what differentiates an autonomic reflex from a somatic reflex?

what differentiates an autonomic reflex from a somatic reflex?


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Asked by 2 years ago
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Which of the receptor types might function as a receptor?A
Which of these receptor types functions as a exteroceptor?All of the listed responses are correct
_____ are receptors that can respond to painful stimuli.Nociceptors
Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?the number of dendritic endings present
Which types of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?Mechanoreceptor
Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involved all of the following except____Lamella corpuscles Hair follicle receptors, tactile discs, and Meissner's corpuscles would be involved
Lamellar corpuscles can be exteroceptors, interceptors, or proprioceptor.True
In order for you to realize there has been a sensory change, it has to reach the ____ level of processing.Perceptual
_____ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.Tonic receptors
Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involved the spinal cord?circuit level
All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ____.Thalamus
CNS nerve fibers regenerate because of the actions of Schwann cells.False
Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.Axons make up a majority of the matter in a nerve.
Which CT layer directly surrounds every axon in a nerve?Endoneurium
Nerves that carry impulse toward the CNS only are ___.Afferent nerves
Select statement that is most correct.Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons
Spinal nerves are all classified as ____.Mixed nerves
Which of the following cranial nerves carries only motor information?Abducens
Which cranial nerve transmits information about audition?vestibulocochlear
David, an aspiring baseball player, was struck on the left side of his face with a fastball pitch. He was not wearing a safety helmet. His zygomatic arch was crushed, as well as parts of the temporal bone. Following the accident and reconstructive surgery, he noted that his left lower eyelid was still drooping and the corner of his mouth sagged. What nerve damage did he sustain?Facial nerve damage on his left side
The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ____.Accessory
Bell's palsy is _____.Characterized by paralysis of facial muscles.
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?Olfactory They include: facial, trigeminal, and vagus
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?olfactory
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?Facial
The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.True
Drooping of the upper eyelid, and double vision are potential symptoms of damage to the oculomotor nerve.True
In the carpal tunnel syndrome, the ____ is compressed.median nerve
Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?Segmental level, projection level, pre-commend level
The brachial plexus can be palpated at the lower lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Injury to the brachial plexus could cause weakness or paralysis to all of the following EXCEPT the ______.sternocleidomastoid muscle Includes: deltoid muscle, biceps brachii muscle, and muscles that flex the wrist and fingers
In carpal tunnel syndrome, there may be tingling and numbness in the thumb due to compression of the ____.cutaneous branches of the median nerve
Damage to the ulnar nerve could result in the inability to ____.flex the wrist
If "wrist drop" were to appear, there would also be an increased probability of ____.inability to extend the forearm
A herniated lumbar disc could interfere withSkin sensations from the lateral thigh, skin sensations from the medial thigh, and adduction of the thigh
A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is thefemoral
Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form thesacral plexus
The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachia and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?musculocutaneous
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result insciatica
Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibersTrue
Classify the neuron at Aafferent sensory neuron
The synapse between which of the following two neurons is a part of a monosynaptic reflex arc?A and B
Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?crossed-extensor reflex
A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called aGolgi tendon reflex
Which of these activities is most likely driven by parasympathetic innervation?resting and digesting
Which of the following is responsible for the overall integration of the autonomic nervous system? (ANS)hypothalamus
Which of the following target organs/systems is affected by the sympathetic nervous system but is NOT affected by the parasympathetic nervous system?cellular metabolism
Which reflex requires gamma motor neurons to set the length of the muscle?stretch reflex
Which of the following is NOT associated with the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system? (ANS)emergency action
Which of the following outcome criteria show that a patient is effectively coping with a stressful problem?Regular heart beat, unlabored breathing, warm and dry skin, constricted or normal pupils
Preparing the body for the "flight-or-flight" response is the role of the ____.sympathetic division
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except____regulation of activity by higher brain centers
The "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the ____parasympathetic division
Which of the following is NOT a result of parasympathetic stimulation?dilation of the pupils
Where would you NOT find autonomic ganglia?within spinal cord
Somatic and visceral reflex arcs are similar, but visceral reflex arcs lack afferent fibers (visceral sensory neurons).False
Acetylcholine is released by all somatic motor neurons, all preganglionic neurons of the ANS and by the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers.True
The ANS stimulates smooth muscles, skeletal muscles and glands, whereas the somatic nervous system innervates skeletal muscles only.False
Autonomic ganglia are sights of synapse and information transmission from preganglionic to postganglionic neurons.True
Outflow of the sympathetic division occurs from which regions of the CNS?thoracic and lumbar
Which organ receives major input from the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, division?Skin
Which of the letters in the figure indicates the vagus nerve?A
Which pathways compose the autonomic nervous system?B and C
The circular structures shown within pathways B and C represent which of the following?ganglia
Which of the following releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron
The sympathetic division innervates targets with nerves that all originate from the thoracolumbar regionTrue
Which plexus does NOT receive innervation from the vagus nerve?inferior hypogastric plexus
Once a preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, one of three things can happen to the axon. Which of the following is NOT one of these three things?The axon can course back into the spinal cord to synapse with preganglionic neurons in a different spinal segment.
Which division of the nervous system has long preganglionic neurons?parasympathetic
Which of the following is NOT a designation for sympathetic ganglia?terminal ganglia
What differentiates an autonomic reflex from a somatic reflex?a two-neuron motor pathway
Short pregangliotic, long postgangliotic fibersSympathetic
Collateral gangliaSympathetic
Active after you have eaten a mealParasympathetic
decreases heart rateparasympathetic
maintenance functionsparasympathetic
stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye, which makes the lens bulge for close visionparasympathetic
increases blood pressuresympathetic
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects ofsympathetic stimulation
Which of the following does NOT describe the ANS?a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all of the following EXCEPT ________.dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerves ____X (vagus)
Which of the following statements is FALSE?Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.Oculomotor (III)
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic trunks without synapsing form structures called ____splanchnic nerves
Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all of the following EXCEPT?synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
Which sympathetic fibers form a splanchnic nerve?those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the _____vagus (X) nerves
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via thevagus (X) nerves
Parasympathetic functions includelens accommodation for close vision
The sympathetic division innervates more organs than the parasympathetic divisionTrue
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic divisionTrue
Some sympathetic preganglionic fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to release norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood, producing what is commonly called a "surge of adrenaline."True
Autonomic ganglia are motor ganglia, containing the cell bodies of motor neuronsTrue
The craniosacral division is another name for the parasympathetic divisionTrue
All splanchnic nerves are sympatheticFalse
The sacral part of the parasympathetic division serves the pelvic organs and the distal half of the large intestine.True
Rami communicantes are designated white or gray to indicate whether or not the fibers passing through them are myelinated.True
Which of the following is characteristic of the parasympathetic division?stimulates secretory activity
Symptoms of autonomic neuropathy could include any EXCEPT which of the following?abnormal stretch reflex responses
Which target organ is NOT affected by the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?adrenal medulla
Where would you NOT find a cholinergetic nicotine receptor?all parasympathetic target organs
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ____hypothalamus
Drugs called beta- blockersdecrease heart rate and BP
Erection (vasodilation) of the pens or clitorisis primarily under parasympathetic control
Which of the following adrenergic neurotransmitter receptors plays the major role in heart activity?beta 1
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the _____hypothalamus
Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.True
The effect of beta-blocker drugs (block beta-receptors) is to decrease blood pressure.True
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.False
Visceral reflexes include the reflexes that empty the bladder and the rectum.True
Raynaud's disease ________.is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.True
An elderly patient in a nursing home has recurrent episodes of fainting when he stands. An alert nurse notes that this occurs only when his room is fairly warm; on cold mornings, he has no difficulty. What is the cause of the fainting, and how does it relate to the autonomic nervous system and to room temperature?The fainting episodes are a result of orthostatic hypotension. The condition is exaggerated when blood supply to the skin is increased, such as when the room is warm.
Somaticvoluntary
Autonomicinvoluntary Parts of autonomic nervous system: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
3 ways to classify receptors1. type of stimulus 2. body location 3. structural complexity
Mechanoreceptorsrespond to touch, pressure, vibration, and stretch
Thermoreceptorssensitive to changes in temperature
Photoreceptorsrespond to light energy ex: retina
Chemoreceptorsrespond to chemicals (ex: smell, taste, changes in blood chemistry)
Nociceptorssensitive to pain- causing stimuli (ex: extreme heat or cold, excessive pressure) -do not adapt
Exteroceptors-respond to stimuli arising outside body -receptors in skin for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
Interoceptors (visceroceptors)-respond to stimuli arising in internal viscera and blood vessels -sensitive to chemical changes, tissue stretch, and temperature changes -sometimes cause discomfort -inside
Proprioceptors-respond to stretch in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue -inform brain of one's movement -you know where arm is located when held above you
Levels of neural integration in sensory systems1. receptor level: sensory receptors 2. circuit level: processing in ascending pathways 3. Perceptual level: processing in cortical sensory areas
Cranial nervesnext cards
Olfactory nerve-sensory nerves of smell -pic of nose
Optic nerves-In the eyes -optic chiasma (cross over)
Oculomotor nerves-controls eyes (raising eyelid, directing eyeball) -Same pic as trochlear nerves and abducens nerves
Trochlear nerves-motor nerve that directs eyeball -superior oblique muscle -can't move eye inferior laterally
Trigeminal Nerves-3 divisions down the face -largest cranial nerves, extend from pons to face
Abducens nerves-control one eye muscle -lateral rectus muscle
Facial Nerves-Chief motor nerves of face with 5 major branches -facial expression, parasympathetic impulses to lacrimal and salivary glands. Can't produce tears/ saliva
Vestibulocochlear Nerves vestibulo-->balance cochlear--> hearing-hearing -pic of ear
Glossopharyngeal nerves-tongue and pharynx -motor functions: innervate part of tongue and pharynx for swallowing and provide parasympathetic fibers to parotid salivary glands -pic is all of throat and goes further down into throat
Vagus Nerves-only cranial nerves that extend beyond head and neck region -biggest nerve
Accessory Nerve-spinal nerve, helps it and is an accessory -formerly spinal accessory nerve -pic of spine
Hypoglossal nerves-bottom of the tongue -innervate extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue that contribute to swallowing and speech -pic is does not go all the way down in throat like glossopharyngeal nerves
Flowchart summarizing relationships within brachial plexusRoots(ventral rami) then Trunks Divisions Cords Peripheral nerves
what differentiates
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Asked: 2 years ago

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