a treatment used for severe depression when other approaches fail is

a treatment used for severe depression when other approaches fail is

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9.9k points
The health determinant over which we have least control isfamily history
The seven dimensions of wellnessare interrelated
The seven dimensions of wellness include all of the following EXCEPTdietary wellness
Which one of the following qualities contributes most to one's physical wellness?eating well
Optimism, trust, and self-confidence are components ofemotional wellness
Adam's parents are not overly concerned about their son's ability to adapt to college because he has always had a good sense of humor, been curious, and demonstrated an openness to idea. These qualities are reflective of Adam's ___ wellness.intellectual
Occupational wellness is measured by how much ___ the job offers.happiness
Spiritual wellness is best described as havingmeaning and purpose in one's life
Protecting yourself from exposure to toxic substances in the workplace is an example of promoting ___ wellness.environmental
If you were born in 1900, your life expectancy was approximately.47 years
The average life span in the twentieth centurynearly doubled
Which of the following is currently America's number-one cause of deathheart disease
All of the following are lifestyle choices EXCEPTgrowing up on a farm
The process of enabling people to increase control over their health and improve their health ishealth promotion
In the past 100 years, the major cause of death have shifted from ___ to ___.infectious diseases; chronic diseases
The top three causes of death among Americans age 15 to 24 areaccidents, homicide, and suicide
By far, the leading preventable cause of death among Americans issmoking
A goal of Healthy People 2020 is toeliminate health disparities among Americans
Which of the following statements regarding the health of diverse population groups is correct?American ethnic minorities have higher rates of death and disability than the US population as a whole
John, an African American student, has chosen to incorporate exercise into his daily routine and reduce the amount of salt in his diet after finding out that his blood pressure is high. HIs decision to make these lifestyle changes is most likely based on the following health concerns for African Americans.They have higher rates of high blood pressure and obesity
When compared to the general US population, Asian Americans havelower overall death rates
In the US, on averagewomen live about five years longer than men
Income and education are closely linked with health status. The ___ the poverty rate and the ___ the education level, the better the health.lower; higher
People with disabilities are more likely tobe obese
Homosexual teens are at greater risk forsuicide
The most important factor in determining an individual's level of wellness isbehavior
The complete set of genetic material in an individual's cells is referred to as his or hergenome
Which of the following are factors that influence wellness?all of these
The following are all environmental factors, EXCEPTyour genetic makeup
The first step in improving wellness by lifestyle management is tobegin with a self-assessment
The behavior one identifies for change is calledtarget behavior
Part of a successful plan to change an unhealthy behavior is tostart small
THe least effective plan for starting to change health behavior is one thatattempts to change more than one behavior at the same time
Eduardo has identified gambling as a target behavior because it is interfering with his schoolwork. To help him stop this behavior, he may need tofind outside help
A target behavior can best be defined asone behavior you want to change
The belief in one's ability to be successful in the performance of a given task isself-efficacy
Your ability to successfully take action and perform specific tasks, defines the termself-efficacy
When evaluating health topics on the Internet, check thequalifications of the people behind the site
Those with an internal focus of control believe that events turn out as they do based ontheir actions
Donna is about 25 pounds overweight, has tried a variety of diets, and has repeatedly failed to maintain weight loss. She defends her weight with the explanation that most of her relatives are overweight, and none has ever been successful with attempts to lose weight. Donna can best be described ashaving an external locus of control
The technique of visualization is one of the best ways toboost your confidence
A strategy to increase your chances of success in the pursuit of a new behavior is tofrequently visualize goal attainment and enjoy its benefits
Barriers to behavior changecan be a source of information used to boost your chance of success
The most constructive response to a temporary setback in the pursuit of a new behavior isaccepting the fact that problems may periodically occur
Teresa would like to begin eating healthier and has created a plan of action to help reach that goal. Her study group meets at a fast food restaurant twice a week, and she has asked them to meet at the library instead. Teresa understands that to meet her goal, she needs tomodify her environment
The precontemplation stage is characterized bya belief that there is no need for change
During a "stages of change" behavior change program, some people may lapse. If this occurs, the best strategy for them is tolearn from the lapse as they cycle back through earlier stages
The order in which a behavior change strategy is implemented ismonitor behavior, analyze data, set goals, devise a plan of action, make a contract
Entries made into a health journal about a behavior should note all of the following EXCEPTwhat your friends and family did
Which of the following health journal information would be of little benefit in promoting personal behavior change?identification of other people's reactions to your behavior
Anne wants to lose weight and is keeping a health journal to record her progress. Which of the following questions might be appropriately asked in the course of analyzing data from her health journal?How many behaviors in my life are serious health threats?
According to the SMART criteria, a behavior change such as "drink eight cups of water every day" is an example of beingrealistic
The best plan for behavior changeworks at change systematically
Chances of success in behavior management DECREASE ifenvironmental cues are ignored
To help ensure success with a behavior change program, you shoulddevelop a reward system
Rewards included in health action plans shouldinclude limited participation in the behavior you are trying to eliminate
A friend who is attempting to lose weight has been repeatedly "derailed" by coworkers who bring high-calorie snack to work. An effective strategy for her would be tochoose new target behaviors
A primary purpose of developing a personal contract for behavior change is tocommit you to your word of behavior modification
Writing a contract for behavior change involves all of the following EXCEPTidentifying the consequences of failure to reach the established goal
Information from a health journal maintained after a behavior change plan is put into action can be used totrack progress
Maintaining good health isan ongoing process
With regard to one's health, which one of the following elements is most within an individual's control?behavior
Which of the following is an example of taking action to modify the environment and support health behaviors?all of these are examples
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding stress and the lives of college students?it may be one of the most stressful periods in one's life
The term stress refers tosituations that can trigger physical and emotional reactions
Situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions are termedstressors
Which of the following systems are responsible for your body's physical response to stressors?nervous and endocrine
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that activated when a person is exposed to a stressor is the ___ nervous system.sympathetic
The autonomic nervous system controls all the following EXCEPT theability to write
The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systemis in control when one is frightened or angry
The system of glands, tissues, and cells that helps control body functions by releasing hormones is theendocrine system
During the stress response, which of the following changes occurs throughout the body as a result of the release of epinephrine.all of the choices are correct
Which of the following body reactions is characteristic of the stress response?your heart rate increases
Homeostasisis a state of stability in an individual's functions
The division of the autonomic nervous system that slows down the body as it recovers from exposure to a stressor is the ___ nervous system.parasympathetic
Once a stressful situation ends, your parasympathetic nervous systemslows breathing
All of the following are TRUE regarding the fight or flight response, EXCEPT thatit is a relatively new human adaptation
The somatic nervous system managesconscious actions
Which of the following nervous systems manages John's moves as he participates in a spinning exercise class?somatic
THe way in which an individual responds to stress is influenced byAll of these influence the way an individual responds to stress
The sum of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional tendencies refers to one'spersonality
Which one of the following characteristics is most closely associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease?hostility
The personality type associated with relaxation and contemplation isType B
An individual with a Type C personality is characterized byhaving difficulty expressing emotions
A person who suppresses anger and feels hopeless has characteristics of which personality type?Type C
Behavioral responses to stressors are controlled by which division of the nervous system?somatic
Which statement about people with hardy personalities is FALSE?they view stressors as challenges
An example of a resilient person would bea low-income student graduating from college
According to the American Psychological Association, which percent of adult Americans suffer from stress-related health problems?between 70 to 80 percent
Which of the following is a hormone involved in the regulation of mood and social interaction?oxytocin
GAS is an acronym forgeneral adaptation syndrome
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?All stress has a negative impact on physical health
Eustressis stress triggered by something pleasant
Mohammad just received an F on his term paper. Which type of stress is he likely to experience?distress
Which one of the following is NOT a stage of GAS?acceleration
The flight-or-fight reaction occurs during which stage of GAS?alarm
Tom is very anxious about an upcoming exam. He has no appetite, is easily distracted, and has a headache. In which stage of GAS is Tom?alarm
During the resistance stage of GAS, the bodyreadjusts, regulating body systems to establish a new level of homeostasis
General exhaustion results whena stressor persists over a long period of time
Long-term overexposure to stress hormoneshas been linked to health problems
The long-term wear and tear of the stress response has been termedthe allostatic load
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is the study of the interaction among all the following systems, EXCEPT the ___ systemrespiratory
Which one of the following has been linked to a high allostatic load?all of these choices are correct
Which of the following statements is NOT true of a high allostatic load?it is linked with physical wellness
Shauna expects all of the following to happen when she is stressed, EXCEPTdilation of her blood vessels
Which one of the following has NOT been linked to unmanaged stress?glaucoma
Which of the following is INCORRECT?Being a little nervous before an exam will lower your performance
Stress has been found to contribute to which of the following psychological problems?all of the choices are correct
The majority of migraine sufferers arewomen
According to you text, which of the following are common sources of stress for most college students?academic demands and time management concerns
Americans rated ____ as their number one source of stresswork
New technologies canhave all of the above effects
Violent surroundings and intrusive noises are examples ofenvironmental stressors
Unrealistic expectations are a type of ____ stressorinternal
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?acute stress and chronic stress similarly affect the immune system
If you are still emotionally distressed days or weeks after a tragic event,a and b (that is normal, give yourself more time and consider sharing your feelings with others)
Which of the following would be the LEAST effective strategy for coping with stress?denying the reality of stress
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding exercise and its ability to help manage stress?exercise reduces anxiety levels
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding exercise and its ability to help manage stress?three 45 minute walks per week can increase your sense of wellness
Exercise canb and c (release energy mobilized during the stress response and improve your sense of wellness)
All of the following occur in non-REM sleep, EXCEPTthe occurrence of dreams
Peak concentrations of the levels of stress hormones in the bloodstream occurduring the final stages of sleep
Which of the following is TRUE?dreams occur during REM sleep
A common time-management stressor isprocrastination
Which one of the following statements reflects your text's recommendations regarding the prioritization of tasks?tasks should be divided into three groups, and you should ignore the least important group
According to your text, one strategy to improve time-management problems is todivide tasks into groups that can be prioritized
In terms of time-management strategies, which one of the following is NOT considered helpful to improving your efficiency at completing tasks?memorizing your goals
All of the following are recommended by your text as time-management strategies, EXCEPTavoiding unstructured time
Which of the following would NOT be helpful to you in attempting to improve your productivity?focus on long-term goals only
Because watching television is usually a "time sink" when you are on a deadline, it is wise toavoid turning on the television
Which one of the following is a cognitive technique for stress management?thinking constructively
Which one of the following is NOT a cognitive technique for stress management?using imagery
Phillip is attempting to lessen his feelings of stress. Which of the following would NOT be helpful?trying to remember as much information as possible
Laughter does all of the following EXCEPTlower blood pressure
Laughter may be the best medicine for stress, because after a good laugh yourheart rate is lowered
A helpful behavior is dealing with stressful situation is tocultivate the ability to laugh at yourself
Which one of the following statements is FALSE regarding the relaxation response?metabolism and oxygen consumption are reduced
Progressive relaxation techniquesinvolve tensing and then relaxing muscles in your body
Which of the following statements is TRUE of progressive relaxation?It requires no willpower or imagination
Progressive relaxation is best described by which one of the following statements?it is a process that uses simple tensing and relaxing of muscles
Which one of the following statements is FALSE?imagery is a cognitive technique designed to change typical patterns of thinking
Carey would like to use meditation to help manage the effects of stress. Which of the following is likely to happen as a result of her use of this technique?It will help her tune out the world, temporarily removing sources of stress
A stress management technique that focuses primarily on your breathing pattern is calledhatha yoga
Which of the following stress management techniques emphasizes the use of breathing, stretching and balance?hatha yoga
Tai chi can be an effective stress reducer because itteaches students to remain calm and centered
All of these are considered counterproductive coping strategies EXCEPTmultivitamin use
Which of the following is INCORRECT?caffeine acts as a sedative
Approximately ____ of Americans use food as a coping device against stress25 percent
The first step in creating a personal plan for managing stress is toidentify your stressors
Which of the following statements is TRUE?psychological health and physical health are intertwined
Which of the following statements is most TRUE regarding psychological health?freedom from psychological disorders is a comprehensive definition of psychological health
Psychological health is another term formental health
According to Maslow, basic human needs are ranked in the following order as they DECREASE in urgencyphysiological needs, safety, being loved, maintaining self-esteem, self actualization
Being self-actualized is characterized byrealism
Maslow would NOT have described a self-actualized person as someone whoremains focused on the idea of the way things should be
Which of the following statements describes a characteristic of self-actualized people?they are largely able to accept themselves and others
People who are self-accepting usuallyhave a positive by realistic perception of themselves
Which of the following statements describes people who are autonomous?they are inner-directed
Being inner-directed is most closely associated withautonomy
Making decisions based on your own values as opposed to a larger group's is a sign ofautonomy
People not afraid to be themselves and be "real" can be described asauthentic
The ability to share feelings without fear of rejection from another is most closely associated withthe capacity for intimacy
A continuing appreciation of the world is most closely associated withcreativity
Alex, age 28, lives in a safe and friendly community, he has a stable job, and is involved in a relationship with a loving and supportive person. According to Maslow, Alex has a chance of attainingself-actualization
Which of the following phrases is the best description of psychological normality?what most people do
Being psycologically normal is the same asbeing close to average
Our early identity models are most likely to beour parents
One's identityis a lifelong process
Maggie, a junior in college, is changing her major for the fourth time. She expresses frustration about her attempt to chose a course of study that best reflects her and her interests rather than the career path her family expects of her. Maggie isexperiencing an identity crises
People with established identities tend to do all the following EXCEPTremain isolated
Which statement regarding the development of self-esteem is FALSE?rejected children may fail to develop feelings of self-worth
Stability, as it relates to self-esteem, is best described asa complete absence of mixed messages about oneself from others
A demoralized person would do all of the following EXCEPTtake responsibility for unfortunate situations
A technique that may aid in fighting demoralization iskeeping a journal of self-talk
Which of the following statements is an example of negative self-talk?"I won the talent contest, but only because none of the other contestants was very good."
Defense mechanisms like humor and substitution might best be described astemporary means of coping
A person who expects failure and accepts it as deserved is called a(n)pessimist
A defense mechanism by which unacceptable inner impulses are attributed to others isprojection
A defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts or wishes are excluded from consciousness isrepression
A psychological defense by which unacceptable feelings are transferred from one event or person to a less threatening one isdisplacement
What is the defense mechanism that allows a false; acceptable reason to be given when the real reason is unacceptable?rationalization
Expressing wishes forcefully, but not necessarily hostiley, describes beingassertive
A part of assertiveness is characterized most bygetting what you want
All of the following are positive reasons to socialize EXCEPTfear of being alone
If you feel explosive anger coming on, one strategy for managing it is totry to reframe what you are thinking at the moment
If you are dealing with anger in another person, you should NOTaccept the verbal abuse, as it is usually a temporary display
Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for heading off explosive anger?having an alcoholic drink
According to the National Institute of Mental Health in 2009, approximately what percent of adult Americans who suffered from a diagnosable psychological disorder?26 percent
Psychological disorders may be a result of all the following EXCEPTgood coping skills
People exposed to a higher number of traumatic life events than others typicallya and b
Which of the following statements about fear is false?it is a useful tool to cope with life
Which of the following does NOT play a major part in psychological disorders?they all play a major part
An example of a specific phobia is fear ofdogs
Which of the following is a social phobia?fear of embarrassment
Fear of public speaking is actually afear of being observed by others.
People usually develop panic disorder in theirearly twenties
Panic disorder isa type of anxiety disorder
Symptoms of panic disorder typically includea loss of physical equilibrium
Fear of flying is an example ofpanic disorder
Shyness is often the result of high levels of anxiety andlack of social skills
A condition that causes the sufferer to fear future threats, pushing out all other thoughts, is calledgeneralized anxiety disorder
An obsession is a ____ thoughtcultivated, irrational
Repetitive, hard-to-resist actions associated with obsessions arecompulsions
An example of an obsession isconcern of contracting syphilis from a handshake
An example of a compulsion isconstant and repetitive hand washing
Post-traumatic stress disorder is most likely to occur after which of the following?rape
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorderinclude re-experiencing the trauma in dreams and intrusive memories
A person who is housebound because of severe anxiety hasagoraphobia
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, PTSD was shown to have affectedall of the above
Which of the following is a characteristic of depression?loss of pleasure in doing usual activities
Which of the following is a risk factor that increases the likelihood of suicide?all of the above
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for suicide?suicide of a family member or friend
Biological researchers have found genetic influences on...
Though ____ attempt suicide more often, ____ succeed more often.women; men
Of the millions of people suffering from clinical depression, ___ seek treatment.35 percent
Which of the following is the best initial treatment for a person with moderate to severe depression?drug therapy combined with psychotherapy
A key neurotransmitter that is important in the treatment of depression is calledserotonin
A treatment used for severe depression when other approaches fail iselectroconvulsive therapy
THe preferred method of treatment for seasonal affective disorder islight therapy
Seasonal affective disorderis more prevalent among people living at higher altitudes
Which of the following attribute best characterizes manic behavior?...
Manic disorders are characterized byhigh energy levels
A drug commonly used to prevent mood swings associated with bipolar disorder islithium carbonate
A delusion isa firmly held false belief
Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of a schizophrenic disorder?compulsive organization
Schizophrenic disorders are characterized by all of the following EXCEPTextremely high energy levels
Which of the following statements is TRUE of schizophrenia?schizophrenics can be logical in their thinking
Which statement regarding schizophrenics is false?they are not at risk for suicide
Treatment for which of the following disorders MUST include drug therapy?schizophrenia
For some, self-help can be very useful. This includesraising self-esteem by conteracting negative thoughts and people
Religious beliefpromotes psychological health for some individuals
College students can typically find inexpensive mental health care throughall of the above
Which of the following statements regarding professional help for psychological health is TRUE?for some, professional help is a choice; for others, it is a necessity
The type of therapy based on the premise that the mind's activity depends on the brain and is genetically determined is ___ therapy.cognitive
The type of therapy that focuses on what people do is ____ therapybehavioral
The technique of exposure is used toencourage people to face their fears
The type of therapy that emphasizes the effects of ideas on behaviors and feelings is ____ therapy...
In the cognitive therapeutic approach, patients are taught to...
Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been developed for all of the following, EXCEPT...
Which of the following statements about peer counselors is FALSE?they can recommend specific treatment options
Which mental health professional is involved when a person requires medication?psychiatrist
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:drowsiness
Which of the following mental health professionals is a licensed physician?psychiatrist
Which of the following professionals requires the most formal education?psychiatrist
To help reduce social anxiety,a and b
What are considered the basic units of reproduction in both males and females?germ cells
The external female sex organs are called thevulva
The ___ consists of spongy tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual excitement.clitoris
In females, the prepuce is also called theclitoral hood
The passage that leads to the internal female reproductive organs is thevagina
The fertilized egg is implanted in the ___, where it grows into a fetus.uterus
The fallopian tubes link theovaries and uterus
The scrotummaintains the temperature of the testes
The temperature of the testes is approximately __ than the temperature of the rest of the body.5 degrees cooler
Sperm are manufactured intubules in the testes
The sperm-storing structure on the surface of the testicles is theepididymis
Sperm is carried from the epididymis through thevas deferens
The prostate glandproduces part of the seminal fluid
The route sperm take istestes to epididymis to vas deferens to prostate gland to seminal vesicles to ejaculatory ducts
The glans isthe rounded head of the clitoris or the penis
A direct analogy can be made between the clitoris and theglans penis
Male circumcision involves removal ofthe prepuce
Circumcision is the surgical removal of theforeskin of the penis
Which percentage of newborn males in the United States are circumcised?50 to 60 percent
Although American newborn males are circumcised at a rate of about ___ percent, that rate is down from a high of about ___ percent in the 1960s.55; 90
On the arguments made in support of male circumcision is thatit reduces teh risk of urinary tract infections in newborns
Hormones are produced byall of these
Male sex hormones areandrogens
The female sex hormones include high levels ofFSH and LH
Which of the following are female sex hormones?estrogens and progestins
The hormones secreted by the ___ gland regulate the hormones secreted by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands.pituitary
Which of the following chromosomal configurations denotes female?XX
Which of the following chromosomal configurations denotes male?XY
Which male organ produces testosterone?testes
The period during which both the male and female reproductive system matures is calledpuberty
The first sign of femals puberty isbreast development
The average age of menarche in the US is about12 years of age
Which of the following is the first phase of the menstrual cycle?menses
The menstrual cycle consists of four phases is the following order:menses, estrogenic phase, ovulation, progestationaly phase
Which of the four phases of the menstrual cycle is characterized by menstrual flow?menses
The release of the ovum is a characteristic ofovulation
Ovulation theoretically occurs14 days prior to the onset of menses
Which of the following is teh most accurate definition of dysmenorrhea?painful menstruation
Place the following conditions in order of severity of symptoms, from least severe to most severepremenstrual tension, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Which of the following statements regarding premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is CORRECT?it interferes with normal daily activities
Which of the following strategies is not recommended to relieve PMS symptoms?eating a diet low in complex carbs and higher in fat
Which of the following is not recommended for the self-treatment of premenstrual syndrome?decreasing exercise
Reproductive maturation of boys lags behind that of girls by about ___ year(s).two
The cessation of menstruation around age 50 is calledmenopause
In a very large study of women in 2002, the use of hormone therapy was found to be associated withincreased incidence of heart attacks
Which one of the following statements about the aging male is TRUE?testosterone production decreases as men age
The most obvious and effective physical simulation involvestouching
Areas of the body that are sensitive to touch are callederogenous zones
The engorgement of tissues that results when more blood flows into an organ than is flowing out is calledvasocongestion
The first stage of the sexual response cycle is the ___ phase.excitement
Which of the following is not a common occurence during the first stage of sexual response?rhythmic contractions in the vagina and penis
The second stage of the sexual response cycle is the _____ phaseplateau
The plateau phase of the sexual response cycle is characterized bymore marked reactions than were initiated in the excitement phase
The third stage of the sexual response cycle is the ___ phaseorgasmic
Rhythmical contractions of the male and female reproductive structures occur during theorgasmic phase
The fourth stage of the sexual response cycle is the ___ phseorgasmic
Male and female reactions during the sexual response cycle differ in which of hte following ways?males enter a refractory period
The refractory period is theperiod during which the male cannot be restimulated to orgasm
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of endometriosis?growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus
_____ is a condition in which the uterine lining grows outside the uterus.endometriosis
Endometriosis is associated with all of the following EXCEPTpelvic inflammatory disease
At what age is testicular cancer most frequently diagnosed?age 20 to 39
The term impotence is also callederectile dysfunction
A male attempting to engage in intercouse after excessive alcohol consumption is likely to experienceerectile dysfunction
Drinking alcohol prior to sexual activitymakes orgasm more difficult to achieve
The first step for the treatment of sexual dysfunciton isidentifying possible medical conditions
The best current explanation for the development of sexual orientation isa complex, interrelated set of biological, psychological and social factors
oral stimulation of the female genitalia is calledcunnilingus
Oral stimulation of the penis is calledfalltio
The most extreme form of sexual coercion isrape
Which of the following is a part of healthy, responsible sexual behavior?practicing safe sex to avoid STDs
Sexual privacy includes all of the following EXCEPTdark rooms
____ is the natural process of fertilization of an egg by a sperm.conception
The cell that is created from the fertilization of an ovum with a sperm is called a(n)zygote
The fertilized egg rests in the lining of theuterus
If the female egg is not fertilized, it will disintegrate after about24 hours
An ovum or a sperm has ___ chromosomes.23
The basic units of heredity that direct the structure and function of all body cells aregenes
Barbara has just given birth to quadruplets - two boys and two girls. At least how many eggs had to be fertilized?two
Fraternal twinsare no more alike than other siblings
Alice delivered a set of fraternal twins. Which of the following statements about them is TRUE?they came from two eggs fertilized by a single sperm
Identical twinsshare the same genetic code
What percentage of the reproductive-age population of the US is affected by infertility?7.5 percent
Pelvic inflammatory disease is most often the result ofscarring from sexually transmitted diseases
Kelley's infertility is caused by blocked fallopian tubes. She has no history of pelvic infections or sexually transmitted diseases. What is the most likely cause of the blockage?endometriosis
Emily is 30 years old and concerned about the possibility of infertility if she continues to postpone pregnancy. Most physicians would advise herto have a fertility workup
Each of the following is a cause of male infertility EXCEPTirregular ejaculation
Which of the following is NOT a primary reason for male infertility?age
___ is the procedure in which the man's sperm is collected and concentrated and introduced by syringe into a woman's vagina or uterusartificial (intrauterine) insemination
A common treatment for male infertility isartificial (intrauterine) insemination
The process that results in fertilization of an ovum in a lab dish is calledin vitro fertilization
Surgically placing eggs and sperm into the fallopian tubes prior to fertilization is known asGIFT
The hormone found only in pregnant women that, when detected, confirms pregnancy ishuman chorionic gonadotropin
Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormonesecreted by the implanted fertilized egg
Which of the following is NOT an early sign of pregnancy?Braxton Hicks contractions
Hegar's sign isthe softening of the uterus near the cervix
How much weight does a woman gain during a healthy pregnancy, on average?25-30 pounds
Braxton Hicks contractions and lightening occur duringthe third trimester
The greatest degree of physical stress associated with pregnancy occursduring the third trimester
Which of the following is NOT a common occurence for women during pregnanct?having limited physical abilities
Cell differentiation and subsequent fetal development are directed bygenetic instructions
The hollow organ in which the blastocyst embeds itself is theuterus
The conglomerate of cells that implants in the uterus and lays the foundation for the development of the placenta and eventual development of the fetus is theblastocyst
A key event occuring in the second week following fertilization isthe heart beginning to beat
The blastocyst becomes an embryo about __ days after fertilization.14
The blastocyst develops into anembryo
The inner cells of the blastocyst separate into three layers. These three layers become theembryo
The outer shell of the conglomerate of cells that embeds in the uterus becomes theplacenta
Which of the following is NOT an early sign of pregnancy?back ache
The ___ provides a two-way exchange of nutrients and waste materials between the mother and the fetus.placenta
Which of the following statements best describes the function of the placenta?it allows a two-way exchange of nutrients
The stage of prenatal development characterized by development of major body structures and organ systems isthe first trimester
Which of the following occurs during the first trimester?the heart begins to beat
Which of the following best describes what occurs by the third month of prenatal development?the fetus becomes active
The earliest point in pregnancy in which a fetus might survive outside of the uterus isend of the second trimester
An ultrasound does NOT provide information aboutDown syndrome
Ultrasonography is NOT useful in determining ___ of a fetusgenetic disorders
An amniocentesisis performed primarily to collect genetic information of a fetus
The primary difference between amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is thepoint in the pregnancy when the test can be performed
The quadruple marker screen (QMS) is used to detectneural tube defects
A quadruple marker screen test can be used to help identifyfetuses with neural tube defects
An area of research known as fetal programming theory examines how ___ may influence the risk of adult diseasesconditions of the womb
Pregnant women typically need to consume how many extra calories a day?250-500
The Rh factor is a(n)blood protein
Pregnant women should avoid eatingfruits and vegetables with chemicals
Which vitamin is important for pregnant women?folate
What does QMS measure?maternal hormones
Bonnie's pregnancy has been confirmed with a home pregnancy test. Bonnie shouldestablish a relationship with a health care provider so that she can receive the appropriate prenatal care
The fetus is extremely vulnerable to environmental factors that can cause birth defects during thefirst trimester
Tertogens areagents that can cause birth defects
Unusual facial features, a small head, and heart defects are characteristic of babies born to mothers whjoused alcohol during pregnancy
Babies born with fetal alcohol syndromemay exhibit abnormal behavior patterns
Cigarette use during pregnancy increases the risk oflow birth weight
Pregnant women who smoke increase the risk ofmiscarriage
Pregnant women with HIVcan reduce the risk of transmission to the baby with treatment
Which one of the following is the most customary recommendation regarding exercise during pregnancy?continue a moderate exercise program
Which of the following is NOT considered a benefit of exercise during pregnancy?weight loss during pregnancy
____ exercises are recommended for pregnant women to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.kegel
Which of the following is NOT a reason to undertake prenatal exercise and childbirth classes?minimizing weight gain
Typically, women receive how many checkup during the first eight months of pregnancy?once a month
A(n) ____ pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg is implanted outside the uterus.ectopic
A spontaneous abortion is more commonly known asa miscarriage
Spontaneous abortions are most commonly caused bychromosomal abnormalities in the fetus
Which of the following statements about low-birth-weight babies is TRUE?good prenatal care is the best strategy for prevcenting low birth weight
To reduce the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), parents shouldput babies to sleep on their backs
The first stage of labor is characterized bydilation of the cervix
Strong and frequent uterine contractions are characteristic oftransition
The second stage of labor ends withthe delivery of the baby
The third stage of labor is characterized bydelivery of the placenta
The Apgar score that indicates a newborn baby is doing well five minutes after birth is7-10
Which of the following is not a benefit associated with breastfeeding?breastfeeding is a reliable form of birth control
Which of the following is not a usual characteristic of postpartum "baby blues"?despondency
Which of the following is not an expected occurrence for most mothers during the postpartum period?postpartum depression
A contraceptive that physically blocks the sperm from reaching the egg isa barrier method
A contraceptive method that more or less permanently prevents transport of the sperm or egg to the site of conception is asurgical method
The "typical use" contraceptive failure rate is based on studies that measure the percentage of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy in the firstyear of use
A woman that is consistently careful in following instructions is labeled as having the "perfect use" failure rate. What is that failure rate?.3 percent
The continuation rate of a contraceptive is determined by the percentage ofpeople who continue to use it after a specified period of time
Oral contraceptives prevent conception bypreventing ovulation by mimicking the hormonal activity of the corpus luteum
Any agent or method that can prevent pregnancy is known ascontraceptive
In addition to preventing ovulation, the birth control pill apparently prevents conception in all of the following ways EXCEPTconstricting the cervical opening
The most common type of oral contraceptive is thecombination pill
In addition to hormone pills, most contraceptive packets also includeone week of inactive pills
When using a combination pill, placebo pillsdo not contain hormones
Back-up contraception should be used for how long when a woman first starts on the pill?during the first week
All of the following are true about the minipill EXCEPT thatit has more side effects and health risks than other hormonal contraceptives
The benefit of lower doses of estrogen in oral contraceptives isfewer health risks
Which of the following statements about oral contraceptives is TRUE?oral contraceptive contains both estrogen and progestins, a synthetic progesterone.
The most important advantage of oral contraceptives is thehigh degree of effectiveness in preventing pregnancy
Oral contraceptives do NOT decrease risk forsexually transmitted diseases
Which of the following is probably the most serious disadvantage of oral contraceptives for most women?they provide no protection against STDs
Oral contraception is NOT recommended for women witha history of blood clots
Which of the following actions will reduce risks associated with the use of oral contraceptives?stopping smoking
When a woman is using an oral contraceptive she can recall the mnemonic ACHES to stay alert for preliminary danger signals. What does the "A" stand for?abdominal pain
The typical first-year failure rate for oral contraceptive is ___ percent9
How does risk of death from oral contraceptive use compare with the risk of death from pregnancy?risk of death from pregnancy is much higher
The Ortho Evra contraceptive skin patch is worn for ___ before being replaced.1 week
The ortho evra contraceptive skin patch can be worn on any of the following places EXCEPT thebreasts
Compliance is higher for the contraceptive skin patch than for oral contraceptives probably beacausethe patch requires weekly instead of daily action
For women who use the vaginal contraceptive ring, when should it be inserted?anytime during the first five days of her menstrual cycle
After insertion, the vaginal contraceptive ring is left in the vagina for ____ before removalthree weeks
The NuvaRing offers pregnancy protection for how long?one month
The perfect-use failure rate of the NuvaRing is ____ percent0.3
The typical-use failure rate of the NuvaRing is ____ percent.9
The Implanion implant is a(n) ___ contraceptive.hormonal
For how long is Implanon effective?three years
Which of the following methods is considered a "contraceptive implant"?Implanion
Which of the following is a progestin-only contraceptive, providing no estrogen?Depo-provera
A disadvantage of depo provera is tahtafter use is discontinued, infertility may result for up to twelve months
Which of the following can be used for emergency contraception?Next Choice
Emergency hormonal contraceptives reduce pregnancy risk by almost ____ percent.90
For emergency contraception to be most effective, the first dose must be taken within ___ hours of unprotected intercourse.12
Which of the following statements is accurate?Emergency contraceptives are available over the counter for women and men 17 and older
Which currently available IUD is effective for up to ten years?Copper T-380 A
How exactly does the IUD prevent pregnancy?It is not known with certainty exactly how IUDs prevent pregnancy
The nylon threads that are attached to the IUD and protrude through the cervixallow for placement check
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists states that use of an IUD can greatly reduce the risk of developing which type of cancer?endometrial
Which of the following statements about IUDs is INCORRECT?It can be inserted by the user in privacy
Which of the following statements about IUD use is FALSE?Bleeding and spotting may occur between periods
Which of the following statements regarding IUD users and pelvic inflammatory disease is TRUE?Most cases of PID among IUD users can be treated with antibiotics
Which of the following statements regarding the IUD is FALSE?The IUD is unsuitable for women with suspected pregnancy
Early IUD danger signals include all of the following EXCEPTfoul vaginal discahrge
Most condoms sold in the US are made oflatex
Which of the following lubricants can be used safely with a latex condom?KY jelly
Which of the following is TRUE about condoms pre-lubricated with nonoxynol-9?They are not more effective than those without nonoxynol-9
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of condoms?they are as effective as oral contraceptions
Which of the following is a disadvantage of condom use?they diminish sensation during sex
The perfect-use failure rate of condoms for the first year is about ___ percent.2
The rate for breaking and slipping of latex male condoms is about ___ times for every 100 instances of use.1 to 2
Which of the following is TRUE?polyurethane condoms are more likely to break than latex condoms
Some substances seriously degrade latex condoms, making them ineffective. Which of the following can be used with latex condoms?K-Y jelly
If a condom breaks, the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pregnancy is totake an emergency contraceptive
The female condomcan be inserted up to 8 hours before intercourse
Which of the following methods should NOT be combined with a diaphragm use?vaginal contraceptive ring
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the female condom?the female condom is less expensive than the male condom
The typical first-year failure rate of the female condom is about ___ percent.20
The function of the diaphragm is tocover the cervix
After intercourse, the diaphragm must be left in place for at least6 hours
While in storage, diaphragms should be coated withnothing
For how long can the diaphragm be inserted before intercourse?six hours
A disadvantage of the diaphragm is thatit must be used with a spermicide
With perfect use of a diaphragm the failure rate is about ___ percent.6
Which of the following is a reason that diaphragms have a relatively high typical-use failure rate?incorrect insertion and positioning
Ortho Evra is the brand name of which type of contraception?contraceptive skin patch
A small flexible cup that fits over the cervix and serves as a barrier to sperm is theCervical Cap
A cervical cap may be left in place after intercourse for up to48 hours
An advantage of the cervical cap over the diaphragm is that itis less associated with urinary tract infections
Which of the following is not an advantage of the contraceptive sponge?it can be used multiple times
Which of the following is not considered a disadvantage of the sponge?additional spermicide must be applied every six to eight hourse
Contraceptive foams, creams and jellies must be inserteddeep in the vagina near the cervix
How long before intercourse must vaginal spermicides be inserted to be effective?Not longer than 1 hour
Vaginal spermicides start drastically losing effectiveness ___ hour(s) after insertion into the vagina.one
Spermicidesmust be applied before each act of coitus
Vaginal spermicides come in all of the following forms, EXCEPTaerosol spray
Vaginal Contraceptive Film is a type ofspermicidal suppository
Douching is not recommended for women because itcan irritate vaginal tissue
The life span of an unfertilized egg is about __ hours24
Which of the following is NOT considered a "natural" form of contraception?fertility awareness
Which of the following is TRUE?males and females over the age of 13 can buy emergency contraception
The mucus method of contraception is also called theBillings method
The temperature method of birth control is based on the knowledge that a woman's body tempdecreases slightly just before ovulation
Which of hte following is often characteristic of cervical secretions during ovulation?clear, slippery mucus with elastic threads
Withdrawal has a relatively low effectiveness as a contraceptive method owing topreejaculatory fluid
Surgical severing of the ducts that carry sperm to the seminal vesicles is calledvasectomy
Which of the following statements regarding sterilization is TRUE?Another form of birth control should be used for three months after the procedure
Tubal sterilization or tubul ligation entails the severing or blocking of theoviducts
Which of the following is TRUE about tubal sterilization?serious complications from the procedure are rarte
The Essure System of female sterilization works bycausing scar tissue to form over implants to block the fallopian tubes
Surgical removal of the uterus is calledhysterectomy
As it is commonly used, the word abortionrefers to artificially induced expulsion of the fetus
____ refers to the spontaneous expulsion of an embryo or a fetus from the uterus with no casual intervention.miscarriage
When did courts in the US begin to overturn state anti-abortion laws?1960s
After teh Supreme Court legalized abortion,later ruling gave the states more power to set abortion policy
By what year were there laws against abortion in practically every state in the US?1800s
Abortion was made legal by the US Supreme Court in1973
The supreme court case that legalized abortion wasRoe v. Wade
According to Roe v. Wade, states may regulate abortionfor the period after which the fetus becomes viable
The Supreme Court's division of pregnancy into three parts, or trimestersgave a woman less choice about abortion as she advanced toward full term
During the second trimester, women may choose an abortion up to the point when the fetus is deemed viable, which means the fetuscan survive outside the uterus
Most clinicians currently consider a fetus viable at ___ weeks of gestation.24
The percentage of all pregnancies in the US that end with an abortion is closest to25 percent
What did Roe v. Wade establish as the key criterion for establishing the point beyond which a woman's ability to choose abortion becomes markedly restricted?viability of the fetus
What percentage of pregnancies in the US are unintended?50
Since the mid-1970s, the number of women who choose to place a child up for adoptionhas dropped
The attitude of most adult Americans toward abortion isthat it should be allowed only in cases of rape
Approximately what percentage of the population approves of legal abortions under ANY circumstance?25 percent
Those whol hold the pro-life position believe that the fertilized eggshould have the same rights as any human from the point of conception
Which of the following is a personal consideration for a woman considering abortion?all of these
Research indicates that women who have had abortionshave neither higher or lower frequency of psychiatric diagnoses than those who have not
Most induced abortions occur __ weeks of gestation.at 9-12
At current rates, about ___ percent of American women will have had an abortion by age 4533
The belief that the decision to end or continue a pregnancy is a personal matter reflects which view?pro-choice
Those who oppose abortion because they believe all life begins at conception reflect which view?pro-life
Which of the following is a pro-life view?all abortion should be illegal
Based on national research, which of hte following is NOT characteristic of most American women who have abortions?first time pregnant
When deciding to follow through with an unwanted pregnancy and give the baby up for adoption, the mothershould see a counselor to make her choice
In which type of adoption do the birth parents and adoptive parents never meet each other?private
In which type of adoption do the birth parents and adoptive parents know something about one another and may meet?open
The majority of women in the US who have abortionsare low income
Suction curretage abortions make up what percentage of all abortions?85 percent
Another name for suction curettage isdilation and curretage
Suction curettage is the most common method of abortion duringthe first trimester
Suction curettage is used in about what percentage of all abortions performed in the US?85 percent
An abortion option for women in the earliest stages of pregnancy issuction curettage
The most common method of abortion during the 13th to 24th weeks of pregnancy isdilation and evacuation
Which of hte following statements about dilation and evacuation is TRUE?It requires cervical dilation overnight before the procdure is completed
Medical abortion is generally usedwithin 49 days of the last menstrual period
A medical abortion uses what to induce the abortion?combination of drugs
Which of the following does NOT reduce the risk of possible complications from an abortion?general anesthesia
Cramping and bleeding after an abortionare expected part of the process
Which of the following is a post-abortion danger sign?abdominal tenderness
Which of the following most accurately characterizes women's psychological reactions to having an abortion?psychological reactions depend on a woman's psychological makeup
In what way is alcohol similar to other drugs?Its physiological effects can cause long-term damage
A standard drink contains about0.6 ounces of alcohol
Beer usually contains what percentage of alcohol?3-6 percent
The process of fermentation is utilized in makingwine
The approximate concentration of alcohol in a hard liquor such as vodka or gin is35-50 percent
Wines with the highest concentration of alcohol are calledfortified
Which of the following beverages has the highest concentration of alcohol?sherry
The proof value of an alcoholic beverage istwo times the percentage of alcohol in the beverage
A 20 proof beverage is ___ percent alcohol.10
Alcohol is metabolizedat a varied rate depending on individual characteristscs
The carbonation in an alcoholic beverage like champagnespeeds up the absorption rate of alcohol, thereby increasing the degree of impairment
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the relationship between food and alcohol consumption?eating slows alcohol absorption
Which of the following does NOT influence how long it takes for alcohol to be absorbed in the stomach?time of day that alcohol is consumed
The main site of alcohol metabolism is in theliver
What percentage of ingested alcohol is NOT metabolized in the liver but is excreted unchanged?2-10 percent
Which of the following statements about alcohol is TRUE?some alcohol is excreted by the lungs, which is the basis of breath analyses for alcohol levels
The amount of alcohol in the blood, which is used as a measure of intoxication, is calledblood alcohol concentration
One reason that females usually become intoxicated more quickly than males is thatthe stomach enzyme that metabolizes alcohol is less active in women than in men
One reason that women have higher BACs than men after ingesting the same amount of alcohol is that women havea higher percentage of body fat
A man who weighs 150 pounds will metabolize one drink (one beer or glass of wine) in2 hours
At what blood alcohol concentration are you likely to first feel "relaxed"?less than 0.05 percent
What is the estimated time required to metabolize a BAC of .05 percent?4-6 hours
What would be the estimated blood alcohol concentration for a person who is experiencing emotional instability and exaggerated feelings and behavior?0.05-0.10 percent
How many house would be required to metabolize a blood alcohol concentration of 0.10-0.15 percent?6 to 10 hours
At what blood alcohol concentration are you likely to experience unsteadiness in walking and standing?0.05-0.10
At what blood alcohol concentration is pain perception significantly impaired?.05-.1
At what blood alcohol concentration could a person become unconscious?0.30-0.35 percent
Alcohol is classified as a(n)depressant
Initial effects of low concentrations of alcohol include all of the following EXCEPTsleepiness
Which of the following effects of alcohol use are likely to occur at the lower levels of BAC?light-headedness
At high blood alcohol concentrations, people are LEAST likely to feeljovial
A high blood alcohol concentration is most likely to increaseirritability
Which of the following is LEAST characteristic of an intoxicated person?improved problem-solving skills
All of the following are symptoms of a hangover EXCEPTcough
Which of the following can cause death by alcohol poisoning?central nervous system and respiratory depression
Which of the following is an appropriate way to deal with an alcohol emergency?If unconscious, place the person on his side with his knees up
In a 2010 survey, what percentage of US adult drivers 18-20 admitted to during while under the influence of alcohol?15 percent
Many states have zero-tolerance laws, in which drivers under age 21will have their driver's license suspended after drinking any alcohol
A person with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.14 percent will be ___ times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash than a sober driver.40
The legal BAC limit in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia is0.08 percent
Which of the following is a good strategy for protecting yourself if you suspect another driver is drunk?maintain a safe distance and stay alert
Continued overuse of alcohol commonly causes scarring in theliver
A disease of the liver caused by excessive and chronic drinking iscirrhosis
Which of the following is associated with cirrhosis?replacement of liver cells with scar tissue
Which of the following statements about alcohol-related pancreatitis is TRUE?Alcoholic pancreatitis occurs in those who engage in binge rinking
Some alcoholics show a weakening of the heart muscle, calledcardiac myopathy
Which of the following are effects of chronic alcohol abuse on the brain?shrinkage of both grey and white matter
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics in the US experience dementia, memory loss and impaired reasoning?50 percent
Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized byimpaired mental functioning
The effects of fetal alcohol syndrome areboth physical and mental impairments
Cognitive and behavioral problems for infants born to mothers who drink during pregnancy that is more common than fetal alcohol syndrome isalcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
Alcohol consumption by the mother can pose risks for the fetusthroughout the pregnancy
Which of the following is the most accurate discription of the safe limit of alcohol consumption during pregnancy?no alcohol consumed during pregnancy
Early in a pregnancy, heavy drinking by the mother may causespontaneous abortion or miscarriage
Among people under age 35,light drinkers have lower mortality rates than both nondrinkers and heavy drinkers
Cardiovascular benefits from moderate alcohol consumption may be due toincreased levels of HDL cholesterol
Alcohol may positive affect the cardiovascular system byreducing the risk of clot formation
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning alcohol use?health benefits from alcohol are negated by heavy use
Which of the following would probably NOT be a sign of impending alcohol abuse?drinking moderate amounts with most evening meals
Binge drinking is defined as drinking ___ drinks or more in about two hours, at least once within 30 days5
Alcohol dependence is also known asalcoholism
Among Americans under 21, most drinkingis in the form of binging
Among college students, frequent binge drinkers are __ times more likely to engage in unplanned sexual activity, drive after drinking, or get injured than non-binge drinkers.3 to 7
Negative consequences associated with binge drinking includeall of the above choices
What percentage of college binge drinkers identify themselves as problem drinkers?fewer than 1 percent
Which of the following is NOT a common pattern of alcohol consumption associated with alcohol dependence?long periods of sobriety interspersed with binges
Requiring more of a substance to get the same desired effect is known astolerance
Lowered sensitivity to a drug such that a given dose no longer produces the usual effect is calledtolerance
The unpleasant physical and mental state experienced when abstaining from alcohol after heavy use is known aswithdrawal
Which of the following has a mortality rate as high as 15 percent?delirium tremens
Binge drinking among college students is difficult to address becauseit is so widespread
Alcoholics who stop drinking on their own often do so because ofan alcohol-related crisis
Which of the following statements about alcohol treatment is TRUE?Different alcohol treatment strategies work for different people
An important component of treating alcoholism isidentifying which treatment strategy will be most effective
Which of the following statements about naltrexone is TRUE?it decreases the pleasant effects of alcohol without making the person ill
The prolonged use of chemical substitutes in the treatment of alcoholism couldlead to dependence on the substitute drug
Eating before and while drinkingslows the rate of alcoholic absorption
A responsible party hose willmake all of the above choices
Which of the following statements is MOST characteristic of alcoholism among white American men?A common pattern is a man becoming alcohollic in his early forties after beginning to drink excessively in his twenties
Which of the following statements describes a characteristic of alcoholism in women as compared to in men?women tend to become alcoholics later in life
Which of the following statements regarding male and female use of alcohol is TRUE?women may have a higher biological risk than men
Which of the following statements is FALSE?African Americans have a higher rate of alcohol-related problems than the general population
Which of the following groups has a lower-than-average rate of alcohol-abuse problems?Asian Americans
Which of the following groups has a rate of alcoholism twice the national average?American Indians
What is the addictive drug in tobacco?nicotine
The predominant psychoactive drug in tobacco isnicotine
Which of the following statements is FALSE?nicotine is considered a powerful depressant
The primary reason people continue to use tobacco despite the health risks is becausethey are addicted to nicotine
On average, a regular user of tobacco can go how long between dosages of nicotine?no more than 40 minutes
Lynette has not had a cigarette for over an hour. Which of the following is she likely to experience?all of these choices are correct
People who quit smoking suddenly may have all of the following symptoms EXCEPTincreased attentiveness
Most of the symptoms of physical dependence on smoking pass in2 to 3 days
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding tobacco use?smokeless tobacco is highly addictive
The FDA has warned people to not use e-cigarettes becauseanalysis shows that they contain carcinogens
The average age for smokers and smokeless tobacco users to start is about15
Marketers of e-cigarettes say that the devices deliver onlynicotine
Which of the following statements about e-cigarettes is FALSE?The FDA has reported that e-cigarettes are safe to sue
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is commonly calledsecondhand smoke
Which of the following areas of the body will be adversely affected by tobacco?all of these areas will be adversely affected by tobacco
When particles of tobacco smoke condense, they form a brown sticky mass calledtar
A substance that directly causes cancer is called a(n)carcinogen
A component of tobacco smoke that seriously limits the body's ability to use oxygen iscarbon monoxide
Smokers who switch to low-tar or low-nicotine cigarettes will probably NOT reduce the risk of smoking becausethey are likely to smoke more cigarettes to maintain nicotine levels
Which of the following is an effect of nicotine?increased heart rate
Smoking affects hunger bydepressing hunger contractions
Which of the following is the most widespread cause of death among smokers?coronary heart disease
Heart disease caused by the deposit of fatty substances on the walls of arteries is calledatherosclerosis
A heart attack is also calleda myocardial infraction
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding coronary heart disease and smoking?smokers have a death rate from CHD that is 25 percent higher than nonsmokers
Which of the following cardiovascular disease is linked to cigarette smoking?all of these choices are correct
What is the leading cause of cancer death in women?lung cancer
After a smoker quits smoking, approximately how long does it take before the risk of lung cancer drops to half that of a continuing smoker?10 years
Which of the following cancers is linked with smoking?all of these cancers are linked with amoking
Loss of lung tissue elasticity is characteristic ofemphysema
Respiratory ciliasignal the body that respiratory poisons are present
Which of the following health concerns is associated with smoking?all of these choices are correct
Which of the following statements is FALSE?A male who begins smoking before the age of 15 continues to smoke is only half as likely to live to age 75 as a male who never smokes
Which of the following is NOT a major form of spit tobacco?cloves
Which of the following statements is TRUE about spit tobacco?Holding an average-size dip in the mouth for 30 minutes delivers about the same amount of nicotine as two or three cigarettes
White or red patches that appear in the mouth as a result of using spit tobacco are calledleukoplakia
Health consequences related to the use of spit tobacco are likely to include all of the following EXCEPTlung cancer
Which of the following statements is FALSE?cigar smoke contains fewer toxins and carcinogens than smoke from cigarettes
Clove cigarettescontain more tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide than conventional cigarettes
Small cigarettes imported from India contain species of tobacco different from those used by US cigarette manufacturers calledbidis
Smoke exhale by a smoker is referred to as __ amokemainstream
Smoke emitted from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar or pipe is referred to as ___ smokesidestream
Which of the following is an effect of environmental tobacco smoke?all of these choices
Which of the following lingers in the bloodstream for five hours after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke?carbon monoxide
Which of the following is TRUE?infants exposed to environental tobacco smoke are more likely to die of sudden infant death syndrome
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)?children are commonly affected by ETS
The primary effects of environmental tobacco smoke on children arerelated to teh respiratory system
Which of the following statements is FALSE?research suggests there is little to no risk to nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
TO increase the change for success when attempting to quit smoking, you shouldenlist support
Lynette has quit smoking. She can expect all of the following changes to occur EXCEPTa lack of improvement in circulation
Which one of the following nicotine replacement therapies is available only be prescription?none of these
Which of the following is NOT an essential nutrient?enzymes
Nutrition is best described as thescience of food
Which of the following describes the process by which the body breaks down and absorbs food?digestion
In what part of the body does digestion begin?mouth
Calorie is a commonly used name forkilocalorie
Which of the following essential nutrients supplies energy?proteins
Fat provides ___ calories per gram.9
Protein provides ___ calories per gram.4
Carbohydrates provide ___ calories per gram.4
Alcohol provides __ calories per gram.7
Amino acids are components ofproteins
The building blocks of proteins are calledamino acids
Of the 20 common amino acids, how many are termed "essential"?9
Which of the following describes protein sources that provide adequate amounts of all the amino acids not manufactured in the body?complete
Meats, fish, poultry and eggs are sources of ___ protein.complete
Most plant-based foods supply ___ proteins.incomplete
Which of the following is a source of incomplete protein?beans
Martha is a vegetarian and wants to eat a source of complete protein. Which of the following combinations should she choose?beans and peanut butter
The recommended daily intake of protein is ___ percent of total daily calories.10-35
If you consume more protein than your body needs, the extra energy from the protein isstored as fat
Fats are also calledlipids
Which of the following is NOT a function of fats?contributing to the manufacture of hormones
The major source of fuel for the body during rest and light activity isfats
Hydrogenationturns liquid oils into solid or semi-solid fats
Most of the fasts in food are in the form oftriglycerides
Linoleic and alpha-linoleic fatty acids, usually derived from plants, are examples of __ fats.polyunsaturated
Saturated fats are primarily found in ___ food sources and are __ at room temp.animal; solid
Which of the following is NOT a leading source of saturated fat in the American diet?poultry
Which of the following oils is not a major source of monounsaturated fatty acids?peanut
Which of the following best describes hydrogenated vegetable oils?they tend to be higher in saturated fat
Which of the following is a byproduct of hydrogenation?trans fatty acids
TO control blood cholesterol levels, the most important action to take is limiting the amount of ___ fat(s) in your diet.saturated and trans
Which of the following statements best describes trans fatty acids?they increase one's risk of developing heart disease
In order to determine the presence of trans fat in a given product, consumers should check the label forpartially hydrogenated oils
A good source of omega-3 fatty acids issalmon
Which of the following plant sources does NOT contain omega-3 fatty acidscoconut
Which of the following best describes omega-6 fatty acids?they are a form of polyunsaturated fat
When reducing fat intake, the emphasis should be placed on lowering intake oftrans fatty acids
Which of the following is an effect of consuming omega-3 fatty acids?inhibition of abnormal heart rhythms
The major source of fuel for the nervous system, brain, and red blood cells iscarbohydrates
Which of the following foods is a complex carbohydrate?potato
Which of the following best describes simple carbohydrates?they are found naturally in fruits and milk
Which of the following are richest in complex carbohydrates?grains and legumes
Which of the following is NOT removed during the processing whole grains?endosperm
The liver and muscles store carbohydrates in the form ofglycogen
According to the FOod and Nutrition Board, which of the following distributions of total daily calories is most appropriate?65 percent carb, 25 percent fat, 10 percent protein
Refined carbohydratestend to be much lower in fiber than unrefined carbohydrates
The refinement of whole grains transforms whole-wheat flour intowhite flour
Consumption of whole grains has been linked toreduced risk of certain forms of cancer
The measure of how a particular food affects blood glucose levels is the ___ index.glycemic
Nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intact in plants are referred to asdietary fiber
Fiber can helpprevent constipation by increasing fecal bulk
Which of the following is NOT a good source of fiber?hamburger
Which of the following is often added to cereals or used in fiber supplements and laxatives to improve intestinal health?psyllium
The recommended daily amount of fiber for men is __ grams.38
The recommended daily intake of fiber for women is __ grams.25
The primary function of vitamins is toregulate various chemical reactions wihtin cells
Which of the following vitamins is NOT fat soluble?vitamin B
Which of the following vitamins is water soluble?vitamin C
Which of the following statements best describes the role of vitamins in the body?they are important in the maintenance of the immune system
Which of the following vitamins is a key antioxidant?vitamin E
Which of the following vitamins are produced by the body?vitamins D and K
The vitamin deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin C isscurvy
Low intake of which of the following vitamins has been linked to increased risk of heart disease?folate
High dosages of vitamin A are associated with increased risk ofnight blindness
The best source of vitamin C is a(n)orange
Which of the following enhances the absorption of iron?vitamin C
Mineralshelp regulate body function
Examples of minerals in the body needs more than 100 milligrams of each day includecalcium, potassium, and magnesium
Examples of trace minerals includefluoride, copper and zinc
A mineral commonly lacking in American diets isiron
A food rich in calcium isgreen leafy vegetables
Osteoporosis is associated with low intake ofcalcium
One practice that would help with building strong bones is toengage in weight-bearing aerobic activities
Which of the following is NOT a strategy to prevent osteoporosis?taking more vitamin A (as retinol)
Human body weight is composed of approximately __ percent water.50-60
Which of the following best describes the liquids that count toward total daily fluid intake?all fluids
Antioxidantscan help protect the body from damaging molecules
Which of the following statements best describes free radicals?they are produced by the body as a normal part of metabolism
Phytochemicalsmay help prevent chronic diseases
Which of the following is a cruciferous vegetable?broccoli
The Dietary Reference Intakesare designed to prevent nutritional deficiencies and chronic diseases
Which of the following best describes the purpose of MyPlate?to show people how to use the five food groups
Experts say that two of the most important factors in a healthy diet are eating the "right" kinds of fats and the "right" kinds ofcarbohydrates
Which of the following statements best describes the Dietary Guidelines for Americansthey are supported by extensive medical evidence
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage eating more of which of the following?whole grains
Which of the following is a general dietary guideline for Americans?choose a diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables
Which of the following types of foods is a most important for a healthy diet?nutrient-dense
Sedentary people should decrease their consumption ofenergy-dense carbohydrates
Americans most often consume salt by eatingprocessed and prepared foods
which of the following is NOT a condiment that is high in sodium?lemon juice
Which of the following is not a food group on USDA's MyPlate?oils
Which of the following describes the philosophy behind MyPlate?showing how to build a healthy meal
For a person consuming a 2000 calorie diet, MyPlate recommends consuming three servings of __ each day.dairy
One ounce of protein is equivalent to the size of alarge egg
About how many calories should sedentary women ages 14-18 consume each day?1800
Which of the following describes the MyPlate category of calories from solid fats and sugars?discretionary
Which of the following describes lacto-ovo-vegetarians?They do not eat fish but eat eggs and dairy products
Vegetarians who eat dairy products but not eggs are calledvegans
Vegetarians who include milk and cheese products and small amounts of fish and poultry in their diets are calledsemivegetarians
Women who are capable of getting pregnant should eat foods fortified withfolic acid
Unlike most population groups, endurance athletes may benefit from consuming additionalcarbohydrate
Which of the following is a good eating strategy for college students?abide by the portion sizes that are served to you
Which of the following is a good reason for taking a dietary supplement?you may become pregnant
Which of the following best describes a food that claims to be "light"?it has 50 percent less fat than a similar product
Which of the following is a criterion for USDA organic certification?feeding animals certified organic feed
Which of the following is a good tip for choosing a dietary supplement?Avoid products that do not give daily values for all ingredients
A guideline for food safety is tocook stuffing separately from poultry
IF the air temp is 75 degrees F cooked or refrigerated foods should be be left at room tempt for more than __ hours.two
Shelley is pregnant and has concerns about possible mercury contamination in the fish she eats. According to the FDA and EPA guidelines, which of the following should she avoid completely?swordfish
Food irradiationextends the shelf life of a food
In the US, genetically modified foodscan appear in the food supply through contamination during processing
a treatment
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