based on the marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?

based on the marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?


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The Gerad Company has decided to build their new factory in an area of the city that is considered a problem area. When they applied for a loan at the bank, they were refused. The refusal of this loan is an example ofRedlining
When missionaries introduced steel axes to the Aborigines of Australia, it upset their entire society. What is the spreading of an invention, such as an ax, from one society to another referred to by sociologists?Diffusion
During cultural lag what is the most likely change of events that will transpire?Technology will change first but nonmaterial culture will lag behind the technology.
The faculty teaching a course in juvenile delinquency are broadcasting the lesson from a secure juvenile shelter to over 100 different universities across the US. What term applies to teaching courses in such a manner where students are not physically present?Distance learning
Thousands of people have banded together to protest drunk driving, to bring public attention to the deaths and property damage it causes, and to encourage legislators to pass more severe laws directed against drunk drivers. What term describes such a combination of people banding together to create change in society?A social movement
Members of the National Rifle Association fight any suggestion for stricter gun control laws. What type of social movement is this where people unite together to resist social change?Reactive Social Movement
What term applies to a social movement that seeks only to change some specific behavior of individuals, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union's efforts to ban the constitution of alcoholic beverages?Alternative social movement
Over the past several years there has been a worldwide women's movement that seeks to end patriarchy and advance the concept of feminism. What classification best applies to this social movement?Transactional social movement
What is the condition created by the burning of fossil fuels that allows sunlight to enter the earth's atmosphere freely, but inhibits the release of heat?The greenhouse effect
Ralph is 45 years of age and has decided to stop putting in overtime at work and to stop going to the Chamber of Commerce meetings in order to spend more time with his family and friends. According to Elaine Cumming and William Henry, Ralph is ________Beginning to disengage from society
The prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age is called ______Ageism
From a functionalist perspective teaching knowledge and skills reinforces positive consequences in students, which are referred to as the ______ of education.Manifest functions
One of the functions performed by schools is to mold all students into a more or less cohesive unit. The function is referred to as _________.Social integration
When employers use diplomas and degrees more and more to determine who is eligible for jobs, even through the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ______ society.Credential
In contrast to the natural elements of every day life, Durkheim described the supernatural aspects of life as being ____________Sacred
In Least Industrialized Nations and among many traditional groups, such as the Amish, women bear 20 to 22 children in their lifetime. This is the maximum number of children women can bear which is referred to as ______fecundity
To determine a country's growth rate, what three variables would a demographer use?fertility, mortality, migration
What is the slaughtering of a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity?Genocide
Which statement is most true of dominant groups?The dominant group has greater power, privilege, and social status
George is a clerk in a hardware store. When an African American comes into the store, George provides closer monitoring because he believes that African Americans will steal his merchandise. What term most applies to the unequal treatment that George applies to African Americans who are actually customers?Discrimination
Prejudice describes _______ while discrimination describes _________.attitudes, actions
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sociologically, how would one describe Sam's actions?Sam is guilty of prejudice and discrimination
People who are African American and Hispanic are often turned down for loans, even though their credit histories are similar to white applicants. What do sociologists call this form of treatment?Institutional discrimination
What is the intergroup strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them?Segregation
In the US we are free to join the Sons of Italy, NAACP, and other groups in which we can proudly display our ethnic and racial heritage. During times of crisis, however, such as the 9/11 tragedy, "we are all Americans." What is such a policy of intergroup relations that permits, and even encourages racial-ethnic variation but maintains a shared identity?Pluralism
What term do sociologists use to refer to a large group of people who rank closely together in property, power and prestige?Social class
In the US, what occupation holds the greatest prestige?Physician
What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?Intergenerational mobility
What is the trend in US society whereby poor families have become increasingly headed by women?The feminization of poverty
Which group of theorists believe the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain an army of reserve workers?Conflict
What is an unequal access to power, property and prestige based on one's sex?Gender stratification
Which qualities are examples of primary sex characteristics?Vagina, penis, and other organs related to reproduction
Why are women classified as a minority group?Women are discriminated against based on physical or cultural characteristics
Leticia has worked for twenty years in the public relations department of a large firm and has been the vice-president for the past ten years. It is unlikely she will ever be promoted to the top executive position in her firm even though she has directed several successful projects and is quite capable. What sociological concept does this scenario illustrate?The "glass ceiling"
What did sociologist Christine Williams discover when she studied the work records of men employed in positions traditionally considered women's occupations?The men climbed a "glass escalator" and were promoted quickly
What is the term used to describe the number of years people can plan on living?Life expectancy
The life expectancy of men born in the year 2010 is approximately ________ and the life expectancy of women born that year is approximately ________.76, 81
Which theory of aging suggests people adjust to old age by maintaining ties with their past?Continuity theory
Which theory of aging equates happiness in old age to the amount and quality of program participation the elderly engage in?Activity theory
People who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige constitute what Max Weber called a ________.Social class
Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil's high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of ________.Status inconsistency
Status inconsistency refers to the situation in which:individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class while low on other dimensions.
The money someone receives as wages, rent, interest, royalties, or business interest is collectively referred to as _____________Income
Theorists who suggest that the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain an army of reserve workers are most aligned with the ___________ perspective.Conflict
A group of people with inherited physical characteristics hat distinguish it from another group is referred to as ___________Race
Gerald is a Jewish student at Brown University and has chosen to live in a dormitory that is exclusively inhabited by Jewish students. His decision to live in this dormitory is an example of __________Self-segregation
Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George's loan was given to him. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.Individual discrimination
Under czarist Russia, daily living conditions for Jews were made so intolerable that millions chose to leave Russia and migrate to other countries. This is an example of _____________Indirect transfer
While race might reflect our biological heritage, _____________ reflects our cultural heritage.Ethnicity
Although gender inequality appears to have existed in all societies, the society that appears to have been the most egalitarian was the ________ society.Hunting-gathering
TRUE or FALSE The fact that women are twice as likely to die after coronary bypass surgery can be traced to unintentional sexual discrimination.True
The sociological perspective that associates man's dominant strength and virility with violence against women is the ____________ perspective.Symbolic interactionist
The use of violence to create fear in an effort to bring about political objectives is called _________Terrorism
___ is the unwritten goals of schools, such as obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms.Hidden curriculum
The process of reducing people to objects is called _____________Dehumanization
_____ is a function of education that funnels people into a society's various positions.Social placement
_____ as populations got bigger, voters had to vote for those who represented them in WashingtonRepresentative democracy
______ indicates that higher grades are given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning or test scores.Inflation
Power that people accept as rightly exercised over them; also called ____ powerLegitimate
The term _____ comes from two Greek words that translate literally as "power to the people."Democracy
____ is a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their decisions.Direct democracy
What is a type of authority based on written rules, that is reasonable and agreed to by the people?Rational-legal authority
What is another term for legitimate power?Authority
What is another term for illegitimate power?Coercion
What were the three sources of authority identified by Max Weber?Traditional, rational-legal, charismatic
John F. Kennedy had a combination of ideal types of leadership. Although he was the President of the United States, he also inspired people to get involved with their country's programs through his inspirational speeches. President Kennedy is an example of combining which two sources of authority?Charismatic and Rational-Legal
Which of the following types of government does Hitler's Nazi Germany and Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq best illustrate?Totalitarianism
Which of the following is the best description of an economy?It is a system of producing and distributing goods and services
What is an economic system where both the state and individuals produce and distribute goods and services?Democratic socialism
What are the three characteristics of socialism?Central economic planning, public ownership of the means of production, no profit
Durkheim said religion was composed of three elements. Which of the following was not one of the three?Sacrifice
Sociologically, a cult is a ________.New or different religion
The term "________" refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God.Religious experience
What is the primary focus of functional theories of aging (disengagement, activity and continuity)?The provide an explanation of how elderly people adjust to retirement
What is the name of a society in which a man has more than one wife?Polygynous
Sylvia legally has three husbands--Ryan, Matthew, and Frank. In view of this, which assessment most accurately applies to Sylvia?Sylvia is living in a society that practices polyandry
When Frank was only a year old he was "unofficially" adopted by another family on the block when Frank's parents were killed in an automobile accident. Frank lived with this family until he enlisted in the military when he was 19. How would sociologists classify the adopting family that Frank lived with for 18 years?It was Frank's family of orientation
What term describes a family in which grandparents, parents, children, and grandchildren live under one roof?The extended family
Of the following concepts, which of the following is the best example of exogamy?The incest taboo prohibits close relatives from marrying one another.
Anthony and Cathy Smith have been married for thirty-one years. They have always had a joint bank account, discuss big expenditures before making them, and share household duties. Which term best describes the Smith family based on this information?It is an egalitarian family
Which perspective is most aligned with the belief that family controls economic production, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, and reproduction?The functionalist perspective
Which sociological perspective emphasizes housework as "women's work" and mowing the lawn as "men's work" in a traditional orientation toward household chores?The symbolic interactionist perspective
What are "boomerang children"?Children who strike out on their own but then find the cost and responsibility too great and return home
Which term describes a family where at least one member of the marrying couple brings children into it from a previous union or other marriage?Blended family
What term did sociologist Randall Collins apply to industrialized nations due to their tendency to use diplomas and degrees as sorting devices?Credential societies
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania has one of the largest enrollments of disabled students in the United States. Their extra curricular activities include wheelchair athletics, and the special needs of all students are met through an extensive office of disabilities. What term applies to Edinboro's effort to incorporate students with disabilities into regular school activities?Mainstreaming
What is the process of determining which people will enter what occupations through tracking and placing select students in "ability groups" and "advanced" classes?Gatekeeping
What is the major criticism a conflict theorist would make of the hidden curriculum?It perpetuates social inequalities
Renee has difficulty in reading and writing. However, despite her problem with reading and writing, she has been passed into the next grade every year. This is an example of ________.Social promotion
What term applies to the beliefs and practices which unite people into a single moral community?A church
What are the three elements of religion based on Durkheim's writings?Beliefs, practices, a moral community
Next week Anthony and Maria will attend the confirmation of their nephew, Leo. The confirmation ceremony is also known as a[n] ________ because it helps unite people into a moral community.Ritual
In Moronica the government subsidizes the one major religion. To be elected to political office, the constitution of Moronica requires the candidate to be a member of the Church of Moronica. Based on this, which type of religious group applies best to describe the Church of Moronica?It is an ecclesia
What is the study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human population?Demography
1) From a Marxist orientation, how many social classes are there?Two
What term do sociologists use to refer to a large group of people who rank closely together in property, power, and prestige?Social class
What formula would a sociologist use to determine one's wealth?Wealth = total property - total debts
Sociologically, what is one's net worth?Wealth
According to the text, what is the average family income in America?$61,000
Using the concept of a child's block equal to $500 of income, what does the author use to illustrate the height of U.S. families with the highest income?Mount Everest
Who does The:Wall:Street:Journal list as being the highest paid CEO and for what company?Sanjay Jha (Motorola)
What term did C. Wright Mills coin to refer to the collection of people who make the big decisions in U.S. society?Power elite
What did sociologists Daniel Hellinger and Dennis Judd call the false impression American voters have that they influence national and foreign policy because they vote?The democratic facade
What qualities do most U.S. presidents share?They are millionaire white men from "old money" families
Why do some people in Los Angeles list their address as "Beverly Hills" but then use the correct zip code for Los Angeles?It is a means by which people display prestige
Bruce owns about 3,000 acres of prime farmland, is one of the wealthiest men in the county, and enjoys a great deal of prestige in his community. How would sociologists describe Bruce's status?Bruce is status consistent because of his high ranking in the dimensions of wealth and prestige.
Jocko has a high school diploma and owns a corporation that nets over a million dollars a year. In view of this, which of the following is the best description of Jocko based on middle -class standards?Jocko is status inconsistent because his level of education, which is not consistent with his rank in property and power.
How do winners of large lottery jackpots avoid the pitfall of status inconsistency that can lead to anomie?They maintain the lifestyle and behavior they had prior to their financial windfall.
Judy cleans homes for very wealthy clients. She also does some personal catering for her wealthiest clients during their holiday season. As a result, she earns about three times more than the average person in her small, rural hometown. Based on this information, what is the most likely way that Judy's friends and neighbors will react to her?Judy's neighbors will ignore what she makes and more likely consider her a scrub woman.
How did Karl Marx define social class?Social class is solely based on one's relationship to the means of production.
What term did Erik Wright use to describe the condition when a person is a member of more than one class at the same time?Contradictory class locations
Tony has established a lawn and landscape business that grosses nearly $1 million dollars per year, and Tony has set his own annual salary at $250,000. Based on Erik Wright's modification of Marx's model of social class, what is Tony's social class?Petty bourgeoisie
How many classes exist in Erik Wright's modified Marxian model of social class?Four
In addition to the criteria of wealth, power, and prestige, what other component did Kahl and Gilbert include in their six-tier model of class in capitalist countries?Education
What are the two subdivisions of the capitalist class?"Old" money and "new" money
Who would be most likely to be listed in the Social:Register?"Blue bloods" and old-money capitalists
Based on the model of Kahl and Gilbert, which social class is most shaped by education?Upper middle class
Which class of Americans pride themselves for having "real jobs" and feel that workers in suits are no more than paper pushers with no practical experience?The working class
What members of the underclass are described in the text as the "fallout" of the postindustrial economy?The homeless
Based on the author's account of the relationship between physical health and social class, which of the following statements would be most accurate?There is an inverse relationship between social class and physical health.
How does being a member of the capitalist class affect one's ability to find an eligible spouse?The field of potential spouses for capitalists is much narrower than for other classes.
Bruce is a homeless man who has just experienced a violent psychotic episode in the middle of a crowded metropolitan street. In view of this, which of the following scenarios will most likely follow?Bruce will be taken to a state hospital, receive "drug therapy" for a few days, and be released.
Meredith is unable to afford adequate medical care to treat her mental illness. In view of this, what can be surmised about Meredith's situation?Meredith qualifies as being in poverty and is receiving tranquilizers for a diagnosed mental illness.
What two social classes are likely to be best represented in St. John's Episcopal Church?the capitalist class and upper middle class
Which of the following religions draws its membership heavily from the working poor and underclass?Baptist
Paul and Charlene attend a church where there is a healthy dose of loud "amens," loud and rhythmic music, and expressive homilies by the minister. To what social class do Paul and Charlene probably belong?The lower middle class
What phrase best describes how working class people think about economic and social issues?The working class is more liberal on economic issues and more conservative on social issues.
During the Great Depression thousands of people found themselves in a lower social class. What type of social mobility did this event illustrate?Structural mobility
What is it called when the same numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change?Exchange mobility
In studies addressing the social mobility of sons in the 1960s and 1970s, what did researchers find?About half the sons passed their fathers on the social class ladder
What did Higginbotham and Weber discover about women from working -class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative positions?They were all encouraged by their parents to get an education
The official measure of poverty is based on the assumption that poor people spend about one-third of their income on food. In reality, what percentage of their income do poor people actually spend on food today?20 percent
Which set of characteristics is most applicable in describing the poor in the United States?White, high school drop-out, mother head of household
What is the race of most poor people living in the United States?White
What is the trend in U.S. society whereby poor families have become increasingly headed by women?The feminization of poverty
What is the approximate number of American children living in poverty?13 million
How long does an American family remain in poverty on average?one year or less
John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town and now lives below the poverty line. How would a sociologist describe John's situation?John is poor because of a change in the social structure
In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Critics of this new legislation called it an attack on the poor and that it has not transformed welfare recipients into self -supporting and hard-working citizens. What evidence do these supporters use in making this point?The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased
Which explanation of poverty do sociologists generally support?Sociologists support the social structure over characteristics of the individual as an explanation of poverty.
Which group of theorists believes the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain a reserve labor force?Conflict theorists
Who wrote about mythical rags-to-riches boy heroes and their amazing success stories?Horatio Alger
TRUE or FALSE The main problem with the Marxist orientation toward social class is that it lumps too many people together.True
TRUE or FALSE Because of government programs, there is less economic difference between the rich and the poor than there was in 1970.False
TRUE or FALSE There has been little change in the distribution of income in the United States since 1935.True
TRUE or FALSE Conflict theorists generally support the concept that individuals influence politics by voting.False
TRUE or FALSE hen people win large lottery prizes, it tends to result in status inconsistency and anomie.True
TRUE or FALSE Sociologists generally agree on the six-tier model of social class ranging from the underclass to capitalist class.False
Approximately one percent of the American population, the capitalist class, has more wealth than the entire bottom 90 percent in the class structure.True
Donald Trump and Bill Gates serve as classic examples of "blue bloods" included in the Social Register.False
Of all the social classes in the Gilbert and Kahl model, the capitalist class is the one most shaped by education.False
In the United States, every citizen has the legal right to basic health care.False
The higher one's social class, the greater control they have over their lives which in turn leads to better mental health.True
The higher one's social class, the greater their choice of eligible marriage partners.False
Members of the lower classes are more apt to join Episcopalian churches than members of the higher social classes.False
Structural mobility refers to changes in society that push large numbers of people either up or down the social class ladder.True
More than half of all African American adults work at white -collar jobs.True
The creation of the "poverty line" has provided an accurate means to measure the number of people living in poverty.False
There is more poverty in rural than in urban areas.True
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act is considered a success in reducing welfare rolls and raising the standard of living of the working poor.False
What was the name of the "social club" nearly 400 African -American men joined at Tuskegee University:in the 1930s that was later revealed to be an unethical study of syphilis conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service?Miss Rivers' Lodge
What is the variable that most distinguishes one race from another?Physical characteristics
What is the attempted destruction of a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity?Genocide
What term was used to describe the Serb massacre of Muslims in Bosnia?Ethnic cleansing
What are two major myths about race that are refuted in the text?Certain races are superior to others, and pure races exist.
How many racial groups did anthropologist Ashley Montagu identify in his typological matrix?Forty
Race is to biology as _______ is to cultural heritage.Ethnicity
Who was the sociologist who defined minority groups as people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?Louis Wirth
Tiger Woods invented the term "Cablinasian" to describe his racial identity. What identities are included in being a "Cablinasian"?Asian, Indian, Black, Caucasian
In the 19th century, Erica would have been described as a "quadroon." In view of this, which of the following is the best description of Erica?She was classified as being one-fourth black and three-fourths white.
Hindu was a choice on the U.S. Census as a race from 1920 to 1940. What is the most logical reason it was removed?Hindu is a religion, not a race
Sociologists refer to those members of society with the greater power and privilege (the ones who do the discriminating) as theDominant group
Mickey takes great pride in being Irish. He wears a button that says "Kiss Me...I'm Irish," flies the Irish flag outside his home, cooks traditional Irish dishes at home, and participates in the St. Patrick's Day parade every year. What is Mickey doing as it relates to race and ethnicity?Mickey is involved in ethnic work
Which statement is always true of dominant groups?A dominant group has greater power and privilege than another
What conclusion did sociologist Kathleen Blee reach after she studied women who joined hate groups?Some women who join hate groups learn to be racists after they join a hate group.
What analogy mentioned in the text has been suggested by some analysts as a more appropriate way to describe the United States than the concept of the "melting pot"?A tossed salad
Some African Americans make efforts to straighten their hair to look more "white" and believe African American women with lighter skin are more beautiful than those with dark skin. What is this phenomenon called?The internalization of the norms of the dominant group
Chris, a mortgage loan manager, works for a bank that targets minorities for high -risk loans because the bank can charge higher interest rates. The action of the bank is best:described:asInstitutional discrimination
What term refers to a racial, ethnic, or religious minority that a member of the dominant group uses to blame for their failure to achieve desired goals?Scapegoat
Police officers and other people who must enforce rules, regulations, and laws are often accused of exhibiting prejudice because they view the world as "black and white" without shades of gray. Based on this assessment, which statement is most applicable?The behavior of police officers can be attributed to the authoritarian personality
What is the major difference between how sociologists and psychologists attempt to understand prejudice?Psychologists examine conditions inside the individual, and sociologists examine conditions outside the individual.
What conclusion did the Sherifs reach following their experiment in which boys at a summer camp were assigned different cabins which competed against each other in sports and for status?Prejudice is functional as it creates in-group solidarity.
Which sociological perspective best explains the concepts of a reserve labor force and a split labor market?Conflict theory
Which of the following serves as the best example of the split labor market?Italian immigrants work in the coal mines for less money than third -generation Germans and Welsh.
What do sociologists call a tendency for people to be blind to the messages that labels convey?Selective perception
Which sociological perspective is the concept of selective perception most affiliated?symbolic interactionism
In the 18th century, executioners wore black hoods to conceal their identities and separate their actions from a sense of being a good and moral person. What is such a tactic called?Compartmentalization
During the "Night of Broken Glass" (November 9, 1938) Adolf Hitler ordered his brown shirts, the Hitler Youth, and Gestapo to destroy Jewish businesses and confiscate what money they had in bank accounts. What are such tactics that "encourage" a group of people, in this case the Jews, to vacate a territory called?Indirect population transfer
Slavery in the United States was an example of which pattern of intergroup relations?Internal colonialism
What term describes a form of internal colonialism practiced in South Africa when dominant white Afrikaners exploited black Africans?Apartheid
What is the intergroup strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them?Segregation
What pattern of intergroup relations does the caste system illustrate?Segregation
What is the method of intergroup relations that allows the minority group to adopt the dominant group's patterns in their own way and at their own speed?Permissible assimilation
Which European nation provides the best example of multiculturalism?Switzerland
Who are Chicanos?Americans from Mexico
From which country do Americans of European descent most often trace their ancestry?Germany
In the late 19th century, what term described immigrants from Europe whose language and customs were different than those who had already settled America?White ethnics
From which nation do the greatest number of Latinos in the United States trace their heritage?Mexico
What was the major difference between the half-million Cubans who fled Castro's rise to power in 1959 and the 100,000 "boat people" who fled Cuba in 1980?The 1980 group was less educated and from a lower class.
Who are the American volunteers concerned with illegal immigration who unofficially patrol the Mexico-United States border?the Minutemen
What race-related legislation did Senator S. I. Hayakawa of California introduce in 1981?an English-only amendment to the Constitution
In 1955, who was the African American woman whose arrest for refusing to stand on a public bus so white people could sit helped inspire the civil rights movement?Rosa Parks
Which sociologist argues that social class has become more important than race in determining the life chances of African Americans?William Julius Wilson
In which ethnic group is it most likely that children will grow up with parents who are married to each other?Asian American
Rosa is a young, female Puerto Rican; Leon is a young, male African American; Yoko is a young, female Japanese American; and Joseph is a young, male Native American. Which individual is most likely to intermarry?Yoko
Which ethnic group does the text refer to as the "invisible minority"?Native Americans
In the 19th century, which two patterns of intergroup relations were Native Americans subjected to by the dominant white Americans?genocide and direct population transfer
During World War II, Japanese Americans were placed in internment camps.But Chinese, Koreans, and other Asians were also discriminated against in the U.S. because they "looked" Japanese. What is this tendency for people to stereotype ethnic or racial groups that are distinctly different from each other, but have similar characteristics?Spillover bigotry
Biologists and anthropologists generally agree there are 27 distinct races.False
Institutional discrimination is discrimination "woven into the fabric of society."True
Infant mortality rates in the United States are about the same for white and African -American babies.False
In a split labor market all minorities would be united against the discrimination of the dominant group.False
In the case Plessy:v.:Ferguson,: the Supreme Court ruled that "Jim Crow" laws were a reasonable use of state power.True
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was aimed at giving African American citizens equal access to exercise their Constitutional right to vote.False
One of the first groups in the West to be met with widespread discrimination that was both individual and institutional were the Chinese.True
Because of the diverse number of European nations from which white Americans trace their ancestry, the majority of Americans will be of European descent for at least the next hundred years.False
What do gender, age, and race -ethnicity share in respect to their sociological significance?They are all master statuses that cut across all aspects of social life.
Which of the following is the best example of gender stratification?Women are not permitted to vote, own property, or testify in court in some societies.
Why are age and sex considered master statuses?They cut across all aspects of social life.
How many pairs of chromosomes are involved in the fertilization of a human egg by a sperm cell?23
Which of the following illustrates the normal male chromosome configuration?XY
What evidence do sociologists emphasize in their response to biologists that genetics cannot be the principal factor in determining human behavior?Behavior among men and women would be more universal around the world.
What is the dominant sociological position to explain gender -based behavior?Social factors are the reason for human behavior.
What example was used by sociologist Alice Rossi to explain gender differences in her model of predispositions overlaid with culture?Women are better prepared biologically for "mothering" than men.
In addition to testosterone levels, what other variable did the Vietnam veterans study examine as the possible cause of aggressive male behavior?Social class
What was the result of the remarks made by the President of Harvard University suggesting women had inborn characteristics making them less competitive than men in fields such as engineering?The President resigned his position after being chastised by his faculty and staff.
In what countries mentioned in the text has mass media helped create an incipient women's movement by showing women that other gender relationships are possible?Iran and Afghanistan
Which anthropologists proposed that the origin of patriarchy points to social consequences of human reproduction?Lerner and Friedl
How did Frederick Engels explain the development of patriarchy?Patriarchy came with the development of private property.
In India, what is the practice of suttee?The burning of the living widow during cremation with her dead husband.
In some societies, such as Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who is believed to have brought disgrace to the family may be killed by a male relative. What is this practice called?Honor killing
Female circumcision is a custom in some societies. How do feminists view this practice?They consider it a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality.
What term is used to describe the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted?Feminism
In order to gain national attention to their cause, what course of action did members of the National Women's Party take in 1917?They set up a picket line around the White House for six months until they were arrested.
The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch.Winning the right to vote for women.
What were the goals of the second wave of the women's movement that began in the 1960s?The goals are broad-ranging, from raising women's pay to changing policies on violence against women.
In which field have women experienced the greatest increase in professional degrees since 1970?Dentistry
The fact that 95 percent of construction trade degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates what concept?Gender tracking
Who was the first psychologist to propose the idea of affirmative action for men?Judith Kleinfeld
What must any solution to the problem of gendered violence accomplish?Any connections between violence and masculinity must be broken.
Who was the first woman to serve as the Speaker of the House of Representatives?Nancy Pelosi
What would a comparative analysis of the Tiwi and the Abkhasians illustrate regarding the meanings that people attach to aging?Age is socially constructed.
In which society did life expectancy make the greatest increase for the masses?the industrial societyIn which nation do workers pay the greatest amount of their salaries into social security taxes?
In which nation do workers pay the greatest amount of their salaries into social security taxes?Poland
What is the current human life span, based on the age reached by a French woman who died in 1997?122
In which sociological perspective do theorists focus on how the meaning of "old age" shifts based on the changing conditions of society?Symbolic interactionism
Who was the physician who developed the concept of "ageism"?Robert Butler
In contrast to how living to a "ripe old age" is viewed in industrial societies, how did the people of colonial America view aging?It was a significant accomplishment
How do symbolic interactionists believe that the social value of the elderly in America changed when the economy shifted from being based on agriculture to industry?It decreased
Most people in this sociology class were born at roughly the same time and will pass through the life course together. In view of this, what term would sociologists use to describe them?Age cohort
What is the theory developed by Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstam that postulates as people grow older they develop more subtle ways of viewing right and wrong and can tolerate more ambiguity?gerotranscendence theory
Because the first of the baby boom generation are now in their 60s, how will this translate into how members of society view the elderly and why?The image of the elderly will improve because of their vast numbers and economic clout.
What do a "baby boom" generation and a "baby bust" generation have in common?They are both age cohorts
As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age, how will it affect the U.S. job market?Many jobs will open up at roughly the same time.
Which theory suggests society would be disrupted if the elderly left their positions only when they died or became incompetent?Disengagement theory
What did the research conducted by Elaine Cumming on disengagement theory reveal?Retirement is a mutually beneficial arrangement between the elderly and younger people.
When Patti Sue was 49 she decided to retire in five years. By that time she would have more than 35 years of service with her company and be able to retire without penalty and full benefits. According to Elaine Cumming, what stage in the life course did Patti Sue initiate when she was 49?She began the first stage of disengagement.
What term describes the tendency for television stations to retain older male newscasters but replace aging female newscasters in favor of younger, more attractive women?A reinforcement of gender age stereotypes
Which theory of aging suggests people adjust to old age by maintaining ties with their past?Continuity theory
Which theory of aging equates happiness in old age to the amount and quality of program participation the elderly engage in?Activity theory
Which American president had the greatest influence in developing the Social Security program?Franklin D. Roosevelt
What was the name of the retirement plan proposed in 1930 that would have been funded by a national sales tax of two percent?the Townsend Plan
How much is spent to support the costs of Social Security and Medicare in the U.S.?One of every 4 tax dollars
The rate of poverty among the elderly _______ since the 1960s.has declined
Gender and sex are concepts that can be used interchangeably from the sociological perspective.False
Sociologically, women qualify as a minority group because at every age, men outnumber women.False
In the third wave of the feminist movement, women in America finally earned the right to vote.False
Based on disengagement theory, retirement is a matter of conflict in which the older, more powerful members of society try to retain their positions of power and prestige against the efforts of the young to replace them.False
None of the functionalist theories of aging enjoys unanimous support of the scientific community as an explanation of how people respond to the aging process.True
Social Security legislation is a good example of the functionalist perspective because it recognizes society's obligation to care for its senior citizens.False
What is another term for legitimate power?Authority
What is another term for illegitimate power?Coercion
What is the entity that claims a monopoly on legitimate force or violence?The government, or state
Who was the early European sociologist who addressed power and how it is perceived as legitimate or illegitimate by the people?Max Weber
Who was the sociologist who summarized Weber's idea of the state's monopoly on legitimate power or violence by saying, "Violence is the ultimate foundation of any political order"?Peter Berger
What is another term for bureaucratic authority?rational-legal authority
What type of authority is based on written rules that are reasonable and agreed to by the people?Rational-legal authority
John F. Kennedy had a combination of types of leadership. Although he was the president of the United States, he also inspired people to get involved with their country's programs through his inspirational speeches. President Kennedy combined which two sources of authority? A) charismatic and traditional B) charismatic and rational -legal C) traditional and rational-legal D) rational-legal and coerciveB) charismatic and rational -legal
What is the routinization of charisma? A) the impeachment of a charismatic leader by his or her followers B) the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either traditional or rational -legal authority C) the bureaucratization of a cult D) the belief in a charismatic leader being "the one and only"B) the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either traditional or rational -legal authority
What analogy best applies to the political system of the earliest societies? A) an extended family B) peas in a pod C) a bureaucratic corporation D) a non-profit organizationA) an extended family
What was the most common title of the ruler of a city-state? A) president B) prime minister C) secretary D) king or queenD) king or queen
What is the key concept on which representative democracy is based? A) property ownership B) citizenship C) gender D) raceB) citizenship
What term describes the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country or by immigrating and becoming a naturalized citizen? A) representative democracy B) direct democracy C) universal citizenship D) oligarchyC) universal citizenship
In what form of government would a person participate in a town hall meeting? A) direct democracy B) totalitarian regime C) direct democracy D) oligarchyC) direct democracy
Which of the following platforms would a dedicated Democrat most likely embrace? A) laws that favor business and provide tax breaks for the wealthy B) the abolition of all laws restricting capitalism C) a reinterpretation of the Constitution and public ownership of property D) legislation that transfers income from the rich to poor and controls wages, working conditions, and competitionD) legislation that transfers income from the rich to poor and controls wages, working conditions, and competition
Of the following individuals, who is most likely to vote in a presidential election in the United States? A) Moe, a 52-year-old married white non-Hispanic who works as a senior research chemist B) Jessica, a 20-year-old student at the local community college C) Antonio, an 18-year-old high school drop-out working as a landscaper D) Chan Kane, a recently unemployed Asian AmericanA) Moe, a 52-year-old married white non-Hispanic who works as a senior research chemist
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