which part of the atp molecule breaks free of the rest when an atp molecule is used for energy?

which part of the atp molecule breaks free of the rest when an atp molecule is used for energy?

Asked by 10 months ago
9.9k points
81.The oil from the sebaceous glands is produced by which of the following cell organelles?Smooth edoplasmic reticulum
82. Many physiological conditions are related to particular proteins in cell membranes. The number of insulin receptors in membranes is related to the amount of insulin present around those cells. If the presence of increased insulin results in a decrease in receptors and a decrease in insulin results in an increase in an increase in insulin receptors, this would be an example ofnegative or regulatory feedback
83. The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting ofdiverse proteins embedded in a phospholipid bilayer
84. Membrane phospholipidsare able to drift about in the plasma membrane
85. The cholesterol associated with animal cell membraneshelps keep phospholipids from being too close to one another
86. If you were working for a pharmaceutical company as part of a drug discovery team, which of these enzymes inhibitors would you suggest as a productive avenue for drug development?a drug to treat high blood pressure that reversibly inhibits an enzyme catalyzing production of a chemical that causes blood vessels to contract
87. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) inhibit inflammation by inhibiting an enzyme in the prostaglandin pathway, but by inhibiting this enzyme and this pathway they also inhibit pathways that protect the stomach from damage by stomach acid and that prevent aggregation of blood platelets to form blood clots. What can you conclude from this?The enzyme is found in many different types of cells
88. Most of the functions of a cell membrane, including transport and enzymatic function, are performed byproteins
89. Which of the following statements regarding membrane protein function is False?Membrane proteins transfer genetic information to the cytoplasm
90. Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell occurs whena signaling molecule binds to a protein that extends to the outside of the cell
91. Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means thatthe plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others.
92. Which of the following statements regarding membrane function is false?The plasma membrane is the control center of the cell.
93. Which characteristic promoted the utilization of lipids as the first cell membrane?self-assembly into a simple membrane
94. All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane that is similar in ________ and ________.structure . . . function
95. Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acidseasily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer.
96. Which of the following substances would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer?Na+
97. Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane bypassive transport
98. Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false?Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated.
99. Diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type ofpassive transport.
100. Osmosis can be defined asthe diffusion of water.
101. When two aqueous solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water willexhibit a net movement to the side with lower free water concentration.
102. In the lab, you use a special balloon that is permeable to water but not sucrose to make an "artificial cell." The balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80% water and is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. Which of the following will occur?Water will leave the balloon.
103. Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environmentis hypotonic to the protozoan.
104. A cell that has neither a net gain of water nor net loss of water when it is immersed in a solution must beisotonic to its environment.
105. In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell willlyse.
106. If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?the relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall
107. In the lab, you use a special balloon that is permeable to water but not sucrose to make an "artificial cell." The balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80% water and is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. The solution in the balloon is ________ relative to the solution in the beaker.hypotonic
108. White blood cells (WBCs) are more resistant to lysis than red blood cells (RBCs). When looking at a sample of blood for WBCs, what could you do to reduce interference from RBCs?Mix the blood in a hypotonic solution, which will cause the RBCs to lyse.
109. A plant cell in a hypotonic solutionbecomes turgid because of an inflow of water.
110. You are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result,you dehydrate yourself.
111. Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ________ and moves a substance ________ its concentration gradient.transport proteins; down
112. The molecules responsible for membrane transport areproteins.
113. Which of the following statements is true for all types of passive transport?The concentration gradient is the driving force.
114. Aquaporinsallow water to cross the plasma membrane via facilitated diffusion.
115. Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient?active transport
116. Which of the following is a typical feature of an ATP-driven active transport mechanism?The solute moves against the concentration gradient.
117. Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?Active transport is driven by the concentration gradient.
118. Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?exocytosis
119. The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium isphagocytosis.
120. Phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is todrinking.
121. Cells acquire low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) byreceptor-mediated endocytosis.
122. Kinetic energy differs from chemical energy in thatkinetic energy is the energy of a moving object, whereas chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules.
123. Glucose molecules provide energy to power the swimming motion of sperm. In this example, the sperm are changingchemical energy into kinetic energy.
124. In the reaction A B + C + heat,the potential energy of the products is less than that of the reactant.
125. Which of the following statements regarding thermodynamics is false?An automobile engine is a closed system because it does not exchange energy and matter with its surroundings.
126. According to ________, energy cannot be created or destroyed.the first law of thermodynamics
127. A steer must eat at least 100 pounds of grain to gain less than 10 pounds of muscle tissue. This illustratesthe second law of thermodynamics.
128. Which of the following direct energy transfers is impossible in living systems?heat to light energy
129. Living systemsdecrease their entropy while increasing the entropy of the universe.
130. Which of the following processes is endergonic?the synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water
131. What is the basic difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?Exergonic reactions release energy; endergonic reactions absorb it.
132. Which of the following processes is classified as a metabolic pathway?protein synthesis
133. When a cell uses chemical energy to perform work, it uses the energy released from a/an ________ reaction to drive a/an ________ reaction.exergonic; endergonic
134. Which of the following statements about the ATP molecule is true?It releases energy when one phosphate group leaves ATP.
135. The transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule or compound is calledphosphorylation.
136. Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likelyresult in cell death.
137. ATP can be used as the cell's energy exchange mechanism becauseendergonic reactions can be fueled by coupling them with the hydrolysis of high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP.
138. An energy barrierprevents the spontaneous breakdown of molecules in the cell.
139. The energy required to initiate an exergonic reaction is calledactivation energy.
140. Most of a cell's enzymes areproteins.
141. When an enzyme catalyzes a reaction,it lowers the activation energy of the reaction.
142. Substrates bind to an enzyme's ________ site.active
143. The active site of an enzyme isthe region of an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.
144. Which of the following statements regarding enzyme function is false?Enzymes are used up when they catalyze a chemical reaction so must be synthesized for each new chemical reaction.
145. Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?Enzymes catalyze specific reactions.
146. A child is brought to the hospital with a fever of 107F. Doctors immediately order an ice bath to lower the child's temperature. Which of the following statements offers the most logical explanation for this action?Elevated body temperatures may denature enzymes. This would interfere with the cell's abilities to catalyze various reactions.
147. Heating inactivates enzymes bychanging the enzyme's three-dimensional shape.
148. Which of the following substances could be a cofactor?a zinc atom
149. Which of the following is a coenzyme?vitamin B6
150. How does inhibition of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by a competitive inhibitor differ from inhibition by a noncompetitive inhibitor?Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of the enzyme; noncompetitive inhibitors bind to a different site.
151. Bacterial production of the enzymes needed for the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan declines with increasing levels of tryptophan and increases as tryptophan levels decline. This is an example offeedback inhibition.
152. Inhibition of an enzyme is irreversible whencovalent bonds form between inhibitor and enzyme.
153. A man with a dirty cut on his hand appears at the emergency department for treatment. In order to clean the wound, the health-care provider should usea weak (low concentration) solution of salt water.
154. A group of single cell organisms collected from the ocean was brought into the lab for examination. The lab assistant was concerned that the water had become full of toxic waste products and so added clean water to the culture. All of the organisms died, and when she looked at them under the microscope, all she could see were bits and pieces of them scattered throughout the water. What likely happened?She added water that was hypotonic to the culture of organisms, and they ruptured.
155. Which figure depicts an animal cell placed in a solution hypotonic to the cell?cell A
156. Which part of the ATP molecule breaks free of the rest when an ATP molecule is used for energy?part D
157. Americans spend up to $100 billion annually for bottled water (41 billion gallons). The only beverages with higher sales are carbonated soft drinks. Recent news stories have highlighted the fact that most bottled water comes from municipal water supplies (the same source as your tap water), although it may undergo an extra purification step called reverse osmosis. Imagine two tanks that are separated by a membrane that's permeable to water, but not to the dissolved minerals present in the water. Tank A contains tap water and tank B contains the purified water. Under normal conditions, the purified water would cross the membrane to dilute the more concentrated tap water solution. In the reverse osmosis process, pressure is applied to the tap water tank to force the water molecules across the membrane into the pure water tank. After the reverse osmosis system has been operating for 30 minutes, the solution in tank A wouldbe hypertonic to tank B.
158. If you shut off the system and pressure was no longer applied to tank A, you would expectthe water to reverse flow from tank B to tank A.
which part

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Views: 14
Asked: 10 months ago