the money from his bank account and purchased thousands of jars of vitamins and small boxes in which to put them. When he appeared at a hospital emergency room loudly demanding names of patients with AIDS, he himself was hospitalized for psychiatric observation. What is your diagnosis of Manny? A. major depressive episode B. hypomanic episode C. manic episode D. postpartum psychosisC. manic episode
Dysphoric mania refers to a type of mood disorder in which manic episodes are: A. extremely severe B. very mild C. accompanied by depression or anxiety D. related to a medical conditionC. accompanied by depression or anxiety
What significant finding is usually noted when comparing major depressive disorder/recurrent and major depressive disorder/single episode? A. family history of depression B. severity of symptoms C. more females have the single episode type D. more males have the recurrent episode typeA. family history of depression
Most individuals who experience a single episode of major depressive disorder will: A. never have another episode B. most likely have just one more episode C. probably have several episodes throughout their lives D. later have a manic episodeC. probably have several episodes throughout their lives
Debbie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder, recurrent. She wants to know what to expect in the future regarding her condition. You tell her that according to recent research (Angst 1998, Angst and Preizig, 1996), the median lifetime number of major depressive episodes is: A. four B. eight C. twelve D. sixteenA. four
Dysthymic disorder differs from major depressive disorder because persons diagnosed with dysthymia have symptoms of depression that are: A. more severe B. longer-lasting C. episodic D. temporaryB. longer-lasting
Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to normal. In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as dysthymic. Jacks condition is referred to as: A. double depression B. bipolar disorder C. atypical depression D. dysfunctional dysthymiaA. double depression
Research studies reported in your textbook indicate that during the 20th century, the age of onset for depression: A. increased B. decreased C. stayed about the same D. increased for males, decreased for femalesB. decreased
According to recent research (Kessler et al., 2003), the percentage of people aged 18 to 29 that have already experienced major depression is: A. 10% B. 18% C. 25% D. 40%C. 25%
The probability that a person will recover from a major depressive episode within 5 years approaches 90% in: A. all cases B. mild cases only C. severe cases only D. double depression onlyA. all cases
How many patients with severe cases of depression where the episode lasts 5 years or longer can be expected to recover? A. none B. about half C. approximately one-third D. allC. approximately one-third
In comparison to later age of onset, early onset of dysthymia (before age 21) is associated with all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: A. greater chronicity B. poorer response to treatment C. genetic influence D. better prognosisD. better prognosis
Not only is there a high prevalence of dysthymic disorder in children but it has also been found (Kovacs et al., 1994) that three-fourths of these children will eventually be diagnosed with: A. bipolar disorder B. mania C. major depressive disorder D. cyclothymiaC. major depressive disorder
Symptoms of severe depression are generally NOT considered a psychological disorder when they are associated with: A. a grief reaction B. a manic episode C. anxiety D. thoughts of suicideA. a grief reaction
Although grieving is considered a normal process it does sometimes become a psychological disorder. Which of the following cases would NOT be diagnosed as a pathological grief reaction? A. Mr. A experienced a death in his family. In addition to symptoms of depression, he has been having auditory hallucinations in which he hears other deceased people talking to him. B. Miss B. has experienced the death of a close friend. She is so depressed that she has no appetite, no energy and is suicidal. C. Mrs. Cs dog recently died. Three weeks later her friends suggest that she get another dog to help her get over the loss. Mrs. C. refuses and says she just isnt ready to get another dog and besides, it would be impossible to replace her beloved Toto. D. Dr. Ds wife died a few months ago. Recently, in addition to his depressive symptoms, he has been having paranoid delusions in which he believes that certain unnamed individuals are planning to remove his wifes body from the grave.C. Mrs. Cs dog recently died. Three weeks later her friends suggest that she get another dog to help her get over the loss. Mrs. C. refuses and says she just isnt ready to get another dog and besides, it would be impossible to replace her beloved Toto.
Anhedonia is: A. loss of energy B. inability to engage in pleasurable activities C. inability to focus or concentrate D. loss of speechB. inability to engage in pleasurable activities
f a friend of yours stops sleeping and suddenly claims that he is going to go to law school and medical school simultaneously so he can change the world you might suspect he is: A. anxious B. depressed C. manic D. anhedonicC. manic
During a dysphoric manic episode the patient experiences mania and: A. schizophrenia B. confusion C. anxiety and depression D. angerB. confusion
Major depressive episodes tend to abate: A. on their own eventually B. only with medication C. only with therapy D. in women, but not menA. on their own eventually
A person who experiences a persistent depressed mood for at least 2 years but is not experiencing major depression may have: A. dysthymic disorder B. cyclothymic disorder C. bipolar disorder D. double depressionA. dysthymic disorder
Rates of depression appear to be: A. decreasing overall B. increasing at every age in the U.S. only C. increasing at every age worldwide D. increasing in the elderlyC. increasing at every age worldwide
The earlier the onset of dysphoric disorder the: A. greater its chronicity B. worse the prognosis C. more likely it is to run in the family D. all of the aboveD. all of the above
The milder but more chronic version of bipolar disorder is called: A. dysphoric disorder B. seasonal affective disorder C. Bipolar III disorder D. cyclothymic disorderD. cyclothymic disorder
Bipolar II disorder consists of: A. depression with hypomanic disorders B. depression with anxiety C. depression with mania D. depression with dysthymiaA. depression with hypomanic disorders
A women who is extremely depressed a year or so after the loss of her spouse might be diagnosed with: A. normal bereavement B. dysthymia C. major depression D. complicated griefD. complicated grief
Suicide associated with bipolar disorder usually occurs during: A. a manic phase B. depressive episode C. either phase D. between phasesB. depressive episode
A person who eats and sleeps too much is experiencing a depressive episode with: A. atypical features B. melancholic features C. chronic features D. catatonic featuresA. atypical features
Following the birth of a baby, depressive symptoms may increase in A. atypical features B. melancholic features C. chronic features D. catatonic featuresC. chronic features
The rapid-cycling specifier refers to an individual with bipolar disorder who experiences at least _____ episodes in a year. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8B. 4
Which of the following is most effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder? A. light therapy B. cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) C. light and CBT D. medicationC. light and CBT
Morning light is thought to help with seasonal affective disorder because it: A. advances melatonin release B. reverses melatonin release C. increases the amount of melatonin released D. eliminates melatonin releaseA. advances melatonin release
Studies suggest that depression: A. never occurs in infants B. can occur in babies as young as 3 months C. is impossible to diagnose in young children D. is very different in children than adultsB. can occur in babies as young as 3 months
Depression rates appear to be _____ in adolescents. A. decreasing B. leveling off C. fluctuating erraticallyA. decreasing
A common characteristic of depression in boys is: A. aggression B. passiveness C. shyness D. coping behaviorA. aggression
The strongest genetic contributions have been associated with: A. severe mood disorders B. less severe disorders C. mild mood disorders D. few disordersA. severe mood disorders
According to the textbook, therapeutic approaches towards helping the bereaved would involve all of the following EXCEPT: A. talking about the deceased loved one B. re-experiencing the emotions associated with the death C. finding meaning in the loss D. realizing that one cannot cope with the emotional painD. realizing that one cannot cope with the emotional pain
In regard to the terms used to differentiated mood disorders, cyclothymic is to dysthymic as: A. bipolar is to major depressive B. manic is to hypomanic C. major depressive is to bipolar D. Bipolar I is to Bipolar IIA. bipolar is to major depressive
Jane is diagnosed with Bipolar II disorder. You can expect that she will experience: A. full manic episodes B. hypomanic episodes C. both manic and hypomanic episodes D. neither manic nor hypomanic episodesB. hypomanic episodes
Manic episodes alternate with depressive episodes in the disorder called: A. bipolar disorder B. major depressive disorder C. pathological grief reaction D. postpartum psychosisA. bipolar disorder
When referring to the mood disorders called cyclothymia and dysthymia, it would be accurate to say that an individual with cyclothymia probably: A. would be considered moody B. cannot function normally at all C. has more depressive episodes D. has full manic episodesA. would be considered moody
One of the problems encountered by psychiatrists who prescribe medication for patients with bipolar disorder is that patients often: A. stop taking the medication in order to bring on a depressive state B. stop taking the medication in order to bring on a manic state C. overdose on the medication during a severe manic state D. become addicted to the medications during a severe manic stateB. stop taking the medication in order to bring on a manic state
At various times, Cynthia, a 20 year-old college student, has been considered by her family and/or friends to be moody, high-strung, explosive, or hyperactive. Knowing the criteria for mood disorders you would diagnose Cynthia with: A. major depressive disorder B. panic disorder C. dysthymia D. cyclothymiaD. cyclothymia
The melancholic specifiers for depressive disorders include all of the following EXCEPT: A. weight loss B. loss of libido (sex drive) C. sleeping late and hypersomnia D. anhedoniaC. sleeping late and hypersomnia
Katie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Most recently she has been lying immobile for long periods. If someone moves one of her arms to a different position, it just stays there. Katie has stopped speaking and does not appear to hear what is being said to her. What specifier would you apply to her diagnosis of major depressive disorder? A. chronic B. catatonic C. atypical D. melancholicB. catatonic
Although catatonic symptoms occur in major depressive disorders, they are more frequently associated with: A. phobias B. somatoform disorders C. dissociative identity disorder D. schizophreniaD. schizophrenia
The postpartum onset specifier is used to characterize a severe manic or depressive episode with psychotic features that occurs in a woman following: A. childbirth B. a hysterectomy C. rape D. menopauseA. childbirth
In rare tragic cases a mother suffering from postpartum depression sometimes: A. kills her child B. commits suicide C. murders other peoples children D. injures the childs fatherA. kills her child
In regard to mood disorders there are additional criteria called specifiers that are used to determine length of treatment and prognosis. Which of the following is a longitudinal course specifier? A. anhedonia B. catalepsy C. postpartum onset D. interepisode recoveryD. interepisode recovery
All of the following are longitudinal course specifiers for recurrent mania or depression EXCEPT: A. previous history of dysthymia B. presence of psychotic features C. previous history of cyclothymia D. full recovery between manic and depressive episodesB. presence of psychotic features
The rapid cycling specifier is added to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder when a patient has had at least ____ manic or depressive episodes within a year. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8B. 4
Since traditional antidepressant medication such as tricyclics may actually provoke rapid cycling in bipolar patients, mood stabilizers and _____ are often prescribed instead. A. antipsychotics B. tranquilizers C. anticonvulsants D. opiatesC. anticonvulsants
In studies of bipolar patients who experience rapid cycling, it has been found that as many as 90% are: A. female B. male C. elderly D. adolescentsA. female
Which of the following statements applies to the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD)? A. Individuals may become depressed during the winter and manic during the summer. B. Persons with SAD have symptoms of decreased sleep and decreased appetite. C. Depression in vulnerable people might be triggered by decreased production of the hormone called melatonin. D. SAD can be treated with phototherapy, i.e., 2 hours of exposure to bright light just before going to sleep.A. Individuals may become depressed during the winter and manic during the summer.
In regard to the prevalence of mood disorders, which of the following has been found consistently? A. Females experience major depressive disorders less frequently than males. B. Men have twice as many mood disorders as women. C. Bipolar disorders occur equally across gender. D. Dysthymia occurs equally across gender.C. Bipolar disorders occur equally across gender.
Recent evidence (Coryell et al., 2003) indicates a higher level of _____ in bipolar patients with a rapid cycling pattern compared to those with a non-rapid cycling pattern. A. treatment response B. resistance to treatment C. medication side effects D. suicideD. suicide
All of the following are accurate statements about the prevalence of mood disorders in children and adolescents EXCEPT: A. Bipolar disorder in children is often misdiagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). B. Major depressive disorder in adolescents is primarily a female disorder. C. Rates of attempted suicide decrease during adolescence. D. Adolescents with bipolar disorder may become aggressive, impulsive, sexually provocative and accident-prone.C. Rates of attempted suicide decrease during adolescence.
Being depressed _____ the risk of death in elderly patients who have had a stroke or heart attack. A. has no effect B. doubles C. triples D. reducesB. doubles
The presence of medical illnesses or symptoms of dementia can make the diagnosis of depression difficult in: A. middle aged men B. menopausal women C. highly creative individuals D. the elderlyD. the elderly
Cross-cultural research indicates that, due at least in part to appalling social and economic conditions, the prevalence of major depression is extremely high among: A. African-Americans B. Hispanic-Americans C. Asian-Americans D. Native AmericansD. Native Americans
According to your textbook, researchers have been studying the life histories of American poets to determine if there is a relationship between creativity and _____. A. anxiety B. manic-depressive disorder C. dissociation D. schizophreniaB. manic-depressive disorder
Which of the following statements is accurate regarding the relationship between anxiety and depression? A. Almost all depressed patients are anxious, but not every anxious patient is depressed. B. Cognitive content (thinking) is more negative in anxious patients than in those with depression. C. A core symptom of anxiety is the inability to experience pleasure. D. Anxiety is often preceded by an episode of major depression.A. Almost all depressed patients are anxious, but not every anxious patient is depressed.
In research looking at the biological causes of mood disorders, studies have shown that if one of a set of twins has bipolar disorder, the probability that the other twin will have a mood disorder is: A. 20% B. 40% C. 60% D. 80%D. 80%
In terms of the etiology of mood disorders, research has shown that: A. environmental stress plays a larger role in causing depression in men than in women B. genetic factors are more important in the development of depression in men in comparison to the development of depression in women C. genetic and environmental factors are equally contributory to mood disorders D. there are no sex differences in vulnerability to depressionA. environmental stress plays a larger role in causing depression in men than in women
Current research into neurotransmitter systems has produced the permissive hypothesis, which states that: A. low levels of serotonin are sufficient to explain the etiology of mood disorders B. the norepinephrine system regulates serotonin levels; if norepinephrine is low, depression will occur C. when serotonin levels are low, other neurotransmitter systems become dysregulated and contribute to mood irregularities D. the absolute levels of neurotransmitters are more significant in mood regulation than the overall balance of the various neurotransmittersC. when serotonin levels are low, other neurotransmitter systems become dysregulated and contribute to mood irregularities
A friend of yours tells you that he thinks he is mildly depressed but hes not sure. Knowing that you are studying abnormal psychology, he asks if there is any kind of laboratory test that could determine whether or not someone is depressed. You respond correctly with one of the following statements. A. Currently there is no way of diagnosing depression with a laboratory test. B. The dexamethasone suppression test is a biological test for depression. C. The dexamethasone suppression test can only be used to diagnose severe cases of depression. D. Cortisol levels are decreased in depression; he could have his cortisol levels checked by a blood test.A. Currently there is no way of diagnosing depression with a laboratory test.
The best conclusion about the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) for the diagnosis of depression is that: A. it is accurate B. it is effective but cannot differentiate bipolar disorder from major depression C. it promises to be an effective diagnostic tool in the future D. it is not useful as a diagnostic toolD. it is not useful as a diagnostic tool
One symptom of depression is an increase in sleeping. What other symptoms related to sleep occur in depression? A. decreased delta (slow wave) sleep, the deepest stage of sleep B. less intense REM activity C. stages of deepest sleep occurring earlier in the sleep cycle D. slower onset of REM sleepA. decreased delta (slow wave) sleep, the deepest stage of sleep
In regard to the relationship between stress and depression, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT: A. The context of the life event, as well as its meaning to the individual, is more important than the nature of the event itself. B. An individuals current mood state might distort earlier memories of stressful life events that precipitated the depression. C. Stressful life events are strongly related to the onset of mood disorders. D. Recurrent episodes of depression, but not initial episodes, are strongly predicted by major life stress.D. Recurrent episodes of depression, but not initial episodes, are strongly predicted by major life stress.
When individuals who are biologically vulnerable to depression place themselves in high risk stressful environments, it is called: A. humoral theory B. the cognitive-behavioral model C. the reciprocal gene-environment model D. a stress-depression linkage effectC. the reciprocal gene-environment model
Martin Seligmans theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives, is called: A. the learned helplessness model B. cognitive-behavioral theory C. humanistic/existential theory D. the control theory of depressionA. the learned helplessness model
In 1989, Abramson and his colleagues revised Seligmans theory of learned helplessness, changing the focus from specific attributions to _____ as the crucial factor in depression. A. lack of control B. a sense of hopelessness C. repressed anger D. a feeling of failureB. a sense of hopelessness
A student who has been doing very well in her psychology class receives a minor critical comment on an essay that she wrote as part of an exam. The student thinks, This is terrible. Im probably going to fail the course. This type of cognitive error in thinking is called: A. arbitrary inference B. overgeneralization C. splitting D. dissociatingB. overgeneralization
In Aaron Becks depressive cognitive triad, individuals think negatively about all of the following EXCEPT: A. themselves B. their immediate world C. their past D. their futureC. their past
Regarding Becks views on depression, which of the following definitions of cognitive errors and negative schema is NOT correct? A. In a self-blame schema, depressed individuals feel personally responsible for every bad thing that happens. B. Arbitrary inference means that a depressed individual emphasizes the positive rather than the negative aspects of a situation. C. In a negative self-evaluation schema, depressed individuals believe that they can never do anything correctly. D. Overgeneralization occurs when a small error is magnified to mean something much more significant.B. Arbitrary inference means that a depressed individual emphasizes the positive rather than the negative aspects of a situation.
According to recent research on the development of depression, dysfunctional attitudes (a negative outlook) and hopelessness attributes (explaining things negatively) constitute a _____ vulnerability to depression. A. biological B. cognitive C. behavioral D. sociologicalB. cognitive
Preliminary results of a study of cognitive vulnerability to depression (Alloy et al., 2000) found that _____ percent of the students with thought patterns classified as high risk for depression subsequently suffered a major depressive episode where only _____ percent of the low risk students subsequently experienced a major depressive episode. A. 17; 1 B. 25; 15 C. 40; 5 D. 85; 10A. 17; 1
For individuals who had not been previously depressed, research studies indicate that a marital separation or divorce resulted in _____. A. a higher rate of depression in men B. a higher rate of depression in women C. approximately equal rates of depression for males and females D. no symptoms of depression in either males or femalesA. a higher rate of depression in men
Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women include all of the following EXCEPT: A. culturally induced dependence and passivity B. sense of uncontrollability and helplessness C. low value placed on intimate relationships D. self-blame for being depressedC. low value placed on intimate relationships
Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women relate to the disadvantages experienced by women in the United States such as: A. discrimination and poverty B. abuse and sexual harassment C. both of these D. none of theseC. both of these
Which of the following factors contribute to the integrative theory of depression? A. stressful life events B. stress hormones C. neurotransmitters D. all of theseD. all of these
In regard to most disorders, serotonin is thought to: A. function independently of other transmitters B. regulate norepinephrine and dopamine C. be unrelated to symptoms D. none of the aboveB. regulate norepinephrine and dopamine
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the sleep of depressed patients? A. They enter REM sleep quickly. B. They experience intense REM episodes. C. They show delayed slow wave sleep. D. They show advanced slow wave sleep.D. They show advanced slow wave sleep.
Depressive individuals tend to exhibit: A. greater right anterior brain activity B. greater left anterior brain activity C. more alpha wave activity D. less overall brain activityA. greater right anterior brain activity
Stressful events are strongly related to the onset of: A. depression B. bipolar disorder C. both D. neitherB. bipolar disorder
Negative cognitive styles are associated with a vulnerability to subsequent depression: A. in people in general B. in people who have already been depressed C. only in people who are currently depressed D. only in womenA. in people in general
Research studies suggest that depression in adolescent girls is most closely related to: A. puberty B. type of school they attended C. their intelligence D. their independenceA. puberty
A child raised by depressed parents is likely to: A. struggle with depression as well B. learn how to avoid depression C. be inoculated against depression D. deny stress symptomsA. struggle with depression as well
Which of the following is a common side effect of depression medications in the elderly? A. memory impairment B. lethargy C. loneliness D. itchinessA. memory impairment
The antidepressant medications known as imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline (Elavil) are included in the class of drugs called: A. SSRIs B. tricyclics C. MAO inhibitors D. tranquilizersB. tricyclics
The therapeutic effects of the tricyclic antidepressants begin: A. immediately B. within 24 hours C. 2 to 8 weeks after starting the medication D. 3 months after starting the medicationC. 2 to 8 weeks after starting the medication
Side effects of the tricyclic antidepressants include: A. weight loss B. excessive urination C. sexual dysfunction D. insomniaC. sexual dysfunction
Which of the following is a well-known and widely used selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)? A. Prozac B. Valium C. Hypericum D. ThorazineA. Prozac
Clinical studies have shown that 50 to 75 percent of patients taking Prozac will experience: A. manic episodes B. suicidal tendencies C. sexual dysfunction D. cardiac irregularitiesC. sexual dysfunction
With regard to treatment of mood disorders, which of the following statements is accurate? A. Patients do not recover from episodes of major depression without treatment. B. Delaying or preventing future episodes of major depression is an important treatment goal. C. After a patient has experienced a major depressive episode and recovered, treatment can be discontinued. D. Close to 100% of patients with major depressive disorder respond to drug treatment.B. Delaying or preventing future episodes of major depression is an important treatment goal.
Clinical studies have shown that the favorable response rate for patients taking antidepressant medications is: A. 25% B. 50% C. 75% D. 100%B. 50%
A goal of treatment for patients who have experienced major depressive disorders is delaying or preventing the next episode. In which of the following situations would this goal be least important? A. patients who have recovered from a major depressive episode but still have some residual symptoms B. patients with a past history of chronic depression (dysthymia) C. patients with a past history of multiple episodes of major depressive disorder D. patients who have had a single, brief episode of major depressive disorder and recovered without treatmentD. patients who have had a single, brief episode of major depressive disorder and recovered without treatment
A recent treatment approved for use with depression is: A. Vagus nerve stimulation B. ECT C. TMS D. CBTA. Vagus nerve stimulation
Research on exercise and depression suggests that exercise is: A. is less effective than medication at decreasing depression B. more effective than medication at decreasing depression C. better at preventing relapse than medication D. worse at preventing relapse than medicationD. worse at preventing relapse than medication
Common side effects of antidepressants include: A. weight gain B. constipation C. dry mouth D. all of the aboveC. dry mouth
The antidepressant medication lithium is also referred to as a mood stabilizer because it: A. increases the availability of both dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain B. is less toxic than the SSRI medications C. helps to prevent manic episodes D. increases thyroid functioning, which results in improved mood stabilizationC. helps to prevent manic episodes
A relative of yours has been diagnosed with bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder. Your family is impressed when you mention that the preferred drug for this condition is: A. Prozac B. St. Johns Wort C. an anticonvulsant D. lithiumD. lithium
Although the mood stabilizing drug lithium is the preferred treatment for bipolar disorder, patient compliance has been a problem. Patients often stop taking their lithium, even though it is effective in stabilizing their moods, because they: A. become anxious that the drug is too toxic B. miss the euphoric feelings that mania produces C. start to have panic attacks D. cannot afford the high cost of the medicationB. miss the euphoric feelings that mania produces
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression especially when: A. patients cannot afford antidepressant medication B. patient response to antidepressant medication is poor C. symptoms of depression are mild D. a manic-depressive patient is currently experiencing a manic episodeB. patient response to antidepressant medication is poor
In comparing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to antidepressant medication, all of the following statements are accurate EXCEPT: A. Relief of symptoms occurs more rapidly with ECT. B. Relief of symptoms occurs more rapidly with medication. C. Short-term memory loss is a side effect of treatment with medication. D. Psychotically depressed patients should be treated with medication, not ECT.A. Relief of symptoms occurs more rapidly with ECT.
Recent research (Grunhaus, et al., 2003; Janicak et al., 2002) suggests that an equally effective alternative to electroconvulsive therapy that requires no anesthesia and appears to alter electrical activity in the brain may be: A. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) B. electrocranial stimulation (ECS) C. magnetic resonance stimulation (MRS) D. positron cranial stimulation (PCS)A. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
Which of the following statements about suicide is correct? A. The suicide rate is high among African-Americans but low among Native Americans. B. The suicide rate among adolescents in the U.S. is decreasing. C. For teenagers, suicide is the third leading cause of death after auto accidents and homicide. D. Females are more likely than males to die from suicide.C. For teenagers, suicide is the third leading cause of death after auto accidents and homicide.
Research has found that low serotonin levels may be implicated in suicidal behavior because they affect all of the following EXCEPT: A. impulsivity B. instability C. inertia D. overreactivityC. inertia
Evidence for an inherited tendency towards suicidal behavior comes from research involving: A. the human genome project B. callers to suicide hotlines C. adoption and twin studies D. psychological autopsiesC. adoption and twin studies
In regard to the relationship between mood disorders and suicide, which of the following statements reflects the current thinking on this issue? A. Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression. B. All persons who attempt suicide have mood disorders. C. A small percentage of adolescent suicides are an expression of severe depression. D. Suicide is generally a response to some disappointment in people who are otherwise psychologically healthy.A. Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression.
Statistics on suicide indicate that approximately one-quarter to one-half of all suicides are associated with: A. alcohol use B. guns C. aggression D. work stressA. alcohol use
Although glorifying and romanticizing suicide in the media contributes to copycat suicides, it is more likely that the person copying the suicide is: A. just doing it for attention B. vulnerable due to an existing psychological disorder C. not really serious about the suicide attempt D. trying to impress othersB. vulnerable due to an existing psychological disorder
Impulsive suicidal behavior is often a symptom of _____ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. borderline C. obsessive-compulsive D. paranoidB. borderline
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