the process of encoding refers to

# the process of encoding refers to

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The three-stage processing model of memory was proposed by:Atkinson and Shiffrin.
The process of getting information out of memory is called:retrieval.
The three steps in memory information processing are:encoding, storage, retrieval.
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as:rehearsal.
Experimenters gave people a list of words to be recalled. When the participants were tested after a delay, the items that were best recalled were those:at the beginning of the list.
Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to:encoding.
According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those:in the middle of the list.
Which type of word processingvisual, acoustic, or semanticresults in the greatest retention?semantic
Although Jordan could not recall the exact words of a poem he had recently heard, he clearly remembered the meaning of the poem. This best illustrates the importance of:semantic encoding.
Textbook chapters are often organized into ________ in order to facilitate information processing.hierarchies
Sherry easily remembers the telephone reservation number for Holiday Inns by using the mnemonic 1-800-HOLIDAY. She is using a memory aid known as:chunking.
After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in a study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes in order to prevent:rehearsal.
"The magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.short-term
Stress hormones facilitate the formation of new memories by:increasing the availability of glucose.
A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory.long-term.
Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between:explicit memory and implicit memory.
Brad, who suffered accidental damage to the left side of his hippocampus, has trouble remembering:verbal information.
Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory.implicit; explicit
After suffering damage to the hippocampus, a person would probably:lose the ability to store new facts.
Amnesia victims typically have experienced damage to the ________ of the brain.hippocampus
The process of encoding refers to:getting information into memory.
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of:working memory.
The conscious repetition of information in order to maintain it in memory is called:rehearsal.
The spacing effect means that:distributed study yields better retention than cramming.
Semantic encoding refers to the processing of:meanings.
When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of:semantic encoding.
Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of:hierarchical organization.
Chunking refers to:the organization of information into meaningful units.
Brenda has trouble remembering her new five-digit zip plus four-digit address code. What is the most likely explanation for the difficulty Brenda is having?Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of most people's short-term memory capacity.
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as:12 seconds.
Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates:flashbulb memory.
Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the:amygdala.
Studies of amnesia victims suggest that:there are two distinct types of memory.
Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?a conditioned fear of guns
Elderly Mr. Flanagan, a retired electrician, can easily remember how to wire a light switch, but he cannot remember the name of the president of the United States. Evidently, Mr. Flanagan's ________ memory is better than his ________ memory.implicit; explicit
Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can't recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the:hippocampus.
Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.short-term
A modern information-processing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks is known as:connectionism.
One day after Usha hears her mother's list of 12 grocery items, Usha is most likely to remember the items ________ of the list.at the beginning
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.serial position
The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Her effective recall of these particular names best illustrates the benefits of:rehearsal.
Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is:rehearsed.
In order to remember the information presented in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy is an effective memory aid because it facilitates:semantic encoding.
When Gordon Bower presented words grouped by category or in random order, recall was:better for the categorized words.
When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory.short-term
It is easier to recall information that has just been presented when the information:is heard rather than seen.
The temporary release of stress hormones into the bloodstream facilitates:long-term potentiation.
The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory.explicit
Amnesia patients typically experience disruption of:explicit memories.
Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eye-blink response when the ______ is temporarily deactivated during the process of training.cerebellum
At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates:the serial position effect.
Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that:the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning.
Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of:acoustic encoding.
Chess masters can recall the exact positions of most pieces after a brief glance at the game board. This ability is best explained in terms of:chunking.
Lashley's studies, in which rats learned a maze and then had various parts of their brains surgically removed, showed that the memory:remained no matter which area of the brain was tampered with.
Damage to the ________ is most likely to interfere with explicit memories of newly learned verbal information. Damage to the ________ is most likely to interfere with explicit memories of newly learned visual designs.left hippocampus; right hippocampus
Memory for skills is called:implicit memory.
Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience best illustrates:mood-congruent memory.
Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of:retrieval
The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be:retrieval cues.
According to memory researcher Daniel Schacter, blocking occurs when:information is on the tip of our tongue, but we can't get it out.
When he was 8 years old, Frank was questioned by the police about a summer camp counselor suspected of molesting children. Even though he was not, in fact, molested by the counselor, today 19-year-old Frank "remembers" the counselor touching him inappropriately. Frank's false memory is an example of which "sin" of memory?suggestibility
Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of:encoding failure.
The inability to recall which numbers on a telephone dial are not accompanied by letters is most likely due to:encoding failure.
The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve:interference.
When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of:proactive interference.
While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates:retrieval failure.
Retroactive interference involves the disruption of:retrieval.
The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by:retrieval failure.
The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of:memory construction.
Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled:broken glass at the scene of the accident.
When asked to recall their attitudes of 10 years ago regarding marijuana use, people offer recollections closer to their current views than to those they actually reported a decade earlier. This best illustrates:memory construction.
Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. This experiment best illustrated:the misinformation effect.
Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as a somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of:memory construction.
With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that:adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable.
When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates:the misinformation effect.
Which of the following was not recommended as a strategy for improving memory?speed-reading
Dj vu refers to the:eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event.
Walking through the halls of his high school 10 years after graduation, Tom experienced a flood of old memories. Tom's experience showed the role of:context effects.
A person who has trouble forgetting information, such as the Russian memory whiz S, often seems to have a limited capacity for:abstract thinking.
Which of the following terms does not belong with the others?blocking
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially:rapid and subsequently slows down.
After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates:encoding failure.
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates:proactive interference.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called:proactive interference.
After finding her old combination lock, Janice can't remember its combination because she keeps confusing it with the combination of her new lock. She is experiencing:retroactive interference.
The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:memory construction.
Mrs. McBride can't consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too anxiety-arousing to do so. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates:repression.
Which of the following illustrates the constructive nature of memory?Although elderly Mrs. Harvey, who has Alzheimer's disease, has many gaps in her memory, she invents sensible accounts of her activities so that her family will not worry.
Incest survivors who lack conscious memories of their sexual abuse may sometimes be told that they are simply in a stage of "denial" and "repression." This explanation for their lack of abuse memories emphasizes:retrieval failure.
Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of:retrieval cues.
Being in a bad mood after a hard day of work, Susan could think of nothing positive in her life. This is best explained as an example of:mood-congruent memory.
Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful recollections of the rare occasions in which he had observed his girlfriend flirting with other men. David's experience best illustrates:mood-congruent memory.
After his last drinking spree, Fakim hid a half-empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. Fakim's pattern of recall best illustrates:state-dependent memory.
Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:encoding failure.
During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:proactive interference.
At your high school reunion you cannot remember the last name of your homeroom teacher. Your failure to remember is most likely the result of:retrieval failure.
Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate that:people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.
Direct perception of an object and mental visualization of that object activate similar brain areas. This most clearly contributes to:imagination inflation.
Hypnotically "refreshed" memories may prove inaccurateespecially if the hypnotist asks leading questionsbecause of:memory construction.
Memory researchers are suspicious of long-repressed memories of traumatic events that are "recovered" with the aid of drugs or hypnosis because:of all of the above reasons.
Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories are most likely to emphasize that:extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well remembered.
In describing what he calls the seven sins of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that storage decay contributes to:transience
The famous Ebbinghaus forgetting curve indicates that how well we remember information depends on:how long ago we learned that information.
Which of the following sequences would be best to follow if you wanted to minimize interference-induced forgetting in order to improve your recall on the psychology midterm?study, sleep, test
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in:retrieval.
After Teresa was verbally threatened by someone in a passing car, she was questioned as to whether she recognized the man who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was a male rather than a female. Teresa's experience best illustrates:the misinformation effect
By incorporating errors originating from a hypnotist's leading questions, hypnotically refreshed memories often illustrate:the misinformation effect
The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory:may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are framed.
Our assumptions about the past often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of:memory construction.
You should study before sleeping in order to minimize:retroactive interference.
Which of the following techniques used by professional therapists are highly likely to promote the construction of false memories?all of the above
Negative recall primed by distressing emotions most clearly illustrates:mood-congruent memory
After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of:retroactive interference.
Research on the misinformation effect indicates that:events from the distant past are especially vulnerable to memory distortion.
After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of:the misinformation effect.
The eerie feeling of having been somewhere before is an example of:dj vu
The fact that elderly people are often less able than younger adults to recall recently learned information can be best explained in terms of the greater difficulty older people have with:retrieval
Jenkins and Dallenbach found that memory was better in subjects who were:asleep during the retention interval, presumably because interference was reduced.
Research on memory construction reveals that memories:reflect a person's biases and assumptions.
the process
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