foraging economies are usually associated with which type of sociopolitical organization?

foraging economies are usually associated with which type of sociopolitical organization?

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Asked by 2 years ago
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Economic relationships are characteristically embedded in other relationships, such as kinship, in all of the following kinds of societies exceptStates
Despite differences arising from environmental variation, all foraging economies have shared one essential feature, theirreliance on available natural resources for their subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plants and animals.
Which of the following kinds of exchange is characteristic among the members of a family?Generalized reciprocity
Throughout the many years that Kottak has been doing research among the nonindustrial Betsileo of Madagascar, he has witnessed the impact of globalization on their livelihood. All of the following have threatened the traditional fabric of Betsileo life exceptthe increased presence of anthropologists collaborating with local leaders to preserve their ancestral lands.
What is a mode of production?the way a society's social relations are organized to produce the labor necessary for generating the society's subsistence and energy needs
Which of the following statements about irrigation is not true?Irrigation is one of the defining characteristics of foraging societies.
Which of the following statements about peasants is not true? Theyare not part of the world market.
What are the means, or factors, of production?a society's major productive resources, such as land and other natural resources, labor, technology, and capital
What is the term that refers to the type of pastoral economy in which part of the population moves with the herds while the rest stays in the village?Pastoral transhumance
In recent times, many foraging groups have been exposed to the idea of food production but have never adopted it. Why?Their own economies provided a perfectly adequate and nutritious diet, with a lot less work
According to Max Weber, prestige is the basis ofsocial status.
The Inuit song battle isa means of resolving disputes so as to forestall open conflict.
Noting that chiefdoms created the megalithic cultures of Europe, such as the one that built Stonehenge, Kottak reminds us thatchiefdoms and states can fall as well as rise.
Which of the following is the most important factor in determining an individual's power and prestige in a state?Ancestry
As illustrated by a comparison between the Basseri and Qashqai, two Iranian nomadic tribes, illustrates, as regulatory problems increase,political hierarchies become more complex.
In an ethnographic field study of political systems in northern Mozambique, Nicholas Kottak found that avoiding shame can be an effective control against breaking social norms. This example of how shame can be a powerful social sanctionjoins the work of many other anthropologists that cite the importance of informal processes of social control, including gossip and stigma.
As a stark reminder that no society truly is isolated, this chapter's "Appreciating Diversity" segment describes how various levels of political regulationlocal, regional, national, and internationalnow determine how contemporary people such as the Venezuelan Yanomami live their lives. All of the following are examples of this except thatthe Yanomamis' leaders have been expelled by their own communities because of accusations of sorcery.
As an example of how virtually no one is immune from larger political and economic forces, the Yanomami tribal society of Brazil has suffered recent changes as a result ofencroachment by gold miners and cattle ranchers.
In the pre-Civil War southern United States, gatherings of five or more slaves were forbidden unless a white person was present, becauseresistance is most likely to be expressed openly when people are allowed to assemble.
The status systems of chiefdoms and states are similar in that both are based on differential access to resources. Nevertheless, a key distinction is thatdifferential access in chiefdoms is still very much tied to kinship.
What term refers to the ideological justification for outsiders to guide native groups in specific directions?intervention philosophy
This chapter argues that the World Bank's approach to corruption iswrong to assume that the state (public)-private dichotomy is universal and that it takes a similar form in all societies.
Who are indigenous peoples?descendants of tribespeople who live on as culturally distinct, colonized peoples, many of whom aspire to autonomy
Which of the following is not true about the modern world system?The distinction between bourgeoisie and proletariat has disappeared.
Which of the following statements about British colonialism is not true? Itlacked an intervention philosophy.
According to Marx, who are the bourgeoisie and the proletariat?distinct and opposed classes produced by the world capitalist economy
The growth of a market for sugar in Europe spurredthe development of a transatlantic slave trade.
According to Wallerstein (1982, 2004), what are the three structural positions of the modern world system?core, periphery, and semiperiphery
How does the modern world system affect ethnographers?They need to be aware of the fact that any culture they study is influenced by and has influence on other cultures.
Which of the following did not result from Christopher Columbus's voyages?Europeans offered statehood to Peru, Mexico, and Cuba.
Although locals may create a new religion, on a global scale religious change is more commonly the result ofmissionaries and proselytizers representing the major world religions.
Deforestation is a global concern. Forest loss can lead to increased greenhouse gas production, which contributes to global warming. The destruction of tropical forests also is a major factor in the loss of global biodiversity. The global scenarios of deforestation include all of the following exceptthe intensification of foraging lifestyles among communities that have retreated from the chaos of modern life.
__________ refers to the blurring and breakdown of established canonsrules, standards, categories, distinctions, and boundaries.Postmodern
Which is the single greatest obstacle to slowing climate change?meeting energy needs, particularly in energy-hungry countries such as the United States, China, and India
Cases where local communities use modern technology to preserve and revise their traditionsare becoming more common.
To Arjun Appadurai (1990), __________ describes the linkages in the modern world that have both enlarged and erased old boundaries and distinctions.translocal
Westernization is a form of what kind of cultural change?Acculturation
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that keeps the earth's surface warm. Without greenhouse gaseswater vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and ozonelife as we know it wouldn't exist. The current problem is thatthe atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has reached its highest level in 400,000 years, and this rise has upset the balance of radiative forcings working to warm and cool the earth.
In 1989, a military government seized power in the Sudan. This resulted in which of the following?The Sudanese government adopted a policy of cultural imperialism.
This chapter describes Americans' belief that U.S. television programs inevitably triumph over local products around the world asethnocentric.
In this chapter we learned that we should not view contemporary foragers as isolated or pristine survivors of the Stone Age. In fact, all societies, no matter how small or seemingly remote, are influenced by regional and even global forces. For example, the Kamayur Indians, who live in the middle of Xingu National Park in Brazil, have had to deal with which of the following threats to their livelihood?drier weather from deforestation and climate change, and the negative impact that this has on their subsistence crops and the availability of food that they relied on through fishing and hunting
How are nonindustrial economic systems embedded in society?The economic system cannot easily be separated from other systems, such as kinship.
Because nonindustrial economies can have features of both horticulture and agriculture, it is useful to discuss cultivators as being arranged along a cultivation continuum. Which of the following generally occurs in moving toward the more intensive end of the cultivating continuum?increasing economic specialization
Intensive agriculturehas significant environmental effects such as deforestation, water pollution, and reduction of ecological diversity
Which of the following statements about potlatching is not true? Potlatchingis a case which proves that the profit-maximizing motive is a human universal.
What happens as one moves along the cultivating continuum?The use of land and labor intensifies.
Which of the following is not characteristic of band-level societies?permanent villages
Which of the following is not associated with the market principle?kin-based generalized reciprocity
A big man's position depends on all of the following exceptinherited inequality
What is hegemony?a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers' values and accepting the "naturalness" of domination
Which of the following statements about nonstate societies is true?Economic, political, and religious activities are often embedded in one another.
According to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault,it is easier and more effective to dominate people in their minds than to try to control their bodies.
Foraging economies are usually associated with which type of sociopolitical organization?Band
How do chiefdoms differ from states? Chiefdomslack socioeconomic stratification and stratum endogamy.
Which of the following statements about political leaders in foraging bands is true? Theyhave no means of forcing people to follow their decisions.
Which is not true of core nations? Theyexport their raw materials to other countries.
Neoliberalism is a new form of the old economic liberalism laid out in Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations (1776). To Smith, economic liberalism encouraged free enterprise and competition, with the goal of generating profits. However, this meaning of liberalis different from the one typically used in current U.S. politics, in which liberal is the opposite of conservative.
What is the name of the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time?Colonialism
Communism has two meanings, distinguished by how they are written. Small-c communism describes a social system in which property is owned by the community and in which people work for the common good. Large-C Communismwas a political movement and doctrine seeking to overthrow capitalism and establish a form of communism such as that which prevailed in the Soviet Union (the U.S.S.R.) from 1917 to 1991.
Periphery nationshave economies that disproportionately benefit capitalists in the core.
According to Karl Marx, classes arepowerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence the course of history
Which of the following statements about Karl Marx is not true? Heviewed socioeconomic stratification in terms of several classes with different but complementary interests
The labels First World, Second World, and Third World represent a common, if ethnocentric, way of categorizing nations. First World refers to the democratic West, which is traditionally conceived of as being in opposition to a Second World ruled byCommunism
Which of the following did not result from Christopher Columbus's voyages?Europeans offered statehood to Peru, Mexico, and Cuba
Yehudi Cohen's adaptive strategiessuggest an association between the economies of societies and their social features.
Which of the following is a characteristic of most foraging societies?Egalitarianism
Unlike in industrial societies, where economic alienation is common, in nonindustrial societies,the relations of production, distribution, and consumption are social relations with economic aspects.
Which of the following is not associated with the market principle?kin-based generalized reciprocity
Which of the following statements about shifting cultivation is true? Itrequires cultivators to change plots of land, with the fallowing durations varying in different societies
Which of the following was not used by the traditional Inuit to handle disputes?Courts of law
Political systems have their informal, social, and subtle aspects along with their formal, governmental, and public dimensions. A good example of this isthe diwaniyas of Kuwaitneighborhood male-only meeting places where informal discussions have formal consequences.
Which of the following is not typical of state-level societies?a purely foraging-based subsistence strategy
Anthropologist Susan Kent notes a tendency to stereotype foragers, to treat them all as alike. They used to be stereotyped as isolated, primitive survivors of the Stone Age. Another, more recent, common stereotype of foragers sees them asculturally deprived people forced by states, colonialism, or world events into marginalized environments.
The presence and acceptance of which of the following is one of the key distinguishing features of a state?gender differences in terms of access to resources
As this chapter's "Appreciating Anthropology" segment notes, around the world many contemporary nations are repeatingat an accelerated ratethe process of resource depletion that started in Europe and the United States during the Industrial Revolution. Fortunately, however,today's world has some environmental watchdogsmany of them anthropologistswho did not exist during the first centuries of the Industrial Revolution.
All of the following are true about neoliberalism except that itis characterized by the policy that environmental protection and job safety are too important to be left unregulated.
What does the term Columbian exchange refer to? Thespread of people, resources, products, ideas, and diseases between the Eastern and Western hemispheres after contact
According to Weber, what are the three dimensions of social stratification?wealth, power, and prestige
Which of the following is not one of the possible consequences experienced after the "shock phase" of an encounter between indigenous societies and more powerful outsiders?a broad-spectrum revolution
Identities arenot fixed; they are fluid and multiple.
In Spanish-speaking Latin America, social scientists and politicians favor which term over indio (Indian), the colonial term that the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors used to refer to the native inhabitants of the Americas?ind'gena (indigenous person)
Today's ecological anthropology, also known as environmental anthropology, attempts not only to understand but also tofind solutions to environmental problems, acknowledging that ecosystems management involves multiple levels.
The Handsome Lake religionwas a revitalization movement that helped the Iroquois survive in a drastically modified environment.
Social movements worldwide have adopted which term as a self-identifying and political label based on past oppression but now legitimizing a search for social, cultural, and political rights?indigenous people
__________ describes the process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so as to hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed.Essentialism
Why do anthropologist question the idea that present-day foragers can be compared to Paleolithic foragers?Present-day foragers have been in contact with food-producing and industrialized societies for long periods of time, and all live within nation-states that inevitable affect their livelihood.
This chapters description on the San Bushmens relation to the government of Botswana is a telling example of howMore and more foragers have come under the control of nation-states and are now influence by the forces of globalization
A horticultural system of cultivation is characterized byPeriodic cycles of cultivation and fallowing
Which of the following was a characteristic shared by recent foraging communities? TheyLive in marginal environments that were of little interest to food-producing societies
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of band-level societies?Permanent villages
Modern foragers are not Stone Age relics, living fossils, lost tribes, or noble savages. Still, to the extents that foraging has been the basis of their subsistence, contemporary and recent hunger-gatherersCan illustrate links between a foraging economy and other aspects of society and culture, such as their sociopolitical organization
Which of the following kinds of societies is most likely to have stratum endogamy (marriage within ones own group)? AState
In which of the following forms of political organizations is it most likely that the most important leaders will acquire their positions based upon personal background or ability, rather than heredity?Tribal Societies
In anthropology, history, and literature, the field of postcolonial studies has gained prominence since the 1970s. Postcolonial refers toThe study of the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized
What best characterizes the intervention philosophy of the British Empire?White man's burden
What term refers to the wealth or resources invested in business with the intent of producing a profit?Capital
_____ is the term for the physical destruction of ethnic groups by murder, warfare, and introduced diseasesGenocide
Illustration how forces from world centers can and are creatively modified to fit the local culture, how did the Native Australian interpret the move Rambo? Theya. Created tribal ties and kin links between Rambo and the prisoners he was rescuing
Social movements worldwide have adopted which term as a self-identifying and political label based on past oppression but now legitimizing a search for social, cultural, and political rights?Indigenous people
Because our planets climate is always changing, the key question becomes, how much of global warming is caused by human activities versus natural climate variability? On this issue, most scientists agree that the causes are mainlyAnthropogenic
The last 30 years have seen a dramatic shift in the conditions of indigenous peoples in Latin America, where the drive by indigenous peoples for self-identification has emphasized all of the following EXCEPTTheir autochthony, with an implicit call from excluding strangers from their communities
refers to the changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contactAcculturation
Because of global climate change, arctic landscapes and ecosystems are changing rapidly and perceptibly, as the residents of Newtok, Alaska, can attest. With the land upon which they have built their homes slowly melting and sinking, they have appealed to the state and federal governments for assistance in helping them cover the costs of moving their town to a different location. Ironically,Decades ago, the U.S. government mandated that they and other Alaskan natives abandon a nomadic life based on hunting and fishing for sedentism
Generalized Reciprocityis the characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies.
Which of the following is most characteristic of foragers?high mobility and small groups with flexible affiliations
How does a big man increase his status?Big men do not keep the wealth they accumulate; instead, they redistribute it to create and maintain alliances with political supporters
Despite the analytical usefulness of learning about anthropologist Elman Service's typology of political organization into bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states, it is important to remember thatnone of these political entities, or polities, can be studied as a self-contained form of political organization, because all exist within nation-states.
Which of the following is not true of postmodernism? Ithas a clear and functional design or structure.
Anthropology has always been concerned with how environmental forces influence humans, and how human activities affect the biosphere and the earth itself. The 1950s through the 1970s witnessed the emergence of an area of study known as cultural ecology or ecological anthropology. This fieldfocused on how cultural beliefs and practices help human populations adapt to their environment.
Unlike "indigenous peoples," what term, which highlights the prominence that the exclusion of strangers has assumed in day-to-day politics worldwide, has been claimed by majority groups in Europe?autochthon
What term refers to wealth or resources invested in business with the intent of producing a profit?capital
Who viewed the nation-state as an instrument of oppression and religion as a method of diverting and controlling the masses?Marx
Kottak prefers the term sociopolitical organization to Morton Fried's term political organization in discussing the regulation or management of interrelations among groups and their representatives becauseFried's definition is much less applicable to nonstates, in which it is often difficult to detect any public policy.
In the context of tribal societies, what is a "big man"?a person who creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others
Why do slash-and-burn cultivators stop using a plot of land every two to three years?They do not use fertilizer; thus, their crops exhaust the soil quickly
What kinds of societies typically are associated with slash-and-burn cultivation?Nonindustrial societies
Which of the following economic principles is generally dominant in industrial society?The market principle
foraging economies
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Asked: 2 years ago