the endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes that

# the endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes that

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cells haveAll cells have internal structures that move
Light microscopesuse light and glass lenses to magnify an image.
One centimeter = ________ millimeters.10
Resolution is theability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate
Which of the following statements about electron microscopes is trueElectron microscopes focus electron beams to create a magnified image of an object
A scientist wants to examine living cells lining the respiratory tract to determine how the cells use tiny hairs to move dirt and mucus away from the lungs. Which of the following instruments would be best, and why?a light microscope, because it allows observations of whole, live cells
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells definescell theory.
A scientist wants to magnify a pollen grain 8,000 times and examine the ridges and pores on its surface. Which one of the following instruments would be best?a scanning electron microscope
A scanning electron microscope is used to study ________, whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study ________.cell surfaces . . . internal cell structures
The diameter of most animal and plant cells ranges from10 to 100 micrometers.
As cell size increases, thevolume increases faster than the surface area.
Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?bacterium
A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situationwill eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.
Your throat is dry, and you want the last cough drop in the box to last a long time in your mouth. What should you do?Keep the cough drop whole. This maintains the largest surface-to-volume ratio, and slows the dissolution of the cough drop.
Plasma membranes are permeable tononpolar molecules such as CO2
In the plasma membrane, the phospholipid headsare hydrophilic and face outward towards the aqueous solution on both sides of the membrane
Archaea are composed of ________ cellsprokaryotic
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?nucleoid
The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cellcontains the cell's DNA.
________ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.Prokaryotic
A bacterial cell's DNA is found in itsnucleoid region.
Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?capsule
The membranous compartmentalization of a cellallows different chemical conditions to be maintained in different parts of the cell.
Which of the following statements about internal membranes in eukaryotic cells is false?In eukaryotic cells, internal membranes standardize the internal environment of all cellular organelles
You are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. You look at them through a microscope and see cell walls and membrane-bound organelles. You conclude correctly that the cellsare plant cells.
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false?Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells.
The nucleus of a cellcontains DNA.
The complex of proteins and DNA in a nondividing cell is calledchromatin
During cell reproduction, chromatin fibers coil up into structures calledchromosomes
The function of the nucleolus isto manufacture ribosomal RNA
Protein synthesis requires the use of mRNA, whichis translated by the ribosomes into the amino acid sequences of proteins
Which location in the cell is unlikely to contain ribosomes or ribosomal subunits?plasma membrane
Which of the following statements regarding the endomembrane system is false?The endomembrane system is a system of interrelated membranes that are all physically connected
The endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except theperoxisome
An immune system cell called the plasma cell produces thousands of antibodies per second for release into the body. What type of intracellular structure would you expect to be very prominent within the cell?endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulumstores calcium ions in muscle cells.
The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production ofmembrane and proteins secreted by the cell.
Secretory proteins arereleased from the cell through the plasma membrane.
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of ________.rough endoplasmic reticulum . . . smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The Golgi apparatusstores, modifies, and packages proteins.
Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is falseThe Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production
Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids
When a cell is deprived of oxygen, its lysosomes tend to burst and release their contents into the cell. As a result of this, that cell willundergo self-digestion and die
Tay-Sachs disease results from the malfunction oflysosomes
Tay-Sachs diseasecauses an accumulation of lipids in brain cells
Which of the following statements about the functions of a plant cell central vacuole is false?The central vacuole of a plant cell may digest chemicals for recycling.
Contractile vacuolesprevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water.
A manufacturing company dumps its wastes into a nearby pond. One of the wastes is found to paralyze the contractile vacuoles of certain protists. A biologist looking at individual samples of these organisms taken from the pond would find that theyhave gained water and burst.
Which organelle is involved in the catabolism of fatty acids and the detoxification of alcohol?peroxosome
Insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream. Which of the following options correctly lists the order of the structures through which insulin passes from its production to its exit from the cell?rough ER, transport vesicles, Golgi apparatus, transport vesicles, cell membrane
The function of mitochondria iscellular respiration
Cyanide inhibits mitochondrial function; as a result, the rate ofATP synthesis decreases.
The ________ of a mitochondrion is/are an adaptation that increases the surface area and enhances a mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP.cristae
The function of chloroplasts isphotosynthesis
The stroma is thethick fluid enclosed by the inner chloroplast membrane
Mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in that mitochondriacontain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana.
The endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes thata small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells.
The endosymbiosis hypothesis is supported by all of the following pieces of evidence, except the fact thatmitochondria use ATP like prokaryotes.
Microfilaments differ from microtubules in that microfilamentsare mainly composed of actin, whereas microtubules are composed of tubulin.
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false?Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place
Intermediate filamentssurround the nucleus.
A drug that interferes with microtubule formation is likely to completely disruptthe movements of sperm cells
Cilia differ from flagella in thatcilia are typically more numerous and shorter than flagella
A basal body issimilar in structure to centrioles.
Dynein feetare found on microtubules in cilia and flagella and cause movement by grabbing and pulling at adjacent microtubule doublets.
A woman is having trouble becoming pregnant. Examination of her partner's sperm indicates that dynein feet are missing from the flagella in his sperm cells. A physician explains that this could interfere with fertility bypreventing the sperm from swimming to the egg cell.
Decreased fertility in men from developed countries may be related toincreased exposure to hormone-like chemicals in the environment.
Most animal cells areembedded in an extracellular matrix.
The extracellular matrix attached to cells via glycoproteins that then bind to _______ in the plasma membrane.integrins
Which of the following would be most affected by a mutation that prevented cells from forming tight junctionsintegrity of the inner lining of the digestive tract
Skin cells are fastened into strong sheets byanchoring junctions.
It is essential for heart muscle cells to beat in a coordinated fashion. The cell junctions that would best facilitate this aregap junctions.
Which of the following statements about plant cell walls is false?Plant cell walls protect plant cells by forming an impermeable layer around the cell.
Which of the following statements regarding plasmodesmata is false?Plasmodesmata are found in plants as well as some single-celled organisms.
Which of the following cell structures is associated with the breakdown of harmful substances or substances that are no longer needed by the cell?peroxisomes
Which of the following statements regarding cells is false?All cells have a cell wall.
A child dies following a series of chronic bacterial infections. At the autopsy, the physicians are startled to see that the child's white blood cells are loaded with vacuoles containing intact bacteria. Which of the following explanations could account for this finding?A defect in the lysosomes of the white blood cells prevented the cells from destroying engulfed bacteria.
According to this figure, which of the following is large enough to see in the light microscope?mitochondria
Which part of the mitochondrion shown enhances its ability to produce ATP by increasing the surface area of a mitochondrial membrane?structure D
After reading the paragraph, answer the question(s) that follow.The skin is the body's largest organ. It's made up of many different types of cells. Oils, produced by the sebaceous glands, prevent the skin from drying and splitting. The protein melanin, produced by melanocytes in the epidermis, protects the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Sweat, released through ducts to the skin surface, helps to cool the body. The types of cells that produce these compounds have different numbers of specific organelles, depending on their function.
Based on their function, you would expect melanocytes in the skin to have a higher than usual number ofribosomes
The oil from the sebaceous glands is produced by which of the following cell organelles?smooth endoplasmic reticulum
the endosymbiosis
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