coffering was a useful architectural device in that it performed what function?

# coffering was a useful architectural device in that it performed what function?

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The Ziggurat at Ur can best be described as:Sumerian temple base
Ishtar Gate, with its relief decorations of a dragon, lion and bull, comes from the city of:Babylon
Bull-headed capitals would most likely be found inPersia
The new concept of godlike sovereignty can be described by the representations of ____, the king who appeared as a god in Mesopotamian Akkadian art.Naram-Sin
Use of glazed brickwork is most characteristic of the city of ______.Babylon
The stylistic conventions of rigidly frontal symmetry, abnormally large eyes, and tightly clasped hands are most characteristic of the early art of _____.Sumer
The White Temple, Uruk is oriented to the ____________.Cardinal points of the compass
A predominant theme or themes found in the narrative reliefs of the Assyrian was or were:war and hunting
Persian relief figure sculpture can be distinguished from earlier Mesopotamian styles by:forms are more rounded
Which of the following best describes the Standard of Ur?early example of historical narrative
In ancient Mesopotamia the hierarchy of scale was a convention, which indicated:order of importance
The open-eyed stares of the votive statues of ancient Sumer are thought to represent:eternal wakefulness and duty
The Mesopotamian king who codified the law and prescribed penalties for infractions was ______.Hammurabi
What Anatolian people constructed two huge lions that adorn the gateway to the citdal of Boghazkoy?Hittites
The rock-cut relief at Bishapur depicts:triumph of Shapur I over Valerian
Historical narrative relief can be found at the Assyrian palace of _______ at Nimrud.Ashurnasirpal II
Alexander the Great razed Persepolis in 330 BCE. What prior event suggests that this was an act of revenge?Persian sack of the Athenian Acropolis
What epic poem recounts the exploits of a legendary king of Uruk and slayer of the monster Huwawa?Epic of Gilgamesh
The Victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures) is an extraordinary monument because it provides information about warfare techniques and insight into the special nature of the ruler. Which statement provides the most valid justification for this aswords and pictures are combined
The statement, "measuring rods and coiled rope," which connotes the ruler's capacity to build social order and render judgments, is best depicted on the _____.Stele of Hammurabi
One of the suggested purposes of Assyrian narrative relief is to:glorify the king
In Assyrian relief, such as Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, the artists combine different viewpoints in the same frame and other adjustments for clarity. Which of the following phrases best describes the artists' primary goal?legible retelling of a decisive moment in king's deeds
The Elamite statue of Queen Napir-Asu shows its Mesopotamian heritage. Which phrase supports this assertion?cylindrical volume and strict frontality
The Elamite statue of Queen Napir-Asu represents the ideal queen; in addition there is an allusion to fertility, as it relates to being queen. Which motif supports this allusion?hands crossed over the belly
The Sumerians may have been the first to use pictures to tell coherent stories. What argument makes this a valid assertion?narrative presented in registers or bands
Which of the following works of art was created first?Warka Vase
What is diorite?rare and costly dark stone
The monumental gateway to the citadel of Persepolis is a reference to _________.the harmony of the peoples of the Persian empire
The Head of an Akkadian ruler representsa royal figure from Sumer
Statuettes of worshipers representdeep commitment to religion and service
Statue of Queen Napir-Asurepresents ideal queen and serves as votive figure
Assyrian archers pursuing enemies and Ashurbanipal hunting lionssculptors have shown the conceptual view of both events
Stele with law cod of Hammurabi representsthe gods granting the right to codify the law
Statuettes of worshipers and Seated Gudea holding temple planboth represent the deep commitment to religion and the gods
Persepolis (royal audience hall) and Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphoneach palace complex defines its period
Victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures) and Victory stele of Naram-SinVictory stele of Naram-Sin shows daring innovation by breaking with the compositional formula of story telling view horizontal registers
Which of the following cultures could have been influential in the Predynastic tomb painting, People, Boasts and Animals?Sumer
The ancient Egyptians believed the unification of Egypt took place in a single great event. Which of the following is a record of that great event?Palette of Narmer
Which of the following provided the principal information regarding the reconstruction of ancient Egyptian civilization?tomb interiors
Mastaba-tomb interiors became quite large and accommodated a number of storage rooms and compartments. What was the function of the tomb shaft that connected the burial chamber with the outside?provided access for the Ka
Egyptian architects were quite innovative in solving problems. An invention that was seen in its primitive form in the valley temple of the Pyramid of Khafre, the clerestory, became a fully realized architectural element at Karnak. Which of the followingraised central roof permitting light to filter into the interior
Which of the following is the best explanation for the portrayal of Akhenaton's body type?deliberate artistic reaction against the establish canon
The Palette of King Narmer established the convention for state policy represented in art, a policy proclaiming the pharaoh a divine ruler. Which of the following supports this idea?larger than life representation of pharaoh
Which of the following describes a function of the pyramids?served as a reminder of the absolute power of the pharaoh
Which of the following describes one of the drawbacks of the fresco secco technique?colors do not fuse to the wall surface
Why is the Palette of King Narmer unique among surviving Egyptian artworks?commemorative rather than funerary
Egyptian art - with the exception of the Amarna period - can be described as which of the following?conservative and formulaic
Whose mortuary temple was located in Abu Simbel until it was moved in 1968 to save it from the Aswan Dam Reservoir?Ramses II
Which column type was not used by the Egyptians?geometric with lion-shaped capital
Which of the following is depicted as a hawk or falcon and protector of pharaoh?Horus
Pyramids were most popular during which of the following periods?Old Kingdom
Tomb paintings were created in which of the following techniques?fresco secco
The many-columned hall found in an Egyptian temple is a(n) _______?hypostyle hall
In about 3000 BCE, the conventions for representing the human figure that dominated Egyptian art until end of the New Kingdom can be found in which of the following?Palette of King Narmer
Which of the following plants was commonly used to symbolize Upper Egypt?lotus
A tomb that resembles a truncated pyramid is called a _______?mastaba
The god who is symbolic of the river Nile and who dies and is reborn each year isOsiris
In the Old Kingdom this structure adjoined the pyramid and was the site where offerings were made to the dead king and ceremonies were performed. Which of the following does this describe?Mortuary temple
The use of elongated heads and necks and intimate, relaxed poses describes which of the following periods?New Kingdom, Amarna Period
Which of the following describes a building technique commonly used in Egyptian temples?post-and-lintel
A magnificent mortuary temple was built at Deir el Bahri for which of the following pharaohs?Hatshepsut
Jean Champollion deduced that hieroglyphs were more than just pictographs; he proposed that they were which of the following?signs of a once-spoken language
What was discovered during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1799 that was of immense importance in understanding and interpreting Egyptian hieroglyphics?Rosetta Stone
The Treasury of Atreus is an excellent example of a(n):beehive tomb
Minoan columns are distinguished bytapering shape and bulbous capitals
Significant numbers of small marble figurines representing naked women with arms folded over abdomens have been found in:the Cyclades Islands
Which of the following is a palace on Crete?Knossos
Tiryns wasa fortified citadel
The Lion Gate is the gateway toMycenae
Who or what was the Minotaur?half bull, half man
Spring is the first pure landscape. Which of the following best defines landscape?It has no humans and no narrative element
What led the German amateur archaeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, to uncover Troy?Homer's Illiad
It has been suggested that Cycladic figurines were funerary offerings. Based on their schematized representation and size, how might they be placed in the graves?placed on their backs
Cycladic figurines having the same form took on different meanings in different contexts. What accounts for this?found in both cemeteries and settlements
The Old Palace Period in Minoan art came to an end around 1700 BCE. What was the probable cause?earthquake
The funerary practice of the Mycenaeans, covering the faces of the dead with gold masks, recalls what other culture?Egyptians
During the Mycenaean Period large-scale figural art on the Greek mainland was ________.very rare
What form of arch is above the lintel of the Lion Gate?corbelled arch
The guardian figure design of the Lion Gate can also be found in miniature on ____________Cretan seals
The Lion Gate is reminiscent of the __________Standard of Ur
The Great Wall of China was constructed as a defense against the nomadic peoples of the north, in particular the _________Huns
One of the most important tasks of the Chinese artist was which of the followingserve as an instrument through which nature could reveal itself
It can be said that China's neighbors owe an immense debt to China; however which country provided the link between China and Japan?Korea
In addition to his work on the Great Wall, the Qin ruler Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China is rembered in art history for which of the following?the army of life-sized ceramic bronze warriors and horses he commissioned for his tomb at Lintong
The Chinese interest in landscape painting was most strongly influenced by which of the following?Daoist harmony with nature and poetic themes
Ethnically, the Koreans are related to which of the following people?Siberians and Mongolians
One of the scenes from the Wu Family Shrine shows robed men bearing gifts and paying homage to a figure, identity uncertain. This figure is represented as larger than other figures. What can be interpreted from this image?the size of the figure describes his importance
During the Six Dynasties, Buddhism arrived in China. The oldest Chinese Buddhist texts describe Buddha as golden and radiating light. The Shakyamuni Buddha of the Six Dynasties is the first precisely datable Chinese Buddhist image. Which of the followingglided bronze
Emperor Huizong, an accomplished artist was more interested in the arts than in governing. He reorganized the imperial academy of painting and required the study of poetry and calligraphy as part of the official training program for court artists. Which ostudy of the classical art of earlier periods
A good example of a building in the Ionic style is the _______Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis
A standing nude figure of a young man is known in Greek art as which of the following?kouros
Who is usually given credit for the invention of the red-figure technique as seen in the amphora of "Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game?"Andokides painter
The chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos stands fully armed. No one doubts this figure is a triumphant expression and refers to the Athenian victory over the Persians in 479 BCE. What other warfare symbol accompanies the Athena Parthenos?Nike on her hand
The earliest known example of the use of contrapposto is the sculpture known as the _______Kritios Boy
How does the warrior sculpture, Riace Bronze, demonstrate natural motion in space?arms freed from body
When compared to the Classical style, Greek Hellenistic art could be characterized as:more realistic and emotional
How does the figure of the calf-bearer differ from earlier Greek statues, as well as Egyptian and Near Eastern statues?smile
Black-figure ceramics would most likely be found in conjunction with the art of which of the following periods?Archaic and Early Classical
Early Archaic monumental stone statues followed Egyptian style very closely. This style can be described as _________rigidly frontal left foot slightly advanced
A female figure used as an architectural support was known as a:caryatid
The earliest known Greek temple with sculptural decoration is _______Temple A, Prinias
The Orientalizing period of art is so named because of the exposure of early Greeks to the art of _____ and _________.The Near East and Egypt
Composite monsters were popular in other ancient cultures; however, which of the following was purely Greek invention?centaur
The subject matter of the drinking cup by Onesimos would never have been portrayed publicly in monumental painting or sculpture, only in the private sphere would this subject matter have been acceptable. What fact about this work supports this statement?genre scene of servant girl of the house bathing
Which structure from the Athenian Acropolis has four sides of very different character with each side resting on different ground levels?Erectheion
What scene is represented on the Attic white-ground lekythos painted by the so-called Achilles Painter?warrior taking leave of his wife
What event is chronicled on the frieze of the Temple of Athena Nike detailing victory over the Persians?battle at Marathon
The Geometric krater from the Dipylon cemetery is a testimonial to the deceased's wealth and position. Which of the following best validates this statement?size of the pot
The origins of the Greeks or Hellenes, as they called themselves, appear to be the product of which two groups of people?Aegeans and Indo-Europeans
The Etruscans shared a common linguistic heritage and religious reliefs, but they lacked which of the following?political cohesion
Which of the following allowed Etruscan society to transform itself in the 7th century BCE?great mineral wealth
The fibula excavated from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb illustrates motifs borrowed from the Orient. Which of the following is one of the Oriental motifs?walking lions
The column used on Etruscan temples is similar to which type of Greek column?Doric
During the sixth century BCE, Etruscans favored monumental sarcophagi that contained which of the following?ashes of the deceased
The typical tomb form found at Cerveteri is which of the following?tumulus
Pedimental sculpture is extremely rare in Etruscan temple architecture. Normally the Etruscans placed their narrative statuary on which of the following elements?the peaks of the temple roof
In Etruscan iconography, which of the following symbolized regeneration?egg
Unlike Greek temples, Etruscan temples were not meant to be seen as sculptural masses. Which of the following architectural elements would this?the entrance was centered at the front of the structure
The sarcophagus of Lars Pulena was made in the early second century BCE. His expression was somber; although Lars Pulena is shown reclining, he is not at a festive banquet. Which of the following could account for this?It illustrated the decline in Etruscan fortunes
Which of the following works of art illustrates how Romanized the Etruscans became in the 1st century BCE?Aule Metele
Which of the following was a tool used by archaeologists to explore tomb interiors at Tarquinia without the expensive and time-consuming excavation process?periscope
The banquet setting seen in the Tomb of the Leopards takes place in which of the following settings?the open air
The theme celebrated in both the Tomb of the Leopards and the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing is which of the following?the joy of life
The wide, overhang roof of the Etruscan temple could function as which of the following?a place of shelter
Which century marks the incorporation of Etruria into the Roman Empire?1st century BCE
How were Etruscan cemeteries arranged?They were arranged in an orderly manner
Terracotta sarcophagi showing life-sized reclining figures are most typical of which of the following centuries?6th century BCE
The Etruscans preferred which the following materials for sculpture?terracotta
Etruscan artisans particularly excelled at which of the following?metalworking
Which of the following describes Etruscan art?It was a combination of motion and vitality
How did the Etruscans typically bury their dead?in subterranean rooms arranged along a network of streets in a city of the dead
The Apulu of Veii is made of which of the following materials?terracotta
The wall painting in the Tomb of the Leopards portrays which of the following?banqueters and musicians
Which of the following mythical scenes decorated the Ficoroni Cista?the Argonauts
Who or what is TiniaEtruscan god
The Etruscan temple differed from the Greek temple because it had which of the following?three cellas
The Etruscans preferred what building material(s) for their temples?wood and mudbrick
Most architectural sculpture was made to decorate what part of the Etruscan temple?the roof
The Etruscans became citizens of which of the following in the first century BCE?Rome
The independent spirit and relative freedom Etruscan women enjoyed horrified which of the following?Greco-Roman male authors
Which of the following describes the Temple of "Fortuna Virilis" (Temple of Portunus), Rome?pseudo-peripteral
Which of the following is uniquely Greek in style and was imported to Rome in the first century BCE?tholos style temples
Roman temple design during the Republican period reflected the colossal design of the Greek Hellenistic style. This can be seen in which of the following temples?Temple of "Fortuna Virilis" (Portunus), Rome
Freed slaves often ordered portrait reliefs for their tombs. Which of the following is the best reason for this?commemorate their status as Roman citizens
Which of the following structural materials allowed the architect of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia to raise such a grand and eloquent expression of Roman power?concrete
The Republican portraits are usually of older men. Which of the following explains the life-like veritism of these portraits?the tradition of the treasured household imagines
Which of the following was the first to break with tradition and use his portrait on Roman coinage?Julius Caesar
Which of the following would be located in a forum and would house the court for the city?basilica
the Arch of Titus shows the military triumphs of Titus, returning after the successful conclusion of the Jewish Wars in 70 CE. Which of the following was also included in the sculptural program for the Arch of Titus?celebration of imperial virtues
Flavian portraits, unlike, Republican portraits, showed people of all ages and both sexes. Which of the following was one of the purposes of the portrait bust of the Flavian Woman (probably a Flavian princess)?show idealized beauty
Which of the following would describe the "baroque" style of the 2nd century CE tomb nicknamed Al-Khazneh, the Treasury, located at Petra?experimentation with new architectural rules
The Pantheon was one of the most influential designs in the history of architecture. It brought new meaning to the concept of "architectural space." Which of the following descriptions characterize this influential work?the design is based on the intersection of two circles
Which of the following best describes and distinguishes the "First Style" of Roman painting?masonry
Which of the following best describes and distinguishes "Fourth Style" of Roman painting?architectural illusionism
Pompeian wall paintings of the Second Style are characterized by which of the following?the wall seemingly opening up into an illusionistic landscape
Where would an oculus be found?at the center of a dome
The Emperor Trajan commissioned which of the following?the column depicting his victories
The most pronounced influence of Greek Classical art on Roman art could be seen in work done for which of the following?the Emperor Augustus
The Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia was characterized by which of the following?pseudo-peripteral style
The reliefs on the Column of Trajan are not a reliable chronological account of the Dacian campaigns; however, they do present an accurate record of the general character of the campaigns. Which of the following also describes this narrative?Dacians were depicted respectfully and their skills as warriors were acknowledged
Coffering was a useful architectural device in that it performed what function?helped lighten the weight of a dome or arch
Which style of wall painting was least characteristic of Roman wall painting?mathematical linear perspective
In contrast to a Greek temple, Roman temples usually were _________pseudo-peripteral
The figures form the frieze of the Villa of Mysteries are thought to depict an initiation into which of the following?cult of Dionysus
A large palace/fort was built at Spain in Turkey by _______Diocletian
Which of the following is a basilica?Old St. Peter's
Christianity was recognized as the official religion of Rome in the early fourth century CE by which of the following?Constantine
In the Dura painting, Samuel Anointing David, David is depicted with an Imperial attribute indicating his royalty. Which of the following is that attribute?purple toga
Why is the Christian community house in Dura-Europas only a small house?Christians did not enjoy the patronage of the Roman state
The Roman State persecuted the Christians. Which of the following would account for this persecution?Christians refused to pay homage to the State's god
What is the earliest datable period for Christian art?3rd century CE
After Christianity received acceptance within the Roman Empire, churches were constructed above the catacombs. Which of the following provides the most explanation for such churches to be constructed at these sites?the pious worshiped openly at the graves of the earliest Christian martyrs
A man, a woman, and at least one child can be seen in the praying position found in the lunette of the Catacomb of Sts. Peter and Marcellinus. Which of the following presents the best explanation for the placement of these people in the lunette?They represent the christian family seeking their heavenly reward
How did one recognize a Christian sarcophagus?it was decorated with significant Christian subject matter
In the sarcophagus of Junius Bassu, a pagan who converted to Christianity, the sculptors illustrated scenes from the life of Christ. Which of the following represents the allusion to the crucifixion?Christ before Pilate
The Diptych of the Nicomachi and the symmachi is significant to the art tradition of fourth century Rome. Which of the following supports that statement?it deliberately continued the classical tradition
The Christ as Good shepherd from the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna is said to be deeply rooted in the classical tradition. Which of the following would support that belief?it is a mosaic rather than a fresco
The illustrated book had a long history in the ancient world. When did the tradition of placing pictures in manuscripts first begin?Pharaonic Egypt
Which of the following attributes was used to depict Christ after Christianity was officially recognized by Roman authorities?Imperial purple
Which of the following is represented on the sarcophagus of Santa Maria Antiqua?Jonah
What was the entrance porch of Old St. Peter's in Rome called?narthex
Which of the following would be considered the predecessor for the Mausoleum of Costanza?pantheon
Christ as the Good Shepherd appears in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia and uses many iconographic devices. Which of the following is one of those devices?sheep representing the faithful
Which of the following themes represents the interior decorative program of Santa Costanza?grape harvest and wine production
Which of the following is an architectural element found in Santa Sabina?timbered ceiling
The Rossano Gospels is the earliest illuminated manuscript that contains illustration of which of the following?New Testament
The representation of Nahor seen in the scene of Rebecca and Eliezer at the well from the Vienna Genesis uses which of the following conventions?Roman pictorial convention
The representation of a bearded Christ from the Rossano Gospels clearly indicates this work was made in which of the following centuries?6th century CE
Who was the founder of the "New Rome" of the East?Constatine
Which of the following features is of Byzantine origin and was never incorporated in San Vita?iconostasis
The dome of the Hagia Sophia is supported by _________pendentives
The medium used for the icon of the Virgin and Child between St. Theodore and St. George is which of the following?encaustic
Theodora's presence in the mosaic program of San Vitale indicates her importance and unique position with the court of Justinian. The representation of the Three Magi on the border of her robe also suggests she _______belongs in the elevated company
Justinian's position on the north wall of the apse of San Vitale is somewhat ambiguous. He appears to be slightly behind the bishop, yet the pattern he carries overlaps the bishop's arm. This indicates the ______balance between Church and State
The flight of Byzantine scholars in 1453, introduced the study of Classical Greek into Italy. Which of the following accounts for this?the fall of Byzantium
The nave of the Hagia Sophia was exclusively reserved for the clergy. The laity or congregation was confined to the aisles and galleries. Based on this information, what accounts for the symbolical unity of Church and State?the emperor was the only layperson privileged to enter the sanctuary
What region did Byzantium Christianize?Russia
What church combines the intricacies of Greek theology, the ambitious architectural scale of Rome, the vaulting tradition of the Near East, and the mysticism of Eastern Chrisitnity in order to create a monument that is the summation of antiquity and the tHagia Sophia
The mosaic program found in the apse of San Vitale supports the Byzantine theme of the holy ratification of Church and State. The presence of which figures in the mosaic program supports this theme?Christ and Justinian
The images and symbols found in the sanctuary form San Vitale express the single theme of ______________Christ's redemption of humanity
The monastic movement began in _______ in the third centuryEgypt
It is said the Ascension from the Rabbula Gospels is not an illustration of the Gospels but rather an illumination. Which of the following validates this assertion?the presence of the Virgin
Where would a squinch most likely be found?Supporting a dome
the seventh and eighth centuries were a period of turmoil for Byzantium. This period saw the loss of the Eastern provinces to conquest under the banner of Islam. These events persuaded Emperor Leo III that God was punishing the Empire for its idolatrous whe formally prohibited the use of images
In place of images the iconoclasts used only symbolic forms already familiar in Early Christian art. Which of the following symbolic forms would be acceptable?vacant Throne of God
Basil I undertook the repair of damage done during the Iconoclasm. How was this repair initiated?by dedicating a new mosaic in Hagia Sophia
The dome on the Katholikon, Hosious Loukas is formed by ______squinches
The image of Christ as the Pantokrator refers to his role as ______Last Judge
The Middle Byzantine artist assimbilated classicism's simplicity, dignity and grace and synthesized it with Byzantine piety and pathos. Which of the following follows this formula?Crucifixion, Church of the Dormition, daphni
Whose relics were obtained from Egypt for Venice?St. mark
The interior mosaic program for St. Mark's has explanatory labels written in both Greek and Latin. What accounts for this?it reflects Venice's position as a link between East and West
In the cathedral of Monreale, a mosaic panel depicts William II standing next to the Enthroned Christ, who, in turn, places his hand on William's crown. Based on this theme, what does this panel commemorate?the divine right to rule
In the semi-dome of the apse, the architectural focus of the cathedral of Monreale is another allusion to William's right to rule. Which of the following figures would support that allusion?the pantokrator
The emotional impact of Christ's death can be seen in the wall painting of the Lamentation over the Dead Christ found in St. Pantaleimon, Nerzi. Which two figures in the painting support this assertion by their gestures?Mary and John
The so-called "Macedonian Renaissance" is reflected in the Paris Psalter. Which of the following supports this assertion?It was inspired by Hellenistic naturalism of the pre-Christian world
Which of the following events changed the fortunes of Byzantium in the final or Late Byzantine period?the Seljuk Turks captured most of Anatolia
What accounts for the fragmentary knowledge of Byzantine art prior to the ninth century?The Iconoclasm
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