the separate sections of a large musical work are called:

the separate sections of a large musical work are called:


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TrillA rapid alternation between a tone and one adjacent to it is called a:The strings are pluckedA pizzicato effect is created on a string instrument when:String sectionThe "heart of the orchestra" is the:contrabassoonThe lowest sounding instrument in the woodwind family is the:legatoPlaying a series of notes smoothly and with connection is called?HarpThe term arpeggio, meaning "broken chord," is derived from the name of what instrument?TubaThe youngest brass player in the Philadelphia Orchestra plays the:OrganWhich keyboard instrument is also a wind instrument?TrumpetWhich brass instrument dates back to ancient times and was used for religious ceremonies and military signals?False(T/F) The timpani is a percussion instrument with indefinite pitch.HarpsichordWhich keyboard instrument produces sound with quills that pluck metal strings?TubaThe sousaphone is the marching-band adaptation of which instrument?PianoWhich instrument has characteristics of both string and percussion instruments?GlissandoOn bowed string instruments, sliding the left hand along the string while bowing with the right produces a ________ effect.XylophoneWhich of the following is a pitched percussion instrument? xylophone bass drum snare drumVibratoInstruments are able to create a "throbbing" sound to imitate vocal______.ViolinThe bowed string instrument with the highest range is the:Double-StoppingPlaying two notes simultaneously on a violin is called:TromboneWhich brass instrument has a movable slide?SaxophoneWhich instrument combines characteristics of both the woodwind and brass families?ChimesAll of the following are indefinite pitch percussion instruments, EXCEPT: Triangle Snare drum ChimesMuteBrass and string instrument players utilize a _____ to muffle the sound produced.FluteWhich woodwind instrument is no longer made of wood?PianoWhich instrument derives its name from the Italian word meaning "soft-loud"?False(T/F) The English horn belongs to the brass family.BassoonWhich of the following is a double-reed instrument? bassoon clarinet saxophonePiccoloWhich of the following is the highest-sounding woodwind instrument? Flute Piccolo oboea temporeturn to the original tempoaccelerandoincrease the speedadagioslow tempo, between largo (slower) and andanteallegrettolively tempo, but not too fast; between andante (slower) and allegroallegrofast tempo, from Italian word meaning cheerfulandantemoderate tempo, from Italian word meaning walkingassaimuch or veryattacacontinue directly into the next section or movementbriobrilliancecalandogradually diminshing in pace and dynamiccantabilein a singing stylecon/senzawith/withoutdolcesweetlyespressivoexpressivelyfuocofiregiustocorrect; meaning strict time when used as "tempo giusto"graveslowly, solemnly, statelylarghettoslow tempo, between largo (slower) and andantelargovery slow tempolegatoperform smoothly, without break between the notesleggeroperform lightly, delicatelylentoslow tempolocoin placelontanodistantlylungalongmabutmarcatoperform with emphasis and sharply accentedmeno/piuless/moremoderatomoderate tempomossoa fairly rapid, agitated mannermotomotionpocolittle, somewhat, slightlyprestovery fast temporallentando and ritardandogradually slowing downritenutosudden holding back of temposemprealwayssimilesamestaccatoseparatedsubitosuddenlytantoso muchtenutoheldtranquilloquiet, calmtroppotoo or too muchvivacebrisk, lively, often reffering to tempo or styleA musical soundhas a perceivable pitch and a measurable frequency.The highness or lowness of sound is called:pitchAccording to your text, the musical element that makes the widest and most direct appeal is:melody.The distance between two different pitches is called:an interval.Which term describes a melody that moves by small intervals?conjunctThe resting place at the end of a phrase is called:a cadence.One melody added to, or played against, another melody is called:a countermelody.Music is propelled forward in time by:rhythm.The basic unit of rhythm that divides time into equal segments is called:the beatThe organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses are called:metersMeter is marked off in groupings known as:measuresThe first accented beat of a measure is called a(n)downbeatThe deliberate shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat is called:syncopationThe simultaneous use of two or more rhythmic patterns is called:polyrythmThe depth resulting from simultaneous events in music is described by the term:textureThe distance and relationship between two tones is referred to as:IntervalA combination of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called:chordAn interval of eight notes is called:octaveA triad is:Three Note Chord Built on Alternate scale steps Most common chord found in western musicThe principle of organization around a central tone is called:tonalityWhich tonality would most likely be chosen for a triumphal march?majorShould a composer write a film score to a horror movie, one might reasonably expect that the harmony would include a great deal of:dissonanceHow many notes in a scale does an octave span?eightIn Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals?twelveA twelve tone scale, including all the semitones of the octave, is called:chromaticTonality means that we hear a piece of music in relation to a central tone, called:tonicIn a major scale, between which intervals do the half steps occur?3 and 4, 7 and 8The number of notes in the pentatonic scale is:fiveThe triad built on the first note of the scale is called:the tonicThe tonic chord is represented by which symbol?IThe three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are:I, IV and VThe element that describes the musical fabric or the relationship of musical lines within a work is called:textureA texture featuring a single, unaccompanied line is called:monophonicA melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as:heterophonyWhen two or more independent melodic lines are combined, the resulting texture is called:polyphonicA texture in which a single voice takes over the melodic interest while the accompanying voices are subordinate is called:homophobicThe procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called:imitationWhat best describes the texture of Row, Row, Row Your Boat?roundThe quality of a work of art that represents structure or shape refers to its:formThe basic structural concepts in the element of form are:repetition and contrastA vocal work in which each poetic stanza is sung to the same melody is in:strophic formThe technique through which performers create music on the spot is known as:improvisationThe form based on a statement and a departure without a return to the complete opening statement is called:binaryWhich of the following best defines binary form?A-BThe restatement of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch is called:a sequenceA basic technique in thematic development is the fragmentation of themes into:motivesThe smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called:a motiveThe separate sections of a large musical work are calledmovementsThe rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its:tempoMusic that is despairing and sad usually has a _____ tempo.slowWhich marking is appropriate for a slow tempo?adagioAccelerando is a term indicating that the tempo is:getting fasterThe degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called:dynamicsWhich of the following dynamic markings is the softest?pianissimo (pp)The gradual swelling of the volume of music is called:crescendoWhich is NOT a property of a musical sound?textureThe quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another is:timbreThe term timbre refers to:the color of the toneA mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called:an instrumentThe standard ranges of the human voice from highest to lowest are:soprano, alto, tenor, bassWhich of the following voices has the lowest range?bassThe human voice:possess lyric beauty and expressiveness that has served as a model for instrument builders and playersInstruments that produce sound from a vibrating string are called:chordophonesInstruments that produce sound by using air as the vibrating means are called:aerophonesOf the following, which is NOT a chordophone?bagpipesHow do idiophones produce sound?by shaking, scraping, or striking the instrument itselfWhich is the correct order of bowed string instruments from highest to lowest in range?violin, viola, cello, double bassThe special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called:pizzicatoWhat is double stopping?playing on two strings at oncesHarmonics on a string instrument are produced by:lightly touching the string at certain points while the bow is drawnThe lowest member of the double reed family listed here is:bassoonWhich of the following is true of all brass instruments?Made of metal Blown with a metal mouthpiece Sound is created by the vibration of the lipsWhich of the following brass instruments is sometimes played with the performers hand plugging the bell?French HornWhich brass instrument uses a large, movable U-shaped slide to change notes?TromboneA fairly large body of singers who perform together is called:A ChorusThe term a cappella refers to choral music performed:without any accompanimentApproximately two thirds of a symphony orchestra consists of:stringsWhich instruments are traditionally seated in the front of the orchestra?stringsA jazz band is normally made up of:Woodwind Brass PercussionOf the following, which is a universal function of music found in most world cultures?Accompanies religious and civic ceremonies Provides entertainment Helps workers get their jobs done more efficientlyThe preservation of music without the help of written notation is called:Oral TransmissionThe concept of style can be identified with:Individual Artworks Creators personal manner of expression Music of an entire cultureWhich of the following is the proper chronological order of musical periods?Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Twentieth CentuaryMelodies that move principally by small, connected intervals are conjunct.TrueDisjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals.TrueA component unit of a melody is a phrase.TrueThe element that organizes movement in time is called harmony.FalseSyncopation is a rhythmic characteristic of American jazz.TrueSyncopation is typical of African-American dance music and spirituals.TrueMelody and harmony function independently of one another.FalseThe two scale types commonly found in Western music from about 1650 to 1900 are major and minor.TrueActive chords seek to be resolved to resting chords, imparting a sense of direction or goal.TrueThe art of combining two or more simultaneous melodic lines is called counterpoint.TrueThe art of counterpoint is most closely associated with monophonic texture.FalseHomophonic describes a single voiced texture without accompaniment.FalseMusical structure generally features a balance between unity and variety.TrueA musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form.FalseCall and response music is common in African and Native American cultures.TrueThroughout history, the voice has served as a model to instrumentalists and to instrument builders.TrueA genre is a category or type of music repertory.TrueA musical soundhas a perceivable pitch and a measurable frequency.The highness or lowness of sound is called:pitchAccording to your text, the musical element that makes the widest and most direct appeal is:melody.The distance between two different pitches is called:an interval.Which term describes a melody that moves by small intervals?conjunctThe resting place at the end of a phrase is called:a cadence.One melody added to, or played against, another melody is called:a countermelody.Music is propelled forward in time by:rhythm.The basic unit of rhythm that divides time into equal segments is called:the beatThe organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses are called:metersMeter is marked off in groupings known as:measuresThe first accented beat of a measure is called a(n)downbeatThe deliberate shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat is called:syncopationThe simultaneous use of two or more rhythmic patterns is called:polyrythmThe depth resulting from simultaneous events in music is described by the term:textureThe distance and relationship between two tones is referred to as:IntervalA combination of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called:chordAn interval of eight notes is called:octaveA triad is:Three Note Chord Built on Alternate scale steps Most common chord found in western musicThe principle of organization around a central tone is called:tonalityWhich tonality would most likely be chosen for a triumphal march?majorShould a composer write a film score to a horror movie, one might reasonably expect that the harmony would include a great deal of:dissonanceHow many notes in a scale does an octave span?eightIn Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals?twelveA twelve tone scale, including all the semitones of the octave, is called:chromaticTonality means that we hear a piece of music in relation to a central tone, called:tonicIn a major scale, between which intervals do the half steps occur?3 and 4, 7 and 8The number of notes in the pentatonic scale is:fiveThe triad built on the first note of the scale is called:the tonicThe tonic chord is represented by which symbol?IThe three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are:I, IV and VThe element that describes the musical fabric or the relationship of musical lines within a work is called:textureA texture featuring a single, unaccompanied line is called:monophonicA melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as:heterophonyWhen two or more independent melodic lines are combined, the resulting texture is called:polyphonicA texture in which a single voice takes over the melodic interest while the accompanying voices are subordinate is called:homophobicThe procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called:imitationWhat best describes the texture of Row, Row, Row Your Boat?roundThe quality of a work of art that represents structure or shape refers to its:formThe basic structural concepts in the element of form are:repetition and contrastA vocal work in which each poetic stanza is sung to the same melody is in:strophic formThe technique through which performers create music on the spot is known as:improvisationThe form based on a statement and a departure without a return to the complete opening statement is called:binaryWhich of the following best defines binary form?A-BThe restatement of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch is called:a sequenceA basic technique in thematic development is the fragmentation of themes into:motivesThe smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called:a motiveThe separate sections of a large musical work are calledmovementsThe rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its:tempoMusic that is despairing and sad usually has a _____ tempo.slowWhich marking is appropriate for a slow tempo?adagioAccelerando is a term indicating that the tempo is:getting fasterThe degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called:dynamicsWhich of the following dynamic markings is the softest?pianissimo (pp)The gradual swelling of the volume of music is called:crescendoWhich is NOT a property of a musical sound?textureThe quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another is:timbreThe term timbre refers to:the color of the toneA mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called:an instrumentThe standard ranges of the human voice from highest to lowest are:soprano, alto, tenor, bassWhich of the following voices has the lowest range?bassThe human voice:possess lyric beauty and expressiveness that has served as a model for instrument builders and playersInstruments that produce sound from a vibrating string are called:chordophonesInstruments that produce sound by using air as the vibrating means are called:aerophonesOf the following, which is NOT a chordophone?bagpipesHow do idiophones produce sound?by shaking, scraping, or striking the instrument itselfWhich is the correct order of bowed string instruments from highest to lowest in range?violin, viola, cello, double bassThe special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called:pizzicatoWhat is double stopping?playing on two strings at oncesHarmonics on a string instrument are produced by:lightly touching the string at certain points while the bow is drawnThe lowest member of the double reed family listed here is:bassoonWhich of the following is true of all brass instruments?Made of metal Blown with a metal mouthpiece Sound is created by the vibration of the lipsWhich of the following brass instruments is sometimes played with the performers hand plugging the bell?French HornWhich brass instrument uses a large, movable U-shaped slide to change notes?TromboneA fairly large body of singers who perform together is called:A ChorusThe term a cappella refers to choral music performed:without any accompanimentApproximately two thirds of a symphony orchestra consists of:stringsWhich instruments are traditionally seated in the front of the orchestra?stringsA jazz band is normally made up of:Woodwind Brass PercussionOf the following, which is a universal function of music found in most world cultures?Accompanies religious and civic ceremonies Provides entertainment Helps workers get their jobs done more efficientlyThe preservation of music without the help of written notation is called:Oral TransmissionThe concept of style can be identified with:Individual Artworks Creators personal manner of expression Music of an entire cultureWhich of the following is the proper chronological order of musical periods?Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Twentieth CentuaryMelodies that move principally by small, connected intervals are conjunct.TrueDisjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals.TrueA component unit of a melody is a phrase.TrueThe element that organizes movement in time is called harmony.FalseSyncopation is a rhythmic characteristic of American jazz.TrueSyncopation is typical of African-American dance music and spirituals.TrueMelody and harmony function independently of one another.FalseThe two scale types commonly found in Western music from about 1650 to 1900 are major and minor.TrueActive chords seek to be resolved to resting chords, imparting a sense of direction or goal.TrueThe art of combining two or more simultaneous melodic lines is called counterpoint.TrueThe art of counterpoint is most closely associated with monophonic texture.FalseHomophonic describes a single voiced texture without accompaniment.FalseMusical structure generally features a balance between unity and variety.TrueA musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form.FalseCall and response music is common in African and Native American cultures.TrueThroughout history, the voice has served as a model to instrumentalists and to instrument builders.TrueA genre is a category or type of music repertory.Truerhyme schemethe arrangement of rhyming words or corresponding sounds at the end of poetic linesclimaxthe high point in a melodic line or piece of music, usually representing the peak of intensity, range and dynamicscountermelodyan accompanying melody sounded against the principal melodycontourthe overall shape of a melodic line. It can move upward, downward, remain staticnotea musical symbol denoting pitch and durationmelodysuccession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unitydisjunctdisjointed or disconnected melody with many leapscadenceresting place in a musical phrase; music punctuationintervaldistance and relationship between two pitchesconjunctsmooth connected melody that moves principally by small intervalsrangedistance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, instrument or a voicetimbre/ tone colorthe quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from anotheramplitudedegree of loudness or softness of a soundfrequencyrate of vibration of a string or column of air, which determines pitchphrasemusical unit; often component of a melodyintervalthe distance between two pitches is called:conjuncta melodic line that moves by small intervals is called:frequencyscientifically, pitch is determined by its:falsea melody is a concept that occurs only in Western music, true/false?disjunctthe type of melodic movement in The Star Spangled Banner can be described as:contourthe term referring to the overall shape of a melody is:countermelodywhen a melody is accompanied by a second melody, that second melody is called a:ba phrase and cadence in music can be compared to a: a) sentence and paragraph b) sentence and period c) paragraph and essaynarrowmost children's songs have a _______ rangerangethe distance between the highest and lowest pitches in a melodic line is considered its:cadencea place in a melody where a musician will most likely pause for a breath is at the:truea second melody played against the first is called a countermelody, true/false?descendingthe contour of the opening phrase of Joy to the World is best described as:climaxthe high point of melodic line is considered its:trueunderstanding a bit about the music before listening to it can help develop a deeper appreciation toward it, true/false?cat the concert, a program will tell you: a) the names of the performers b) the pieces on the concert c) both a and bawhich of the following is NOT a recommended technique to study music? a) putting the music examples on as background for relaxation b) listening to a recording multiple times c) seeing a live performancefalsethe only place to see a live performances of classical music is in a major urban center true/false?oboein a western orchestra, which instrument provides the note that the ensemble tunes to?intermissionoftentimes in a concert there is a break where you can move around. This break is called the:bwhich of the following is NOT a tradition of live western classical music performances? a) knowing when to clap b) audience participation on the stage c) the dress of the performerstruetechnology has affected the way people consume music true/false?encoreif a performance is well received, an audience can request an _____ by extended applause20 min earlywhen is the best time to arrive at a classical concert?cwhich of the following is a term that can be used to label a piece of music that is composed? a) composition b) work c) both a and bconcertmasterthe first violinist in an orchestra is known as the:falseat a classical concert you can come and go at will true/false?truemusic can be described in the language of words true/false?only at the end of the final movementin a concert in which a symphony is performed the audience is generally expected to clap:black formal wearperformers of classical music typically dress in:rhythmthe controlled movement of music in timebeatregular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical timeaccentthe emphasis on a beat resulting in its being louder or longer than another in measuremeterorganization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into larger, regular patterns, notated as measuresmeasurerhythmic group or metrical unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar linesmeasure linesvertical lines through the staff that separate metric units, or measuresdownbeatfirst beat of the measure, the strongest in any meterduple meterbasic metrical pattern of town beats to a measuretriple meterbasic metrical pattern of three beats to a measurequadruple meterbasic metrical pattern of four beats to a measure. Also commone time.simple metergrouping of rhythms in which the beat is subdivided into two, as in duple, triple and quadruple meterscompound metermeter in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than twosextuple metercompound metrical pattern of six beats to a measureupbeatthe last beat of a measure, weak beat, which anticipates the downbeatsyncopationdeliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeatoffbeata weak beat or any pulse between the beats in a measured rhythmic patternpolyrhythmthe simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and in certain african musicsadditive meterpatterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups; common in certain Eastern European musicsnonmetricmusic lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-western musicsrhythmthe element that propels music forward in time is:polyrhythmseveral meters occurring simultaneously is called:additive metera grouping of beats that adds up to a larger overall pattern is called:triplean accented beat followed by two weak beats would indicate a ____ meter.cwhich of the following is NOT a simple meter? a) duple b) triple c) compoundupbeatwhen a melody does not begin on the first beat (or downbeat), it is said to begin on an:nonmetricmusic that moves without a strong sense of beat might be considered:threein a compound meter, the beat divides into groups of:syncopation_______ is created when the accent is shifted to a weak beat or an offbeat.downbeatthe first accented beat of each metric pattern is known as the:firstin triple meter, the accent is typically on which beat?meterthe number of beats in a measure determines the:intervaldistance and relationship between two pitcheschordsimultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmonyharmonythe simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chordsscaleseries of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a keyoctaveinterval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lowertriadcommon chord type, consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of the scaletonicthe first note of the scale or keytonalityprinciple of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scaledissonancecombination of tones that sound discordant and unstable, in need of resolutionconsonanceconcordant or harmonious combination of tones that provide a sense of relaxation and stability in musicdronesustained sounding of one or several tones or harmonic support, a common feature of some folk musicchordthree or more tones sounded together produce a:dissonanta combination of tones that sounds discordant or in need of resolution can be described as:dronesimple harmony can be created when a melody is accompanied by a long, sustained tone called a:do-dousing the syllabic designations (do,ray,mi,fa...) for pitches, an octave would be described as:scalea collection of pitches arranged in ascending and descending order constitutes a:scalethe tonality of a piece is determined by the ___ chosen by the composervertical perspectivemelody is the horizontal dimension in music while harmony adds:triadthe most common type of chord in Western music is the:tonicthe first and last note in a major or minor scale is called the:textureThe interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in the musical fabric.monophonicSingle-line texture, or melody without accompaniment.heterophonicTexture in which two or more voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody simultaneously, often the result of improvisation.improvisationCreation of a musical composition whilte it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation, cadenzas of concertos, jazz, and some non-Western musics.polyphonyTwo or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture, as distinct from monophonic.counterpointThe art of combining in a single texture two or more melodic lines.homophonicTexture with principal melody and accompanying harmony, as distinct from polyphony.homorhythmicTexture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm.imitationMelodic idea presented in once voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter.canonType of polyphonic composition in which one musical line imitates another at a fixed distance throughout.roundPerpetual canon at the unison in which each voice enters in succession with the same melody (for example, Row, Row, Row Your Boat).canonA work that is comprised of a strictly imitative musical texture is called a:bWhich of the following textures is based on counterpoint? a) monophony. b) polyphony. c) homophony.imitationA round is based on the principle of ____________ where each voice enters in succession with the same melody.trueMonophonic texture is the simplest musical texture, true/false?imitationThe best description of melodic idea that is presented in one voice, then restated in another, is:homophonicOne person singing Happy Birthday with simple chords accompanying the melody produces a _________ texture.textureThe interweaving of melody and harmony produces ____________ in musicvoiceA melody, whether sung or performed on an instrument, is often referred to as a:heterophonicA texture that combines a melody with an ornamented version of itself is called:homorhythmicA texture in which all voices move together in the same rhythm is called:monophonyA single-line texture is known as:formStructure and design in music, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organzing principle of music.repetitionA compositional technique whereby a passage or section is restated.contrastUse of opposing musical elements to emphasize difference and variety.strophic formSong structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem.variationThe compositional procedure of altering a pre-existing musical idea.binary formTwo-part (A-B) form with each section normally repeated.ternary formThree-part (A-B-A) form based on a statement (A), contrast or departure (B), and repetion (A).themeMelodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition.thematic developmentMusical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm.sequenceRestatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level.motiveShort melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit.call and responsePerformance style with a singing leader who is imitated by a chorus of followers.responsorial singingSinging, especially in Gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir.ostinatoA short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one.movementComplete, self-contained part within a larger musical work.movementsIndependent parts of a large-scale work (a symphony, for example) are called:trueEven when a performer improvises, the basic elements of repetition, contrast, and variation can be heard, true/false?ostinatoA short, repeated musical pattern used as a structural device in music is known as an:sequenceWhich term best describes the musical event in which a motive is repeated at a different pitch level?call and responseA performance practice based on the concept of a singing leader imitated by a chorus of followers is called:variationA principle of form that is based on repeated alterations of a given melody (but still recognizable) is called:strophicRepeated music for each stanza of text in a song results in_______ form:motiveA fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called a:repetitionIn musical forms __________ fixes the material in the listener's mind and satisfies the need for the familiar.ternaryWhich form features a statement of an idea, a contrasting idea, then a repetition of the first idea?themeA ___________can serve as the building block in the construction of a musical work.binaryThe form in which there is a statement, followed by a departure from that statement, is known as:improvisedA work that is created spontaneously in performance is called:truehe basic elements of form are repetition, variation, and contrast, true/false?tempoRate of speed or pace of musicdynamicsElement of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound.amplitudeA musical sound is perceived at a certain volume and can be measured according to itscrescendoWhich dynamic marking would indicate to the performer to play gradually louder?the rate of speedtempo refers to:accelerandoIf the music is gradually speeding up, the term used to describe this is:volumeDynamics determine the ______________ at which music is played.PpPianissimo would be indicated by the abbreviation:aWhich of the following would indicate a fast tempo? a) vivace b) grave c) andantediminuendoGradually getting softer in music is best indicated by which term in the score?fortissimoWhich term indicates that a piece should be performed very loudly?falseComposers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries used even less expression marks than their predecessors, true/false?beats per minuteIf a composer wants to indicate tempo precisely, a ____________ indication is given in the score.aIf a composer wants to indicate despair in a piece of music, which of the following tempos would be appropriate? a) Grave b) pianissimo c) AllegrobIf a composer wants to indicate excitement in a piece of music, which of the following tempos would be appropriate? a) Forte b) Presto c) Adagioa tempoReturning to the original tempo after a change in the music is best indicated by what marking in the score?instrumentMechanism that generates musical vibrations and transmits them into the air.registerSpecific area in the range of an instrument or voice.sopranoHighest-ranged voice, normally possessed by women or boys.mezzo sopranoFemale voice of the middle range.altoLowest of the female voicestenorMale voice of high range.baritoneMale voice of the moderately low range.basslowest of male voicesvibratoSmall fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intensify a sound.aerophoneInstruments such as a flute, whistle, or horn that produce sound by usint air as the primary vibrating means.chordophoneInstrument that produces sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points; the string may be set in motion by bowing, striking, or plucking.idiophoneInstrument that produces sound from the substance of the instrument itself by being struck, blown, shaken, scraped, or rubbed. Examples inlude bells, rattles, xylophones, and cymbals.membranophoneAny instrument that produces sound tightly stretched membranes that can be struck, plucked, rubbed, or sung into (setting the skin in vibration).timbreThe property of sound that gives instruments and voices their unique tone color is:bWhich of the following is an example of an idiophone? a) accordion b) cymbal c) harpchordophoneAn instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string is called a:bWhich is NOT an example of a chordophone? a) koto b) xylophone c) guitaraerophonesFlutes, whistles, and bagpipes fall into what instrument classification?trueA specific area within an instrument's range is known as its register, true/false?membranophoneWhich best describes instruments made with stretched skins?tenorWhich vocal range was often featured as a soloist part in early opera?soprano, alto, tenor, basswhat is the correct order of vocal ranges from highest to lowest?vibratoInstrument builders have sought to replicate the sound of the voice, including its characteristic throbbing, called:instrumentA mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called a:soprano and altoIn earlier eras in Western music, young boys were used to sing which vocal ranges?dynamic markings (from softest to loudest)pianissimo (pp), piano (p), mezzo piano (mp), mezzo forte (mf), forte (f), fortissimo (ff)tempo markings (from slowest to fastest)grave, largo, adagio, moderato, allegro, vivace, prestoconjunct Intervalsa melody that moves in small, connected close intervalsdisjunct Intervalsa melody that moves in leaps, farther apart, disconnected intervalsdissonanceunstable, discordant combination of tones that are in need of resolutionconsonancean agreeable combination of musical tones producing a concordant sound with a sense of relaxation and fulfillmentmonophonysimplest texture, single-voiced music without accompanimentchordthe simultaneous sounding of three or more pitchesrhythmmovement of music in time (moves music forward in time)cadencemusical resting placecountermelodysimultaneous melody; a secondary melody, but also often of equal importancemelodythe line, or tune, in music; a series of successive pitches that make a recognizable musical wholemeterorganizes the beats in music (organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses); marked off in bars or measuresbeatbasic unit of time/rhythmtriadthe most common chord in Western music, it has three notes built on alternate pitches of a scaleharmonydescribes the vertical elements in music, how they sound togetherrangespan of pitches; the distance between the lowest and highest notesintervalthe space between two notes/pitchers (horizontal distance)tonicthe central tone around which a melody and its harmonies are builttonalityprinciple of organizationscalesequence of pitches; collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending ordercontourshape of a melody; how it turns upward, downward, or remains staticdynamicsthe volume, or how soft/loud the music is playedtempothe rate of speed, or pace, of the musicpolyphonymany voiced texture; two or more different melodic lines combined, this distributing the interest among all the partswoodwind quintetbassoon, flute, oboe, clarinet, French hornpizzicatowhen a performer plucks the strings with a finger instead of a bowembouchurethe entire oral mechanism of lips, lower facial muscles, and jaw used to play brass and woodwind instrumentsmembranophonessound produced by striking tightly stretched membranes (ex. drums)brass quintettrumpet I, trumpet II, French horn, trombone, tubachordophonesproduce sound from a vibrating string stretched between two parts (ex. violin, guitar)female voice typessoprano, mezzo soprano, alto, contraltomale voice typestenor, baritone, bassvibratoa throbbing effect meant to imitate the human voice (strings = rapid wrist-finger movement, woodwind = rapid jaw movement)string quartetviolin I, violin II, viola, cellochoirsmaller vocal ensemble, their music is often connected with a church or performance of sacred musicchoruslarger vocal ensemble, their music is usually sung in several voice partsaerophonesproduce sound by using air (ex. any wind instrument)idiophonesproduce sound from the substance or material of instrument itself, which is struck then vibrates (ex. bells, cymbals, gong)a cappellaa style of singing with no accompanimentbrass familytrumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba, euphonium, baritonesingle reed instrumentsclarinet, saxophone (flute = no reed)double reed instrumentsoboe, bassoonwoodwind familyflute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, saxophonepercussion familytimpani, xylophone, glockenspiel, drums, tambourine, cymbals, triangle, gongauxiliary woodwindsflute: piccolo, alto flute, bass flute clarinet: e flat clarinet, bass clarinet bassoon: contrabassoon oboe: English hornstring familyviolin, viola, cello, double bass, harp, guitarMedieval dates476-1450Renaissance dates1450-1600Baroque dates1600-1750Classical dates1750-1825Romantic dates1825-1900Gregorian chantmusic of early Church; single line melody; monophonic texture; nonmetric melody; Latin text also called "plainsong" or "plainchant"melismatictype of chant melody with long groups of notes set to a single syllable of text; expressive feature of Gregorian chantsyllabictype of chant melody with one note sung to each syllable of textMassthe most solemn ritual of the Catholic Church that is generally attended by public worshippers with two parts (Ordinary and Proper)Ordinarytexts that remain the same for every mass: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Deineumeslittle ascending and descending symbols written above words to suggest the contours of a melody, and that later developed as the number of chants increased to eventually become square notes on a four-lined stafforganumearliest polyphonic music that grew out of adding a 2nd voice to Gregorian chant; two, three, or four-voiced parts sung in fixed rhythmic patternstroubadorspoet-musicians who lived in the SOUTHERN region of France; means "finders or inventors" (re: composers); they performed in secular courtstrouverespoet-musicians who lived in the NORTHERN region of France; means "finders or inventors" (re: composers); they performed in secular courtshautMedieval ensemble of loud instruments for outdoor performances: shawm, bagpipes, sacbut, drums, dulcain, pipe & tabor, rauschpfeiffbasMedieval ensemble of soft instruments for indoor performances: recorder, harp, flute, psaltery, lute, crumhorn, vielle, organetto, rebec, viola cappellafor voices alone without accompaniment; most Renaissance music performed this way; "golden age" of this kind of musicOrdinary (Renaissance?)fixed portion of Mass sung daily that composers focused their polyphonic music around: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, & Agnus Deicantus firmusworks based on a fixed, preexisting melody that is used as a basis for elaborate ornamentation in the other voicesDuFayearly Renaissance composer from Burgundy who wrote at least 9 complete settings of Mass OrdinarymotetRenaissance sacred form with a single Latin text for use in religious services; those praising Virgin Mary were extremely popularPalestrinalate Renaissance Italian composer, organist, and choirmaster who wrote more Masses than any other composer, including the "Pope Marcellus Mass"Pope Marcellus Masssatisfied new, strict demands of the Council of Trent for a clear, audible text written by Palestrina for six voice partsReformationProtestant revolt against the Catholic Church led by Martin Luther; in 1517 Luther nailed 95 Theses to door of Church in Wittenberg; he wanted music sung in the vernacularCounter-ReformationCatholic Church movement that sought to recapture loyalty of its people after Luther's Reformation; wanted more accessible music; Council of Trent recommended a pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the sacred textsdes Prezearly Renaissance composer who was called "the master of the notes;" wrote both sacred and secular music; used humanistic writing that valued emotion over intellectmadrigalorginated in Italy, this aristocratic entertainment was the chief form of Renaissance secular music; music enhanced poerty with emotional words; English version also lighterword paintingexpressive device that makes the music directly reflect the meaning of the words; used in madrigalsantiphonala performance in which groups sing in alteration, and then together; for example, in St. Mark's in different staged balconies; an example of polychoral musicGabrielilate Renaissance composer who worked for St. Mark's in Venice where he used balconies for polychoral "surround sound;" he was also the first to write dynamic markings & first to write music parts for specific instrumentsmonodysolo song with instrumental accompaniment introduced in Baroque era; goal was to recreate the musical-dramatic art of ancient GreeceFlorentine Camarataaristocratic humanists who were the first to cultivate monody and who sought to ressurect the musical-art drama of ancient Greece: Vincenzo Galilei, Giulio Caccini, Jacopo Peribasso continuosystem tha tused two instruments to perform the accompaniment and provide harmonic structure; a chordal instrument and a bass instrumentDoctrine of the Affectionstheory of musical aesthetics that one musical idea ought to be linked to one emotion: entire piece or movement was built on one, single emotionBaroque operadrama presented in music with characters singing instead of speaking; most important secular genre of this era; ability to produce emotion was its greatest appealrecitativemusical speech that follows free rhythm of speech (so no real melody) that is used for plot action and dialogue with minimal accompaniment; two types: secco and accompagnatoseccotype of recitative in opera that is only accompanied by CONTINUO INSTRUMENTS and moves with great freedomaccompagnatotype of recitative in opera that is accompanied by the ORCHESTRA and thus moves more evenlyariamelodic piece for solo singer in opera that is used for emotional/pensive moments to release tension accumulated over the course of actionda capa ariaa formal convention of Baroque that tenary (A-B-A) form in opera where a soloist brings back first section with improvised embellishmentsMonteverditransitional composer from Renaissance to Baroque who used dissonance, contrast, polyphony, and the orchestra to create drama and expressiveness; wrote "L'incoronazione di Poppea"Bach dates1685-1750BachBaroque composer; came from German musical family; had 20 kids by 2 wives; seldom traveled out of Germany; organist, composer & choirmaster; wrote more than 200 cantatas; "The Art of the Fugue" unfinished at deathchoralea hymn tune specifically for Lutheran services that is sung in four-part harmonyoratorioone of great Baroque vocal forms that is a large-scale musical work for solo voices, chorus, & orchestra that was based on a biblical story and performed in a church without scenery, costumes, or actingHandel dates1685-1759HandelBaroque composer; German composer who lived most of adult life in London; known for his operas and oratorios, never met Bach; composed Messiah "Hallelujah Chorus""Messiah"written by Handel in only 24 days; oratorio using French overture (a form made up of two contrasting sections); closes with famous "Hallelujah Chorus"dance suitgroup of stylized dances in same key, with each piece in AABB binary form (sometimes tenary ABA form); standard dances are: allemande, courante, sarabande, gigueallemandeone of the standard dances in a suit; German dance in quadruple meter and a moderate tempocouranteone of the standard dances in a suit; French dance in triple meter with a moderate temposarabandeone of the standard dances in a suit; stately Spanish dance in triple metergigueone of the standard dances in a suit; English dance with a lively tempo in 6/8 or 6/4 meterVivaldi dates1678-1741VivaldiBaroque, Venetian composer, violinist, & priest who is known for his over 500 concerti; teacher as Ospedale della Pieta; most famous composition was "The Four Seasons"concerto (2 types)most important orchestral genre of Baroque: basic idea is contrast (between brilliance of the soloist and stability of orchestra); grosso - for groups of soloists; solo - one instrument set against the orchestraharpsichordstrings plucked by quills (not struck by hammers); tone could not be sustained like piano; finger pressure on keys varied tone only slightly; this was the main keyboard instrument of the Baroque(compositional/contrapuntal) fugal devicesoriginal, inversion (upside down), retrograde (backwards), retrograde inversion (backwards & upside down), augmentation (larger), diminution (smaller)fuguemost significant new form of Baroque music; polyphonic composition built on a single principal theme (the subject) that is imitated by the answer; voices imitatively "chase" each otherfugal episodesafter exposition, the subject enters at these intervals; may occur in any voice, in different keys, or with the use of contrapuntal devicesfugal expositionthe first section of a fugue where all voices take turns presenting the subject; subject = main theme; answer = subject imitation in the dominant; countersubject = new material in betweengraphing a fuguesee notes for exposition diagram Exposition -> episode -> subject entry -> episode ->subject entry -> episode ->subject entryhomophonicpredominant texture of the Classical era; one voice, often the highest, plays a distinct melody & the accompanying voices work together to articulate an underlying harmonychamber musicmusic written for a small ensemble, two to about ten players, with one player to a part; designed to be played in a small room; Classic era was the golden age of thisstring quartetviolin I & II, viola, cello; most important ensemble in chamber music genreHaydn dates1732-1809Haydnfirst known as a boy singer; was the music director for Austrian Esterhazy family; known as "Father of the Symphony/String Quartet;" Classical eraMozart dates1756-1791Mozartchild prodigy; spent youth traveling across Europe with family; mixed success freelance career in Venice; opera was the genre most central to his career; always had financial problems; Classical eraopera buffaItalian comic opera of equal importance to opera seria by Classical era; only 2-3 acts; featured contemporary subjects played by peasants/soldiers (not emperors/courtiers); comic basses replaced heroic castratiBeethoven dates1770-1827Beethovenwas between Classical and Romantic era (although roots were firmly Classical); 1st to make a career solely from composing; forceful & strong-willed; totally deaf by 1820; wrote only 9 symphonies but most known for those; "Moonlight Sonata" for piano & 5th Symphony are most popular worksClassical orchestra30-40 players; strings = core section; few woodwinds & brass instruments; only timpani represented percussion; some optional instrumentsfortepianoforerunner to modern piano; full range of dynamics possible; cast iron frame made sturdy enough to withstand Mozart's bangingsonata forminstrumental work for 1 or 2 instruments in 3 or 4 contrasting movements; most important new form of Classical era; 3 large sections: exposition, development, recapitulation (and optional slow intro or coda)sonata expositionestablishes conflict between two primary keys; presents (expresses) main themes of movementsonata developmentunstable section that heightens tension; develops themes: takes themes from Exposition and breaks them up, extends, or recombines & reorchestrates themsonata recapitulationresolves tension created in Exposition and heightened in Development; returns to original key; presents Exposition themes in same order, but 2nd group in original key; this part is more stable than the Expositionsonata optional sectionsslow intro: very unstable, slow temp, builds tension, often unrelated to rest of sonata coda: concluding section after Recapitulation, usually very stable with repeated cadences and a big endingsymphonya large multi-movement work for orchestra; movements: I. sonata, II. no fixed form, III. minuet, IV. sonata or rondasymphony I.sonata: tempo = moderate to fast; character = complex, substantial, & impressivesymphony II.no fixed form; tempo = slow; character = lyrical, song-likesymphony III.minuet: tempo = moderate; character = dance-like, triple metersymphony IV.sonata or rondo: tempo = fast; character = often light, tuneful, & brilliantRomantic orchestraorchestra grew to its modern form, shape & size; many more woodwinds, brass, and percussion in terms of variety and quantity; harp/piano sometimes addedliedthe German art song for solo voice and piano; favored Romantic genre; poetry exploits themes of love and naturestrophic formthe same melody is repeated for each verse; refers to German Liedersong cyclegroups of Lieder, unified in some way, such as a narrative thread or descriptive themeprogram musicnonvocal music written in association with a poem, story, or other literary source that can tell a story or paint a mood/concept; Hector Berlioz known for this type of music; types: concert overture, incidental music, program symphony, and symphonic/tone poemabsolute musicmusic for music's sake; it does not try to tell a storyBerliozRomantic era composer who composed a lot of program music; bold innovator; orchestral music; program symphony & "Symphony Fantastique""Symphony Fantastique"Berlioz's best-known program symphony, written in 1830; indee fixe = its recurrent theme (one theme per character/object); 5 movements: Reveries, Passions, A Ball, Science in the Fields, March to the Scaffold, Dies Iraenationalism19th century Europe: pride of conquering nations & fighting for freedom inspired composers' music; composers included nation's folk dances, folklore & peasant life, etc. into music; programs would include national hero, historic event, scenic beauty of land, etc.Wagner dates1813-1883WagnerRomantic era; German-born; created concept of music-drama (opera = full integration of music and theater); "endless melody;" wrote own libretti; started the Festival Theater at Bayreuth for his music-dramasEra datesMedieval: 476-1450 Renaissance: 1450-1600 Baroque:1600-1750 Classical: 1750-1825 Romantic: 1825-1900composer datesBach: 1685-1750 Handel: 1685-1759 Vivaldi: 1678-1741 Mozart: 1756-1791 Haydn: 1732-1809 Beethoven: 1770-1827 Wagner: 1813-1883Which is NOT an important keyboard instrument in the Baroque?The piano.The chorale is a type of hymn tune created by:Martin Luther.The new pre-Classical "sensitive" style, which saw the first stirrings of Romanticism, was called:Empfindsamkeit.The late Renaissance madrigal came to full flower in the music of:Claudio Monteverdi.In addition to composing music, Hildegard of Bingen is known for:Visions that foretold the future, founding her own convent, and writing religious poetry.Vivaldi was known as "the red priest" for:His red hair.The vocal style in opera that imitates the natural inflections of speech is called:Recitative.The solo concerto is:An instrumental work, usually in three movements, that features one performer supported by an accompanying group of instruments.The group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known as:The Florentine Camerata.Dido sings her famous lament in Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas just prior to:Killing herself.The Baroque era witnessed the appearance of the:Solo concerto and concerto grosso.Music of the fourteenth century underwent a change of style that became known as:the Ars nova.The most important patron of music in the Middle Ages was:The Roman Catholic Church.What is the principal element of a fugue?Counterpoint.Music based on the seven tones of a major or minor scaled is called:Diatonic.The fixed melody used as a basis for elaborate polyphonic writing in the Renaissance was called:A cantus firmus.A highly emotional song in an opera is called:An aria.Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion?Palestrina.A keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked by quills is:The harpsichord.When a meloldy is transposed to another key, what remains the same?The shape of the melodic line.Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era?Cello and harpsichord.The solo instrument in Spring from The Four Seasons is:The violin.What does NOT characterize Gregorian chant?Triadic harmonies.The Baroque period witnessed a new style of music, which featured a single vocal melody with accompaniment. This was known as:Monody.Vivaldi's music students at the Conservatorio del'Ospedale della Pieta were:Young women.The structure known as binary form is:a-a-b-b.The expressive device used by Renaissance composers to pictorialize words musically is called:Word painting.Which early Renaissance composer exerted a powerful influence on generations of composers who followed?Josquin.The artificially created male soprano or alto who dominated opera was known as:The castrato.The instrumental form based on the contrast of two dissimilar masses of sound is called:The concerto.Begli occhi, by Barbara Strozzi, is written for:Two sopranos and basso continuo.The approximate dates of the Baroque period are:1600-1750.------ was born in Germany and studied in Italy, but spent much of his creative life in England.Handel.The first era of Western music in which instrumental music was as important as vocal music was the:Baroque era.A drama that is sung is called:An opera.A short phrase repeated over and over in the bass is called:A ground bass.The greatest native English composer of the Baroque was:Henry Purcell.Which of the following is a set of forty eight preludes and fugues by Bach?The Well-Tempered Clavier.Which does NOT characterize an oratorio?Elaborate scenery.How many notes in a scale does an octave span?Eight.The smallest interval in our Western musical system is called:A half-step.The text of an opera is called:The libretto.Which of the following dance types was NOT standard in a Baroque suiteTarantella.Water Music by Handel is best described as a:Suite.A twelve-tone scale, including all the semitones of the octave, is called:Chromatic.George Frederic Handel was considered master of:The oratorio.The accompanying group in a concerto grosso is called:The ripieno.Which of the following is a well-known set of concertos by Vivaldi?The Four Seasons.Tonality means that we hear a piece of music in relation to a central tone, called:The tonic.How many players are generally necessary to perform a trio sonata?Four.Which best describes the lyrical melodies of the Classical period?Conjunct, diatonic, and singable.All of the following were new opera types that sought to reflect simplicity and real human emotions EXCEPT:Opera Seria.A theme may be fragmented by dividing it into smaller units called:Motives.The dreamy first movement of the Moonlight Sonata features:A singing melody, an accompaniment with arpreggios, and a strophic-like form.The final section of a sonata-allegro movement, which rounds it off with vigorious closing cadence, is:The coda.A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called:The cadenza.Mozart's librettist for The Marriage of Figaro was:Lorenzo da Ponte.Which character in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro is best described as a young, innocent man who is in love with love?Cherubino.A string quartet consists of:2 violins, viola, and cello.The overall form of a minuet and trio is best described as:A-B-A.Beethoven's career is often divided into ----- periods.Three.Who was Haydn's principal patron?Prince Esterhazy.In the Classical multimovement cycle, the third movemet is usually in:Minuet and trio form.What is unusual about Beethoven's Symphony No. 5?There is no break between the third and fourth movements.How did Haydn's Surprise Symphony earn its nickame?A surprise loud chord is played in the slow movement.Which composer rebelled against the patronage system and struggeled to achieve financial independence?Mozart.In sonata-allgro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is called:The development.Which best describes the opening idea of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5?A four-note motive.Which best describes the form of the first movement of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik?Sonata-allegro.Haydn enjoyed phenominal musical success with two trips to which country?England.Which of the following genres does NOT usually follow the general structure of a multimovement cycle?Overture.Mozart's compositions are often listed by their K numbers, which refer to:The man who first cataloged his works.Of the following, which form would be found most likely as the last movement of a Classical sonata or symphony?Rondo.The system in which the aristocracy sponsored musicians is called:Patronage.Rapid-fire, talky singing whose primary function is to advance the plot in an opera is called:Recitative.Which three characters sing the terzetta, or trio, in Act I of Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro?The Count, Basilio, and Susanna.How did comic opera differ from opera seria?It was sung in the vernacular, it presented down-to-earth plots, and it featured ensemble as well as solo singing.Which of the following is a common characteristic of the second movement of a multimovement cycle?A slow tempo, theme and variations form, and new key.Music for a small ensemble of two to about ten players with one player to a part is called:Chamber music.Beethoven's famous Moonlight Sonata has ------ movements.Three.The most important instrumental genre of the Classical period was:The symphony.Mozart is remembered today as:The most gifted child prodigy in the history of music.The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, development, and:Recapitulation.How many symphonies did Beethoven write?Nine.The Classical period in music ranged from approximately:1750-1825.How many movements are in a Classical concerto?Three.Which composer is noted for his monethematic sonata-allegro form?Haydn.Which Western orchestral instrument, or instruments, derive from Turkish military bands?Triangles, cymbals, and bass drums.Beethoven's temperment could be best described as:Explosive and independent.The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was:The piano.The Classical orchestra, which group of instruments served as the ensemble's nucleus?Strings.Which best describes absolute music?Music without a story or text.Which description characterizes the story of The Marriage of Figaro?It satirizes the upper class.The first movement of a symphony is usually in:Sonata-allegro form.In music compositions, a theme is:A musical idea that is used as a building block.The early Classical symphony was characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic drive. These are known as:Rocket themes.What is the form of the second movement of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5?Theme and Variations.The third movement of a Classical symphony is most frequently in:Minuet and trio form.Using material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called:Cyclical form.Beethoven suffered perhaps the most traumatic of all maladies for a musician. What was it?Deafness.Puccini's Madame Butterfly ends:Tragically.The late Romantic Italian opera tradition was characterized by a movement toward realism called:Verismo.What is the typical number of movements found in a concerto?Three.Who was the first internationally acclaimed American composer of classical music?Louis Moreau Gottschalk.Approximately how many songs did Schubert compose?More than 600.Which of the following was a widely loved nationalist opera composer?Verdi.The German term for the art song is:Lied.Who dies at the end of Rigoletto?Gilda, Rigoletto's daughter.Which of the following does NOT characterize the music for Act III, scene 1 of Die Walkure?Subordinate orchestral role.Which of the following women organized concerts featuring music by her brother?Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel.Wagner called his operas:Music dramas.Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique is an example of:A program symphony.----- is NOT an important composer of nineteenth-century Lieder.Heinrich Heine.The familiar tune quoted near the end of Gottschalk's work The Banjo is:Camptown Races.Robert Schumann's wife, Clara, was:The daughter of his piano teacher, one fo the foremost pianists of her day, and the inspiration for A Poet's Love.During the nineteenth century, concert life began to center in the:Public concert hall.The most important keyboard instrument of the Romantic period was:The piano.Which best describes the inspiration for Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique?The actress Harriet Smithson.A large-scale work in several movements for solo instrument(s) and orchestra is called:A concerto.Clara Schumann was a virtuoso performer on:The piano.Which best describes the style of the third movement of Brahm's Symphony No. 3?A melancholic waltz.Which of the following is NOT a type of orchestral program music?Concerto.Of the following, which does NOT describe orchestras of the nineteenth century?The size of orchestras decreased, making for more compact ensembles.The two principal centers of nineteenth century ballet were France and:Russia.Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel's Under the Greenwood Tree is written for:Unaccompanied four-voice choir.Which is true of Schubert's Erlking?It is the masterpiece of his youth, it is based on the legend that whoever is touched by the kind of the elves must die, and it presents four characters who are differentiated in the music.The term tempo rubato means:Borrowed time.Instrumental music endowed with literary, philosophical, or pictoral associations is called:Program music.The ------ became the most important genre of orchestral music during the Romantic era.Symphony.Tchaikovsky's fanciful ballet about a child's Christmas gift and dreams of exotic people and places is:The Nutcracker.The librettist for Wagner's music dramas was:The composer himself.Chopin is considered to be national composer of:Poland.Which is NOT true of Brahm's German Requiem?The name of Christ is mentioned throughout.Schumann's "In The Lovely Month of May" is from which song cycle?A Poet's Love.Which composer is known as "the poet of the piano"?Chopin.Opera that featured huge choruses, elaborate dance scenes, ornate costumes and scenery, and serious historical plots is called:Grand opera.Wagner's cycle of four music dramas is called:The Ring of the Nibelung.What scene is depicted in Smetana's The Moldau?A peasant wedding, nymphs in the moonlight, and patriotic castles.Chopin is credited with creating:The modern piano style.The short, lyric piano piece was the instrumental equivalent of:The song.Which composer has been considered to be the single most important phenomenon in the artistic life to the latter half of the nineteenth century?Wagner.A song structure that is composed from beginning to end without repetition of whole sections is called:Through-composed.Which movement of a symphony is traditionally the slowest?The second movement.Brahms wrote no symphonies until he was past the age of forty, in part because he was in awe of the symphonies of:Beethoven.In Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique, the idee fixe:Symbolizes the beloved, recures by virtue of the literary program, and unifies the five movements, which are diverse in character and mood.An Italian comic opera is called:Opera buffa.What trend inspired composers to write music evoking scenes or sounds of far off lands?Exoticism.The favorite subjects for the Romantic poets were:Love, longing, and nature.Romantic composers sought to make the instruments sing. This statement best describes the element of:Melody.In her aria "Un Bel Di" from Madame Butterfly, Cio-Cio-San sings of:Her wish for her husband to return.A twentieth-century style that combined elements of Classical and Baroque music with modernist trends.Neoclassicism.Tendency to elevate formal above expressive value in music, as in Neoclassical music.Formalism.Total abandonment of tonality (centering in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation.Atonality.The simultaneous use of two or more keys, common in twentieth-century music.Polytonality.Compositional procedure of the twentieth century based on the use of all twelve chromatic tones (in a tone row) without a central tone, or tonic, according to prescribed rules.Twelve-tone Music.An arrangement of the twelve chromatic tones that serves as the basis of the a twelve-tone composition.Tone Row.A vocal style in which the melody is spoken at approximate pitches rather than sung on exact pitches; developed by Arnold Schoenberg.Sprechstimme.Comparative study of musics of the world, with a focus on the cultural context of music.Ethnomusicology.A slight drop of pitch on the third, fifth, or seventh note of the scale, common in blues and jazz. Also "bent pitch.""Blue" note.A jazz style that sets syllables without meaning (vocables) to an improvised vocal line.Scat singing.Who was the main Impressionist composer we studied and what nationality was he?Claude Debussy; France.What is the program, or story, behind Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun?The text describes a faun, a mythological creature of the forest that is half man, half goat. This "simple sensuous passionate being" awakes in the woods and tries to remember: was he visited by three lovely nymphs, or was this but a dream? He will never know. The sun is warm, the earth fragrant. He curls himself up and falls into a wine-drugged sleep.Which country started the Expressionist movement?Germany.Which 20th century Russian composer had three periods of composition and also wrote The Rite of Spring?Igor StravinskyWhat happened at the premiere of The Rite of Spring in Paris, 1913?The revolutionary score touched off a near riot.What 20th century Hungarian composer combined folk music elements with European classical style?Bela BartokWho was John Phillip Sousa, i.e. what was he famous for?America's greatest band master who conducted the U.S. Marine Band from 1880-1892 and later formed the Sousa's Band. Known as "the March King".Is Billy the Kid an opera, ballet, or a cantata?Ballet.What happens to Billy at the end of Billy the Kid?Billy is tracked down and killed by his childhood friend Sheriff Pat Garrett.Which country does Mariachi music come from?Mexico.Who was the King of Ragtime?Scott Joplin.Which American city is the birthplace of jazz?New OrleansWhat instrument did Louis Armstrong play?The trumpet.How many bars is in the standard blues song repeating pattern?Twelve.What does the "interruption" in Bartok's Interrupted Intermezzo represent?The Nazi invasion of Russia in 1942.A simple and more familiar type of canon is calledroundMeter is an organizing principle shared by music and poetrytrueTraditional music of the Far East is largelymonophonicMost large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform togetherTrueA short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern repeated throughout a musical work is called an ostinatoTrueWhich of the following terms describes a concordant or agreeable combination of tonesconsonantThe smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is calledmotiveA musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary formfalseDescribe the organSound is created when air flows through pipes controlled by the organist, Some organs have more than one keyboard, including one played by the feet The sound of an organ can be imitated by electric keyboards and synthesizersTernary form is best outlined as A-B-AtrueThe procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is calledImitationA heterophonic texture frequently occurs in music involving improvisation, such as jazztrueWhich of the following would be classified as an unpitched percussion instrumentbass drumThe striking emotional effect created by the high point in a melodic line is calledThe climaxWhen a piece of music begins on the last beat of a measure, it is said to begin withan upbeatWhich marking is appropriate for a slow tempoadagioThe percussion family is comprised of a variety of instruments that are made to sound bystriking or shaking:The trumpet is the lowest in pitch of the brass familyFalseThe Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra by Britten is based on a dance tune by BeethovenFalseMeter is the measurement of musical timeTrueA melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known asheterophonyHarmonic movement is generated by motion toward a goal or resolutionTrueDisjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervalsTrueThe special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is calledpizzicatoThe guitar is most likely of African originFalseFlutes and whistles are classified as idiophonesFalseMost compositions use one type of texture exclusivelyFalseWhich of the following is a double reed instrumentthe oboeForms are fixed molds into which composers force their materialFalseWhich of the following songs is in compound meterRock-a-bye BabyWhich historical event did NOT take place in the Renaissancethe writing of the Magna CartaThe singing leader in Jewish religious services is calledthe cantorA key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitateTrueThe Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instrumentsTrueThe term a cappella refers to choral music performed_______ .without any instrumental accompanimentThe texts for madrigals are generally drawn from the fixed poetic metersFalseThe raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending formsTrueWhich religious figure is praised in the text of Hildegard's Alleluia, O virga mediatrixthe Virgin MaryWho is the Greek god of music?ApolloWomen poet-musicians in southern France were called MinnesingersFalseThe overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay's L'homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-ATrueThe upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voicesTrueThe dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolvedTrueThe three most important triads used in diatonic harmony areI, IV, and VThe Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the MagnificatFalseInstruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal lineTrueThe raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending formsTrueWhich composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashionPalestrinaRenaissance painters preferred symbolism to realismFalseThe service in the Roman Catholic Church that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ isthe Masswhat does NOT describe Gabrieli's O quam suavis:a cappella performanceThe High Middle Ages witnessedthe building of great cathedrals,the founding of universities, and the rise of the bourgeoisieIn addition to composing music, Hildegard of Bingen is known for:visions that foretold the future, founding her own convent and writing religious poetryThe value we place on music today is part of our ancient heritageTrueThe vivid depiction of the text through music, known as word painting, is a hallmark ofthe madrigalAlthough feudal society was male-dominated, the status of women was raised by prevailing attitudes of chivalry and devotion to the cult of the Virgin MaryTrueWhich of the following characterizes Monteverdi's madrigal Ecco mormorar l'ondecareful musical pictorialization of specific imagesWhich was NOT a function of secular music in medieval court lifedevotional servicesClaudio Monteverdi's career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periodsTrueA key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitateTrueThe dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolvedTrueA sharp will lower the tone by a half stepFalseWhich of the following does NOT make frequent use of pentatonic scalesWestern art musicMout me fu grief/Robin m'aime/Portare has three voices, each with the same textTrueAfter the Protestant revolt of the early sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church responded with a movement to recapture the loyalty of its peopleThis was known as: the Counter-ReformationWhich of the following was a lively circle or line dance, often performed outdoorsrondeIn Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervalstwelveDuring the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing wasSt: Mark's of VeniceSecular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musiciansFalseWhat characterizes the minor scaleIt has a lowered third degreeA setting of plainchant with many notes per syllable is called syllabicFalseWhat characterizes humanismthinking centered on human issues and individuality, inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, and independence from traditional and religionInstruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal lineTrueThe earliest operas took their plots fromGreek mythologyThe overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay's L'homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-ATrueBach wrote his Musical Offering forFrederick the Great:Dido's lament from Purcell's Dido and Aeneus is a da capo ariaTrueThe three main keyboard instruments of the Baroque were the harpsichord, organ, and pianoFalseThe libretoo for Handel's oratorio Messiah is a compilation of verses from the BibleTrueBach completed just over one hundred cantatas in his lifetimeFalseThe French rondeau led directly to the rondo of the eighteenth centuryTrueThe Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instrumentsTrueWhat Baroque genre was the direct ancestor of the symphonysonata da cameraDuring the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing wasSt: Mark's of VeniceWhich of the following is noted as a reformer of eighteenth-century operaGluckThe approximate dates of the Baroque period are1600-1750Which does NOT characterize an oratorioelaborate sceneryThe expansion and reworking of a theme within a composition is called thematic developmentTrueAll of the following are fast, lively dance types EXCEPTthe sarabandeReligion remained a driving force behind power struggles in the Baroque eraTrueJohann Sebastian Bach lived a short, unhappy life and had no childrenFalseAn early American polyphonic setting of a psalm or hymn in an imitative style is calleda fuging tuneThe upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voicesTrueIn earlier times, a composer's choice of key for a piece depended largely on the capabilities of the instruments for which it was intendedTrueVivaldi lived and worked inVeniceBach's passions are musical setting of the account of the Crucifixion by one of the four EvangelistsTrueAs a reaction to the grandiose gesture of the Baroque, the Rococo style was a miniature and ornate art aimed at enchantment of the sensesTrueThe harpsichord is different from the piano becauseit usually has two keyboards, rather than one, its strings are plucked rather than struck, it is not capable of a wide dynamic rangeDuring the Baroque era, some boy singers were castrated to preserve the high register of their voices, allowing them to sing high-pitched operatic rolesTrueThe term trio sonata refers to the number of parts, or musical lines, rather than the number of playersTrueJean-Joseph Mouret died a celebrated, wealthy artistic heroFalseA theme may be fragmented by dividing it into smaller units called_____motivesLate in life, Handel turned his efforts from opera tothe oratorioIt was through the musical innovations of the __________ that opera was bornFlorentine CamerataWhich composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashionPalestrinaThe group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known asThe Florentine CamerataSecular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musiciansFalseClaudio Monteverdi's career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periodsTrueIn the Baroque era, music centered on frequent changes of moodTrueWhich best describes how Baroque musicians made a livingas servants to royalty or nobility, as members of the church, and as employees of a free cityWhich two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque eracello and harpsichordA fugue is a form exclusively for solo keyboard performanceFalseWhat is NOT a major choral work by BachMessiahThe Baroque era was an age of political freedom and democracyFalseA sinfonia is a short instrumental passage that facilitates scene changesTrueIn London, Handel composed operas in ItalianTrueIn opera, the lyric melodies that release emotional tension are called recitativesFalseA short phrase repeated over and over in the bass is calleda ground bassWhat is the typical form of a Scarlatti sonataone-movement binary formThe opening movement of Bach's cantata A Mighty Fortress Is Our God is best described asa fugal choraleThe orchestra plays a prominent role in the second movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No2: FalseWhich best describes the form of the final love duet in The Coronation of PoppeaA-B-B-A, with ground bassThe French overture is composed in three sectionsFalseWhat is the form of the individual movements in a suitebinaryBarbara Strozzi was probably trained as a courtesan, in singing, lute playing, and writing poetryTrueWhat does NOT characterize Vivaldi's concertos The Four SeasonsThey avoid ritornello formWhile playing the basso continuo, musicians in the Baroque era improvised on the figured bassTrueThe chaconne is a variation form based on a repeated succession of harmoniesTrueThe role of the chorus was especially important in the oratorioTrueThe Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the MagnificatFalsePurcell's opera, Dido and Aeneus, was composed fora girls' school production in Chelsy:Corelli's trio sonatas served as models for the establishment of the church and chamber sonataTrueIn a fugue, the areas of relaxation where the subject is not heard are calledepisodesThe only basic rule of theme and variations form is that the theme must always be easily heardFalseThe instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos wasthe piano:The American Declaration of Independence reflects the intellectual climate of the Classical eraTrueMozart is remembered today as________the most gifted child prodigy in the history of musicWhich best describes the form of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusiksonata-allegroIn the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzoTrueThe classical attitude toward art is considerably more objective than the RomanticTrueModern scientists have shown that listening to Mozarthelps with solving math problemsThe famous four-note figure at the beginning of Beethoven's Symphony No 5 is best described asa motiveAncient people (the Greeks and Romans, especially) believed that music had no effect on the bodyFalseA string quartet consists of2 violins, viola, and celloThe three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, development, andrecapitulationThe Classical string quartet literature follows the same basic formal design as the symphony and sonataTrueWhat best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusika march-like characterRomantic elements can be found in the late works of Mozart, Haydn, and BeethovenTrueIn sonata-allegro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is calledthe developmentMozart was consistently supported by Vienna's most important patronsFalseThe harmony of the Classical-era composers was largely chromaticFalseThe term multimovement cycle is applied not only to sonatas and chamber music but also to concertos and symphoniesTrueThe percussion section of a modern orchestra includes a number of instruments of Turkish originTrueThe first movement of a Classical concerto features sonata-allegro form witha double expositionIn the first movement of a Classical concerto, there is usually a double expositionTrueBeethoven, like Mozart, wrote music very quickly and with great easeFalseMozart's Symphony No 40 in G minor can be viewed as Romantic in spiritTrueBeethoven opposed democracy in favor of the rule of a strong leaderFalseThe third movement of a Classical symphony is most frequently inminuet and trio formHow many movements were typical of pre-Classical symphoniesthreeIn Haydn's time, the trumpet had not yet advanced beyond the natural form of the instrument with no valvesTrueIn Haydn's The Creation, the soloists include three archangels Gabriel, Uriel, and RaphaelTrueBeethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op27, No: 2, was subtitled "Moonlight" by______the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer's deathHow is the melody of Schubert's Lied The Trout used in the quintet of the same nameIt is the basis of a theme and variations movementThe __________ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozart's RequiemtromboneA trouser role is sung by a man in eighteenth-century operaFalseThe Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn's last orchestral workTrueTurkish percussion instruments can be heard in Beethoven's Symphony No_____9Mozart's Requiem was sung in a worldwide memorial for the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United StatesTrueWhich character in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro is best described as a young, innocent man who is in love with loveCherubinoWho was Haydn's principal patronPrince EsterhazyThe music of which composer inspired Haydn to write an oratorioHandelIn the Classical era, the sonata was intended for professional musicians onlyFalseHaydn's orchestras in London were smaller than his earlier ensemblesFalseThe career of Joseph Haydn spanned the years from the formation of the Classical style to the beginning of RomanticismTrueThe Janissary band wasa Turkish military ensembleMozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performancesTrueThe text of the Ode to Joy, set as the finale of Beethoven's Symphony No 9, is bySchillerThe last movement of Mozart's Sonata in A major, K 331, is inspired by music from which countryTurkeyThe first movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in G major, K 453, is monothematicFalseOf the following, which characterizes Maria Theresa Paradiswoman virtuoso pianist, student of Mozart, blind since birthUnlike Mozart, Beethoven used sketchbooks to work out musical ideasTrueMozart's librettist for The Marriage of Figaro wasLorenzo da PonteIn depicting "Chaos" at the beginning of The Creation, Haydncomposes a dramatic C-minor overtureBeethoven belonged to a generation of artists who were influenced by the full impact of:the French RevolutionBeethoven's famous Moonlight Sonata has _______ movementsthreeThe early Classical symphony was characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic driveThese are known as: rocket themesIn the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in churchFalseThe first movement of a symphony is usually insonata-allegro formDuring the Classical era, the prevalent form of opera that occupied itself mainly with the affairs of nobility and Greek legends wasopera seriaA typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment calledthe cadenzaComic opera was generally in the language of the audience or in the vernacularTrueBeethoven and Mozart wrote duo sonatas that treated the two instruments as nearly equal partnersTrueWhat is the form of the last movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in G major, K 453sonataThe fourth movement of a Classical symphony is usually quicker and lighter than the first movementTrueBeethoven's Battle Symphony pays tribute toWellington's victory over Napoleon:What is unusual about Beethoven's Symphony No 5There is no break between the third and fourth movementsThe text for the Dies irae is a poem in 3-line rhymed versesTrueRapid-fire, talky singing whose primary function is to advance the plot in an opera is calledrecitativeThe terzetta, or trio, from Act I of The Marriage of Figaro is in rondo formFalseOpera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figuresFalseIn the Classical concerto, the marking of andante or adagio would most likely apply to the third movementFalseUsing material from an earlier movement in a symphony is calledcyclical formSchubert set his Trout Quintet in the standard four-movement structureFalseThe form of the first movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op 27, No 2is a modified song formIn the latter part of the eighteenth century, new opera types were devised that featured naturalness and simplicityTrueBeethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composerTrueThe establishment of a four-movement cycle for the symphony is generally credited to the London school of composersFalseThe sonata is an instrumental work in one movement for one or two solo instrumentsFalseBeethoven was unable to compose music after he became deafFalseWho wrote Kyrie," from the L'homme Arm MassGuillaume Du FayWhat year was Guillaume Du Fay born1397What year did Du Fay die1474What is the significance of KyrieThis movement, which is the opening movement of the mass, is divided into three sections based on the text. Each section begins with 3 of the 4 voice parts; the tenor joins later and has the slower moving fixed tune (cantus firmus)cantus firmus"fixed melody", usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the RenaissanceWho wrote "Gloria," from Pope Marcellus MassGiovanni Pierluigi da PalestrinaWhat year was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina born1525What year did Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina die1594What is the significance of GloriaMonophonic chant opening, Changes of density and texture set in various registers, A cappella performance, Clearly audible text set syllabically, Alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, Full, consonant harmonypolyphonicall parts sing different notes or rhythms at the same timemonophonicsingle melodic line without supporting harmonieshomorythmicwhere all the voices move in the same rythmWho wrote Fair PhyllisJohn FarmerWhat year was John Farmer bornfl 1591What year did John Farmer die1601Who wrote A Mighty Fortress is our God or Ein Feste Burg ist Unser GottJohann Sebastian BachWhat year was Bach born1685What year did Bach die1750What is significance of Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gottimitative treatment of the familiar tune in all voice parts and in the trumpets. Dense polyphonic texture created between chorus and orchestra for each line of text, Canon on chorale tune heard in the instruments , played in augmentationCannonSame sequence as someone else but one beat after.Augmentationthe statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original)Who wrote "Spring" from the Four SeasonsAntonio VivaldiWhat year was Antonio Vivaldi born1678What year did Antonio Vivaldi die1741What is the significance of Spring from the four seassonsMusical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem, Virtuosity of solo violin part, with fast-running scales and trills. Recurring themeritornelloshort recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concertotrilla note that alternates rapidly with another note a semitone above itWho wrote Water Music in D MajorGeorge Frideric HandelWhat year was Handel born1685What year did Handel die1759What is significant about Spring from The Four Seasonstenary form, section with dotted rhythms, followed by a return of the opening material, Fanfare-like opening with quick exchanges between brass and strings. Percussion (timpani) added to orchestra.ternary form:3 part form. The piece divides into 3 parts of which the 3rd is an exact repeat, or almost so, of the first partbinary forma musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each otherfanfarea short lively tune played on brass instrumentsWho wrote String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth MovementJoseph HaydnWhat year was Joseph Haydn born1732What year did Hayden die1809What is the significance of String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth MovementFolklike character, with strongly syncopated dance rhythms, Opening theme introduced by first violin, stated in 2 parts, each repeated (A-A-B-B), First violin dominates the melody throughout, Shift from opening minor key (D minor) to brighter, major key (D major)minor keya piece of music based in the minor scale, with a sad or haunting soundmajor keya piece of music based in the major scale, Scale built on thee formula of two whole steps, one half step, three whole steps, one half step.syncopationtemporary irregularity in musical rhythmWho wrote Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night MusicWolfgang Amadeus MozartWhat year was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born1756What year did Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart die1791What is the significance of Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music)Sonata-Allegro form, Intimate string chamber music style. Quick-paced movement with 3 themes, sonata-allegro form Overall homophonic texture. First theme is disjunt, marchlike, and ascends quickly (rocket theme); second theme, graceful and conjunct.Sonata AllegroClassical period, dramatic musical form involving exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and codaRocket themequickly ascending rhythmic melody used in Classical-era instrumental music; the technique is credited to the composers in Mannheim, GermanyHomophonicmusical texture which focuses on a single melody with accompaning harmonies (mainly chordal)Disjunctprogressing melodically by intervals larger than a major secondConjunctmelody that moves in stepwise motion without major skips and leaps between the intervals, Smooth, connected melody that moves principally in stepwise motion,pitchthe highness or lowness of a particular soundFrequencynumber of vibrations per second.Amplitudevolume or loudness of soundMelodythe tune in music, a sequence of moving pitches that create thoughtRangespan of pitchesContoursgeneral shape of a melody.Intervalsdistances between any two pitches of a melody.Phrasea unit that makes up a melodyCounter melodya melody accompanied by a second melodyCadencethe point where the musician takes a deep breath, the punctuation for music.Rhythmthe movement of music in time.Beatthe basic unit of rhythm.downbeatfirst beat of any patterupbeatthe last beat of a measureoffbeata weak beatmeterthe organized pattern of rhythmic pulsesDuple metera simple marching meter (left-right-left-right)Triple metera simple meter that has three beats to a measure and is often used for waltzesQuadruple Metera simple that has four beats to a measure with the primary accent on first beat and second strongest on the thirdCompound metersa meter where the beat is divided into threeMeasurewhat marks of meter, contains a fixed number of beatsHarmonya term used to describe simultaneous events in music, also the movement of one chord to the nextChordthree or more notes all sound together at once.Octaveinterval of eight notesScalegroup of eight pitches arranged in ascending and descending orderTriada combination of three notes or tonestonic notethe first note of a scale or key, also called a keynoteDsonancea combination of tones that are dcordantDcordanta combination of tones that need to be resolvedConsonanceThe resolving of dsonance, notes are pleasing to the earsDronethe sustained sounding of one or more tones for harmonic support, common in Asian and folk musicCounterpointthe combination of two or more simultaneous melodic linesstrophic formmelody repeated with each stanzaGravesolemn or very, very slow.Largobroad or very slowAdagioquite slow.Andantea walking pace.Moderatoof course moderate.Allegroa fast or cheerful pace.Vivacea lively pace.Prestovery fast.Moltovery.Menoless.Pocoa little.Non tropponot too muchPiansimo (ppvery soft.Piano (p)very softMezzo piano(mp)moderately softForte(ff)loudMezzo forte(mf)moderately loud.Fortsimo(ff)a very loud piece of music.Sforzandoto accent a single note or cordAerophones:instruments that produce sound by using air., horns, bagpipes, whistles and accordions.Chordophones:produce sound from vibrating sting that is stretched between two separate points, Violins, sitars, guitars, harps and Chinese yangquinsIdiophoneinstrument that produces sound by vibration of materials they are made ofMembranophoneinstrument that makes sound when its stretched membrane is struck or rubbedwhich of the following is an example of an idiophone?cymbalwhich is not an example of a chordophone?xylophone -koto, guitaran instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string is calledchordophoneInstrument builders have sought to replicate the sound of the voice, including its characteristic throbbing, called:vibratoA mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called a:instrumentWhich of the following terms best describes instruments made with stretched skins?membranophoneA specific area within an instrument's range is known as its registertrueFlutes, whistles, and bagpipes fall into what instrument classification?aerophonesWhich vocal range was often featured as a soloist part in early opera?tenorIn earlier eras in Western music, young boys were used to sing which vocal ranges?soprano and altoWhich of the following shows the correct order of vocal ranges from highest to lowest?soprano, alto, tenor, bassThe property of sound that gives instruments and voices their unique tone color is:timbreAll of the following are indefinite pitch percussion instruments, EXCEPTchimes -snare drum, triangleWhich woodwind instrument is no longer made of wood?fluteWhich keyboard instrument is also a wind instrumentorganWhich brass instrument has a movable slide?tromboneBrass and string instrument players utilize a _____ to muffle the sound produced.muteThe bowed string instrument with the highest range is theviolinWhich of the following is a pitched percussion instrument?xylophoneA pizzicato effect is created on a string instrument whenthe strings are pluckedThe English horn belongs to the brass familyfalseOn bowed string instruments, sliding the left hand along the string while bowing with the right produces a ________ effect.glissandonstruments are able to create a "throbbing" sound to imitate vocal______.vibratoWhich instrument combines characteristics of both the woodwind and brass families?saxophoneWhich instrument has characteristics of both string and percussion instruments?pianoWhich of the following is a double-reed instrument?basoonThe sousaphone is the marching-band adaptation of which instrument?tubaPlaying a series of notes smoothly and with connection is called?legatoA rapid alternation between a tone and one adjacent to it is called a:trillWhich of the following is a pitched percussion instrument?xylophonePlaying two notes simultaneously on a violin is called:double stoppingThe timpani is a percussion instrument with indefinite pitchfalseThe "heart of the orchestra" is the:string sectionWhich brass instrument has a movable slide?tromboneWhich of the following is the highest-sounding woodwind instrument?picolloWhich keyboard instrument produces sound with quills that pluck metal strings?harpsichordThe youngest brass player in the Philadelphia Orchestra plays thetubaThe lowest sounding instrument in the woodwind family is thecontrabasoonWhich instrument derives its name from the Italian word meaning "soft-loud"?pianoThe term arpeggio, meaning "broken chord," is derived from the name of what instrument?harpWhich brass instrument dates back to ancient times and was used for religious ceremonies and military signals?trumpetWhen musicians practice before a performance, that event is called a:rehearsalIn a conducting pattern, which is the strongest beat in any meter?downbeatA concert band differs from a symphony orchestra in that it lacks a:string sectionWhich instrument performers in a symphony orchestra are located furthest from the conductor?percussionWhich of the following would you NOT expect to hear in a jazz band?oboeConductors of large instrumental ensembles use a _______ to help performers keep time.batonWhich performing ensemble would most likely be seen at an outdoor sporting event or parade?marching bandBritten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is a work based on a dance tune by what composer?purcellWhich instrument performers in a symphony orchestra sit closest to the conductor?stringsThe conductor's role includes interpreting the music for the group.trueThe person who writes the musical work is known as a:composerA smaller specialized vocal ensemble is known as a:choirThe string section makes up less than one half of a symphony orchestra.falseA piece of music being performed is called a:compositionIn early times, choral music was often performed a cappella which means:performed w/o instrumentsThe makeup of a string quartet is:c) two violins, a viola, and a cello.In Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, the theme is first stated by the entire orchestra and then by the:woodwind sectionThe final section of Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is a:fugueHow many instrumentalists would you expect to find in a chamber group?btwn 2 and 12A woodwind quintet is unusual in that:it includes a brass instrumentThe first-chair violinist in an orchestra is specifically known as a:concertmasterWhat are the standard voice parts in a choral group arranged from highest to lowest?SATBWhich term refers to a category of music?genreMusic composed for religious purposes is called:sacredThe late Middle Ages encompasses the:romanesque periodWhich of the following is a genre?symphonyIn all cultures throughout the world, music is used for entertainment purposes only.falseWhich historical style period immediately follows the Renaissance?baroqueA knowledge of __________ styles helps put a musical work in context of its creation.historicalSpecific dates for historical style periods are not agreed upon by scholars.trueWhich term describes a characteristic way a musical piece is presented?styleSecular music is composed for:non religious purposesWestern culture is the only culture that has music composed for entertainment.falseWhich of the following terms best describes a specific performing group or medium?orchestraSome types of music rely on oral transmission for preservation because:it is not written downWhich of the following is both a genre and a medium?symphonyWhich historical style period is the era of Gregorian chant?middle agesWhich secular leader in the Middle Ages promoted a strong, centralized government?charlemagneThe main European port for cultural exchange of Eastern luxuries was:veniceThe early Christian church had very little power in Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.falseThe Middle Ages span nearly one thousand years.trueProfessional women musicians made their mark in society.trueOne of the major advancements in the Renaissance was the invention of printing, pioneered by:Johannes GutenbergDuring the Middle Ages all power came from which religious organization?The Roman Catholic ChurchDuring the Renaissance, lands new to the Europeans were discovered, including:The AmericasOne woman composer and author who was active in church society in the Middle Ages was:Hildegard of BingenThe violent series of events that took place as part of an attempt to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims is known as:The crusadesThe art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome was of little interest to artists and writers in the Renaissance.falseThe Renaissance marks the passing of European society from a predominately secular society to a more sacred one.falseOur understanding of the musical culture of ancient civilizations is limited by the few fragments of music that have survived.trueThe act of supporting an artistic project, either financially, intellectually, or both, is known as:patronageThe most idealized woman in Western culture during the Middle Ages was:Virgin MaryThe surge in rational, scientific problem solving in the Renaissance is called:humanismTrade flourished in the later Middle Ages when a merchant class arose outside of feudal society.trueMusical literacy in the cultivated middle and upper classes in Renaissance society is marked by the rise of the musician who plays for the love of music and not professionally, known as a(n) _________ musicianamateurCulture in the Middle Ages was largely shaped by the rise of:monasteriesThe beginning of the Middle Ages is marked by the:fall of the roman empireThe text of the Kyrie has a:greek textHildegard was known for all the following EXCEPT:her historical writings about the saintsThe medieval motet can have a combination of sacred and secular texts.trueThe chants of the church only used the major and minor scale patterns found in later music.falseThe texts of the Mass service that are specific to a particular feast day are called the Ordinary.false4Which voice in the organum carries the original chant in sustained notes?the bottom voiceThe text Alleluia, O virga mediatrix is from which portion of the Mass?the properThe text setting in Alleluia, O virga mediatrix is mostly syllabic.falseMost surviving examples of Gregorian chant are anonymous.trueThe medieval motet usually features multiple texts occurring simultaneously.true11The liturgy refers to the set order of services and structure of each service.true11The liturgy refers to the set order of services and structure of each service.trueA unique feature of Hildegard's chant is her occasional use of an upward leap of a fifth, lending an expansive feel to the music.trueHildegard's chant Alleluia, O virga mediatrix was intended for performance on a feast day for the Virgin.trueWhich statement about the Notre Dame School is NOT true?Protin and Machaut are two of the main composers.Early notation used neumes, little ascending and descending signs written above the words that suggested the shape of the melodic line.trueThe first type of polyphony was Gregorian chantfalseThe first type of polyphony was Gregorian chantfalseGregorian chant features regularly phrased melodic lines supported by instrumental accompaniment.falseThe Kyrie is not a part of the MassfalseMusic performed with exchanges between a soloist and chorus is called:responsorial singingThe constant imitation from beginning to end in between the voices of Sumer is icumen in is characteristic of its genre, which is :a roundThe lower two voices in Sumer is icumen in sing short repeated ideas known as:an ostinatoPuis qu'en oubli is in a triple meter with gently syncopated rhythms.trueWhich of the following was NOT an activity associated with secular music in medieval society?devotional servicesWhich composer lived and worked during the Ars nova?Guillaume de Machaut.The text of Machaut's chanson Puis qu'en oubli tells ofcourtly lovePuis qu'en oubli has no repeated musical sections.falseMachaut's Puis qu'en oubli is best classified assecular musicThis texture of Puis qu'en oubli is best described as:polyphonicPoet-musicians in Germany in the Middle Ages were known as:minnesingersWhich statement is NOT true about medieval instrumentalists?They performed only music written specifically for instruments.Machaut is best described ascourtierWhich era does Puis qu'en oubli exemplify?ars novaTroubadours, medieval poet-musicians from the southern region of France, belonged to:mainly the upper class and aristocracyThe text of Sumer is icumen in celebrates:summerhe medieval French chanson can be described as a secular vocal composition set to a courtly love poem.trueIn which poetic form is Machaut's chanson Puis qu'en oubli set?rondeauThe vocal range in the work Puis qu'en oubli is low, best suited for men's voices.trueThe poems of the troubadour and trouvre repertory include:) political and moral songs. b) love songs centered on the idea of "unrequited love."The earliest secular songs that have been preserved are in which language?latinInstrumental music in the Middle Ages was generally improvised rather than played from notation.trueOne of the earliest examples of secular polyphony comes from:englandTo which category of medieval instruments do the sackbut, crumhorn, cornetto, tabor, and nakers belong?loud (haut) instrumentsWhat event inspired Raimbaut to write his famous epic?the crusadesThe recorder, lute, and hammered dulcimer all were categorized into which group in the Middle Ages?bas (soft)26The repeated text and music heard three times in Machaut's chanson Puis qu'en oubli is called:the refrainDu Fay sometimes used a chant or popular song as the basis for his compositions.trueGuillaume du Fay used L'homme arm as a cantus firmus in one of his masses.truePalestrina's Gloria from the Pope Marcellus Mass belongs to the Proper, the variable part of the Mass celebration.falseThe Pope Marcellus Mass was written for six voice parts.trueThe harmony of Palestrina's Gloria from the Pope Marcellus Mass is best described as full and consonant.trueThe text of the Gloria in Palestrina's Pope Marcellus Mass is easily understood, due largely to its syllabic nature and Palestrina's frequent use of homorhythm.truePalestrina's Pope Marcellus Mass was probably intended for a cappella performance.trueDuring the Renaissance, the Mass was recited and sung in the vernacular (the language of the people).falseThe text of Josquin's motet Ave Maria . . . virgo serena, praises the virtues of:the virgin maryIn which language is Josquin's motet text written?latinThe predominant texture in Josquin's motet Ave Maria . . . virgo serena is:imitative polyphonyThe following statements are true about Josquin's motet EXCEPT which?each voice sings a different text praising the virgin maryWhich of the following make up the sections of the Mass Ordinary?Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiWhich is NOT true of cantus-firmus technique in the Renaissance?Only Gregorian chant was used as the fixed melody.Which of the following is NOT typical of the Renaissance motet?monophonic texture and sung in the vernacularThe Catholic Church's effort in the early sixteenth century to recapture the loyalty of its followers through a return to true Christian piety is known as the:counter reformationhich was a recommendation of the Council of Trent regarding music for the church?make the words more understandableWhich meter would most likely be associated with a march?DupleA texture in which a single voice takes over the melodic interest while accompanying voices are subordinate is calledHomophonyThe deliberate shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat is called:SyncopationThe resting place at the end of a phrase is called:CadenceThe first note of the scale is called the:TonicThe gradual swelling of the volume of music is called:crescendoThe term a cappella refers to choral music performed:Without AccompanimentTe instruments of the Western orchestra are categorized in four groups:strings, brass, percussion and woodwindsWhich tonality would most likely be chosen for a triumphal march?MajorThe percussion family is comprised of a variety of instruments that are made to sound by:Striking and ShakingThe patriotic song America "My country tis of thee" is an example of:Triple MeterThe quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument from another isTimbreHow many notes make up a pentatonic scaleFiveWhen two or more independent melodic lines are combined, the resulting texture is calledpolyphonyWhich element of music is measured in deciblesvolumeShould a composer write a film score to a horror movie, one might reasonably expect that the harmony would include a great deal of:DissonanceThe first accented beat of a measure is called:A downbeatHow do idiophones produce sound?by shaking, scraping or striking the instrument itselfA succession of single tones or pitches perceived as a unit is called:a melodyWhich brass instrument uses a large, movable U-shaped slide to change notes?tromboneThe element that describes the musical fabric, or the relationship of musical lines within a work is called:textureA combination of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called:a chordThe distance between two pitches is called:an intervalThe soprano brass instrument sometimes described as possessig a BRILLIANT timbre is theTrumpetThe distance between the highest and lowest tones of a melody is called:the rangeThe expressive device used by Renaissance composers to pictorialize words musically is called:Word paintingA highly emotional song in an opera is called:an ariaTh orchestral introduction heard at the beginning of the opera:overtureThe vocal style in opera that imitates the natural inflections of speech is called:recitativeAn end-blown flute with a breathy toe is called:Recorder_______ is traditionally associated with collecting the chants of the church.Pope GregoryThe portion of the Mass that remains the same in every celebration of the service is called:The OrdinaryWho was a leader in the Protestant ReformationMartin LutherThe French courtly love song of the Middle Ages was called theChannsonWhere was the first madrigal developedItalyWhich genre of vocal music was NOT used in Renaissance church services?ChansonsIn Germany, aristocratic poet-musicians were called:MinnesingersA setting of Gregorian chant with one note per syllable is called:SyllabicWhat is a cantus firmus?A fragment of Gregorian chant or a secular tune used as the foundation of a polyphonic Mass.What best describes the texture of the ideal Renaissance sacred music?ImitativeWhich of the following would be considered an appropriate outdoor instrument?shawmWhich of the following was the most important secular genre of the sixteenth century?MadrigalMedieval instruments can be classified as bas or haut, meaning:Soft or loudWhich of the following was NOT a recommendation of the Council of TrentTo use instruments to embellish church musicWhich of the following does not characterize Gregorian chant?Triadic HarmoniesWhich best describes the character of Farmer's Fair Phyllis (from your listening"?pastoral and lightThe early poolyphonic genre that resulted from the addition of texts to all voices was called:MotetA drama that is sung is called:an OperaThe standard ranges of the human voice from highest to lowest are:soprano,alto, tenor, bassMusic is propelled forward in time by:rhythmTe degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called:dynamicsThe technique through which performers create music on the spot is known as:improvisationWoodwind instruments:all have a pipe with holesInstruments that produce sound by using air as the vibrating means are called:aerophonesWhat quality of a work of art refers to it structure or shape?FormOrganizing patterns of rhythmic pulses are called:metersThe rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its:tempoOf the following, which is a pitched percussing instrumentxylophoneDido sings her famous lament n Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas just prior to:Killing herselfA setting of Gregorian chant with two to four notes per syllable might beneumaticThe text of an opera is called the:librettoOf the following, which woman was a religious leader and a prominent figure in literature and music?Hildegard of BingenThe earliest type of polyphony was:OrganumWhich of the following was Not subject reflected in the poems of troubadours and trouvere?The rebirth of classical learningThe medieval ancestor of the modern trombone is the:sakbutIn opera, the lyric melodies that release emotion are called recitatives.False__________was born in Germany and studied in Italy, but sent much of his creative life in England.HandelThe famous choral climax in Part II of Handel's Messiah isHallelujah CourseLully was the leading composer of opera in FranceTrueWhat is the principal element of a fugue?CounterpointThe earliest operas took their plots from:Greek MythologyIn the field of keyboard music, Bach's most important collection was:The well-tempered clavierTe solo instrument in the Spring, from the Four Seasons is:ViolinA concerto based on the opposition of small and large groups of instrumental music was the:BaroqueWho was the greatest and most prolific Italian composer of concertos?VivaldiChorales were intender to be sung by a trained choir.FalseA cantata must be written on a religious or sacred themeFalseBach was most famous in his day as a performer on:OrganWhich of the following was Not an important keyboard instrument in the Baroque?PianoWho composed the Brandenburg Concertos?BachThe sacred cantata was an integral part of the:Lutheran Church ServiceOf the following wind instruments, which was not made of wood?TrumpetVivaldi was known as "the red priest" for:The color of his hairThe sonata de camera of the Baroque was intended forbe performed at home.Why is the music for Handel's Water Music marked by lively rhythms and catchy melodiesIt was performed outdoors on bargesHow many players are generally necessary to perform a trio sonata?4Which of the following does NOT characterize an oratorio?elaborate sceneryThe dominant instrument in Mouret's Rondeau is:trumpetWho is best viewed as the first master of opera?MonteverdiThe Hallelujah Chorus is the climax of the Christmas section of the Messiah:FalseA piano trio consists of:Piano, Violin and CelloQuick crescendos and the four-movement cycle in symphonies were developed inManneheimThe number of players in a Classical orchestra was typically"30-40Which of the following best describes the opening idea of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5?a four note motiveWHich composer rebelled against the patronage system and struggled to achieve financial independence?MozartHow many symphonies did Beethoven write?9The patronage system failed to support Haydn, and he was forced to live by teaching and performingFalseA musical setting of the Mass for the Dead is called a:RequiemThe most important instrumental genre of the Classical period is:SymphonyA short repeated musical pattern is called:ostinatoWho was Haydn's principal patron?Prince EsterhazyA string quartet consists ofViolin, Violin, Viola, CelloMozart dies while composingRequiemThe three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition,development, and:RecapitulationUsing material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called:Cyclical formA scale comprised entirely of half steps is called a ____ scaleChromaticAn interval smaller than a half step is called a:MicrotoneThe key of a piece is determined:By the scale usedWhen a composer shifts the pitch level of an entire work, it is called:TransportationThe sign that indicates a pitch should be raised a half step is called a:SharpThe note one half step above G is:G SharpWhen a composer shifts the key center for part of an entire work, it is called:ModulationHow many major scales are there in Western music?12In Western music, dominant and subdominant chords are called ____ chordsActiveThe octave is divided the same way in the musical systems of all cultures. T/FFalseOne of the most common scales used in Africa, Far Easter, and Native American music is the:Penatonic ScaleHarmonies built on the dominant (5th scale degree) have a tendency towardThe tonicIf a major or minor scale is transposed to a different starting pitch, the pattern of half steps and whole steps change. T/FFalseMusic of the Baroque and Classical is mostlyDiatonicThe intervallic distance between G and A isOne whole stepIf a composer wants to indicate excitement in a piece of music, what tempo would be appropriate?PrestoPianissimo would be indicated by the abbreviationPPComposers of the 18th and 19th centuries used even less expression marks than there predecessors. T/FFalseDynamics determine the _____ at which music is playedVolumeIf the music is gradually speeding up, the term used to describe this is:AccelerandoIf a composer wants to indicate tempo precisely, a _____ indication is given in the scoreBeats per minuteWhich of the following would indicate a fast tempo?VivaceGradually getting softer in music is best indicated by which term in the score?DiminuendoWhich dynamic marking would indicate to the performer to play gradually louder?CrescendoA musical sound is perceived at a certain volume and can be measured according to itsAmplitudeReturning to the original tempo after a change in the music is best indicated by what marking in the score?A tempoIf a composer wants to indicate despair in a piece of music, which tempo is appropriate?GraveWhich term indicates that a piece should be performed very loudly?FortissimoTempo refers to:The rate of speedTempo and dynamic markings are usually given in French. T/FFalseThe tuning system established in the Baroque that made it possible for instruments to play in any key is called?Equal temperamentThe artificially created adult male soprano, popular in the Baroque, is referred to asCastratoThe Baroque system of figured bass allowed the performer to:ImproviseThe Baroque marks the introduction of solo song with instrumental accompaniment, called:MonodyThe term "Baroque" means exaggerated, abnormal, or even bizarre. T/FTrueBaroque art reflects the struggle of the middle classes against the aristocracyTrueBaroque composers often employed the doctrine of the affections in their works, resulting in:One mood throughout the piece or movementWhat roles did women play in music during the Baroque era?Singers and composersWhich of the following is a Baroque-era poetic epic?Milton's Paradise LostThe Baroque was characterized by deeply felt religious beliefs that led to bloodshed between Protestants and Catholics. T/FTrueThe Baroque era was one of exploration and conquest T/FTrueThe 2 instruments that provided Baroque accompaniment as a paid are referred to as?Basso ContinuoAbsolute monarchy was the main form of European government during the Baroque, one important ruler being Louis XIV of France. T/FTrueArtists such as Michelangelo created works that demonstrate the Baroque love of drama. T/FTrueThe Baroque was characterized by the predominant use of major-minor tonality. T/FTrueDynamic contrasts are achieved in Baroque music throughForte/piano contrasts and echo effectsAs musical instruments developed technically, the level of virtuosity rose in the BaroqueTrueWhere was Purcell employed when he wrote Dido and Aeneas?He was a music teacher in a girls' schoolStrozzi's work Amor dormiglione was inspired byRoman mythologyDido and Aeneas was first presented by:A group of girls at a boarding schoolMonteverdi was one of the first great composers of opera. T/FTrueWhich musical style best describes the opening line "Thy hand, Belinda; darkness shades me"?Secco RecitativeBarbara Strozzi was an educated musician from Baroque:VeniceHow does Purcell musically depict Dido's grief in this aria?With a descending, chromatic bass lineDespite being created in England, Purcell's operas were sung in Italian. T/FFalseThe most important new genre of the Baroque wasOperaDido's aria is in 2 sections. Which text line begins the second section?"Remember me, but ah, forget my fate"An aria in an opera is characterized by:Tuneful and highly emotive melodiesWhich is true of an overture?It is an instrumental introduction to an opera, and it may introduce themes from arias to followThe text of an opera is known as:LibrettoAn operatic song in the form A-B-A, which allows for the soloist to embellish the last section, is called a:De capo ariaThe earliest opera plots were drawn from real-life situations. T/FFalseWhat is the basis for Monteverdi's opera The Coronation of Peppea?Roman historyThe rejection of Italian opera is reflected in the French opera style associated with the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully. T/FTrueThe libretto for this opera is based on:The AeneidIn the aria, Dido sings "Remember me, but ah, forget my fate." What was her fate?To dieWhy does Dido sing a lament at the end of the opera?Aeneas left herWhat is the structural basis for Dido's aria?Ground BassThe term "accompagnato," as opposed to "secco," describes a recitative in which:The orchestra accompanies the recitativeThe masque was an English entertainment that combines music and poetry. T/FTrueWho is considered to be to composer of England's first important opera?PurcellWhere is the name cantata derived from?From the Italian cantare, meaning to singWhich form describes the overall form of the aria "Rejoice greatly"?Da capo formWhich voices sing the original chorale tune in the first movement of Cantata No. 140?SopranoWhat musical element changes in the second section of the aria "Rejoice greatly"?TonalityJ.S. Bach's church cantatas all contain solo arias, recitatives, and ___:ChorusesWhat are many of Bach's cantatas are based on what?Protestant chorale or hymn tunesBach spend the last several decades of his life working at St. Thomas's Church in:LeipzigHandel's career was solely based on positions held in Germany T/FFalseWhich best describes the text setting on the word "rejoice" in Handel's aria from Messiah?MelismaticJ.S. Bach had an international career T/FFalseIn the Lutheran tradition, the cantata was performed along with the Gospel reading, sermon, and prayers on:Most Sundays of the churchThe Baroque oratorio evolved out of events that took place during when?Counter-ReformationWhat is Handels most famous opera seria?Julius CaesarThe energetic instrumental idea that recurs several times between the vocal statements in the first movement of Cantata No. 140 is best described as:RitornelloThe fourth movement of Bach's Cantata No. 140 features tenor section singing in unison T/FTrueFor what religious occasion was the cantata written?End of the church yearWho wrote the chorale text and tune for Wachet auf (Sleepers Awake)?Phillipp NicolaiLutheran chorale Wachet auf is in "bar form," which is best described as:A-A-BWhat is the source of the text for Messiah?Both Old and New TestamentFor which church did Back write his cantatas?LutheranWhich best describes the texture heard in "Hallelujah Chorus" in Handel's Messiah?Alternating between homorhythmic and polyphonic texturesWhich television program has used the Mouret Rondeau as a theme song?Masterpiece TheatreHow many movements do Bach's cantasas typically have?Five to eightGuarneri, Stradivarious, and Amati were all noted Baroque makers of which instruments?ViolinWhich instrument family is NOT heard in the second section of the Alla hornpipe?BrassWhat are Handel's best-known orchestral suites?Water Music and Music for the Royal FireworksWhat is the standard order of the Baroque Dance Suite?1. Overture 2. Allemande 3. Courante 4. Sarabande 5. Other Dances (hornpipe, minuet) 6. Gigue (jig)Baroque trumpets were still "natural," meaning they:They were without valvesThe strings of Baroque violin were made out of:GutWhich instrument was not utilized in the first performance of Handel's Water Music on the Thames?HarpsicordWhich composer is known for his grand divertissements at the French court?MouretA Baroque suite is usually a group of dances T/FTrueThe second section of Alla hornpipe differs from the first in that:The tonality changes and only strings and woodwinds playWhat is the structure of the Alla hornpipe from Handel's Water Music?TernaryThe Baroque dance inspired by the music of Germany is the:AllemandeWhere was the Water Music performed on July 17, 1717?For a royal party on the Thames RiverThe Allegro movement from the Water Music Suite is in:Ternary FormWhat is the form of Mouret's Roundeau?A-B-A-C-AWhat is the tempo heard in the Alla hornpipe from Handel's Water Music?QuickThe Baroque dance inspired by the music of Spain is the:SarabandeJ.S. Bach and Handel were both masters on which instrument?OrganThe title of the concerto genre is derived from the Latin verb ____, meaning "to contend with."ConcertareIn the 3rd movement of his concerto, Spring, Vivaldi emulates the sound of bagpipes by incorporating a:DroneWhat makes The Four Seasons a programmatic work?It is based on a set of poems, one for each seasonA multi-movement form based on the opposition of one player against a larger group is a:Solo concertoThe final movement in a Baroque concerto was typically set in what kind of tempo?FastThe small group of soloists in a concerto grosso is known as the:ConcertinoWhat is the unifying procedure in the first movement of the Spring concerto?RitornelloThe second movement of Vivaldi's Spring concerto depicts the sound of:A dog barkingWhich Baroque composer wrote over 200 solo concertos for violin?Antonio VivaldiThe first movement of Vivaldi's concerto Spring is in ____ formRitornelloWhich Baroque composer was known as the "red priest"?Antonio VivaldiWhat is the solo instrument featured in Vivaldi's Spring concerto?ViolinWhich composer wrote music for the Conservatorio dell'Ospedale della Pieta?VivaldiHow many movements do standard Baroque concertos have?3The tempo scheme of the movements in Vivaldi's Spring concerto is best described as:Fast, slow, fastWhat are the 2 most popular types of concertos in the Baroque era?Solo concerto and the concerto grossoVivaldi is famous for writing instrumental music that depicts a scene without the use of sung words, a style called:Program musicHow does Vivaldi musically evoke the image of birds in the first movement of the Spring concerto?With high thrills and running scalesWhich term best describes the larger group performing a concerto?RipienoHow many concertos make up Bach's Brandenburg Concertos?6The Baroque concerto that is characterized by a solo instrument and orchestra is the:Solo ConcertoThe last work J.S. Bach wrote for the keyboard was his:The Art of FugueA melody that is stated backward is said to be in:RetrogradeThe French style of composition that ushered in the Classical era was the:RococoWhat is an example of Bach's contrapuntal writing?Art of FugueWhich instrument played a central role in chamber music in the Baroque era?HarpsichordA new "realistic: style of opera being composed in Italy at the end of the Baroque was known asOpera BuffaThe toccata is a highly virtuosic form. T/FTrueWhich Baroque keyboard instrument had strings that were plucked by quills?HarpsicordWhat term refers to a melody in which the note values are made longer?AugmentationA keyboard work for the organ that elaborates on a chorale melody is called a:Chorale preludeThe first section of a fugue is called the:ExpositionTimbre is synonymous withtone colorDegrees of loudness and softness in music are calleddynamicsThe relative highness or lowness of a sound is calledpitchThe distance between the lowest and the highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce is calledpitch rangeThe Italian dynamic marking traditionally used to indicate very soft, loud, and very loud are (respectively)pianissimo, forte, fortissimoThe pitch of a sound is decided by the _______of its vibrationsfrequencyThe distance in pitch between any two tones is calledan intervalWhen two different tones blend so well when sounded together that they almost seem to merge into one tone, the interval is called a(n)octaveThe frequency of vibrations is measured incycles per secondA dynamic accent occurs in music when a performeremphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around itA gradual increase in loudness is known as acrescendoIn music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called atoneMusic can be defined asan art based on the organization of sounds in timeIn general, the smaller the vibrating element, the ______ its pitchhigherA thin piece of cane, used singly or in pairs by woodwind players, is called areedThe strings of a violin are tunedby tightening or loosening the pegsThe lowest instrument in the orchestra is thecontrabassoonSystems of electronic components that generate, modify, and control sound are calledsynthesizersA part of an instrument's total range is called aregisterThe bow that string players usually use to produce sound on their instruments is a slightly curved stick strung tightly withhorsehairThe highest woodwind instrument in the orchestra is thepiccoloIf a string player uses vibrato by rocking the left hand to produce small pitch fluctuations it is becauseusing vibrato make the tone warmer and more expressivePlucking the string with the finger instead of using a bow is calledpizzicatoSymphonic bands differ from symphonic orchestras in that theydo not contain a string sectionA piece of wood or plastic that brass players use to alter the tone of their instruments is called amuteWoodwind instruments are so named because theywere originally made of woodThe range of a singer's voice depends ontraining and physical makeupThe very high-pitched tones that are produced when a string player lightly touches certain points on a string are calledharmonicsThe main tool of composers of electronic music during the 1950s was thetape studioThe regular pulsation that divides music into equal units of time is known as a(n)beatWhen a measure has two beats, it is said to be be induple meterThe organization of beats into regular groups is known asmeter"Vivace" is a tempo indication which denotes alively tempoIn syncopation, a _________ is accentedweak beatRhythm is the ordered flow of music throughtimeWhen individual notes are stressed by being played louder or longer than surrounding notes the are said to havean accentWhich of the following tempo indications is the slowest: allegro, allegretto, vivace, presto?allegrettoA system of writing music is known asnotationThe _______ shows the pitch of each line and space on the staffclefAdding a dot to a note increases its duration byhalfThe meter of a piece is shown by itstime signatureA C# is _________ than a C.higherA combination of three or more tomes sounded at the same time is calleda chordHarmony refers tothe way chords are constructed and how they follow each otherThe triad built on the fifth step of the scale is called thedominant chordResolution refers to a(n)dissonant chord moving to a consonant chord________ in music adds support, depth, and richness to a melody.harmonyWhen the individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously, it is called a broken chord orarpeggioA combination of tones that is considered unstable and tense is called adissonanceTraditionally, a composition would almost always end on atonic chordA series of chords is called a(n)progressionA combination of tones that is considered stable and restful is called aconsonanceKey refers toa central tone, chord, and scaleAnother term for key istonalityIn traditional western music, the _______ is the smallest interval between successive tones of a scalehalf stepA shift from one key to another within the same composition is calledmodulationThe central tone around which a musical composition is organized is called thetonicRetaining some features of a musical idea while changing others is calledvariationTernary form can be represented asas statement, contrast, return; or A B A; or A B A'The organization of musical ideas in time is calledformThe form consisting of a musical statement followed by a counterstatement would be calledbinaryChanges in musical style from one historical period to the next are usuallycontinuousWe know little about the music of very ancient civilizations becausevery little notated music has survived from these culturesMusical texture refers tohow layers of sound are related to each otherWhen a melodic idea is presented by one voice or instrument and then immediately by another voice or instrument, the technique is calledcimitationA round is an example ofstrict imitationWhen there is one main melody accompanied by chords, the textures ishomophonicThe texture of a single melodic line without accompaniment ismonophonicPerformance of a single melodic line by more than one instrument or voice is described as playing or singing inunisonThe technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is calledcounterpointWhen two or more melodic lines of equal interest are performed simultaneously, the texture ispolyphonicContrapuntal texture is sometimes used in place of the termpolyphonic textureA melodic phrase ending that sets up expectations for continuation is known as a(n)incomplete cadenceA series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole is called amelodyThe emotional focal point of a melody is called theclimaxThe repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch is called asequenceA resting place at the end of a phrase is called acadenceA shorter part of a melody is called aphraseLegato refers to playing or singing a melodyin a smooth, connected styleA melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music is called athemeA melody is said to move by steps if it moves byadjacent scale tonesA short, detached style of playing a melody is known asstaccatoA musical soundhas a perceivable pitch and a measurable frequency.The highness or lowness of sound is called:pitchAccording to your text, the musical element that makes the widest and most direct appeal is:melody.The distance between two different pitches is called:an interval.Which term describes a melody that moves by small intervals?conjunctThe resting place at the end of a phrase is called:a cadence.One melody added to, or played against, another melody is called:a countermelody.Music is propelled forward in time by:rhythm.The basic unit of rhythm that divides time into equal segments is called:the beatThe organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses are called:metersMeter is marked off in groupings known as:measuresThe first accented beat of a measure is called a(n)downbeatThe deliberate shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat is called:syncopationThe simultaneous use of two or more rhythmic patterns is called:polyrythmThe depth resulting from simultaneous events in music is described by the term:textureThe distance and relationship between two tones is referred to as:IntervalA combination of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called:chordAn interval of eight notes is called:octaveA triad is:Three Note Chord Built on Alternate scale steps Most common chord found in western musicThe principle of organization around a central tone is called:tonalityWhich tonality would most likely be chosen for a triumphal march?majorShould a composer write a film score to a horror movie, one might reasonably expect that the harmony would include a great deal of:dissonanceHow many notes in a scale does an octave span?eightIn Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals?twelveA twelve tone scale, including all the semitones of the octave, is called:chromaticTonality means that we hear a piece of music in relation to a central tone, called:tonicIn a major scale, between which intervals do the half steps occur?3 and 4, 7 and 8The number of notes in the pentatonic scale is:fiveThe triad built on the first note of the scale is called:the tonicThe tonic chord is represented by which symbol?IThe three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are:I, IV and VThe element that describes the musical fabric or the relationship of musical lines within a work is called:textureA texture featuring a single, unaccompanied line is called:monophonicA melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as:heterophonyWhen two or more independent melodic lines are combined, the resulting texture is called:polyphonicA texture in which a single voice takes over the melodic interest while the accompanying voices are subordinate is called:homophobicThe procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called:imitationWhat best describes the texture of Row, Row, Row Your Boat?roundThe quality of a work of art that represents structure or shape refers to its:formThe basic structural concepts in the element of form are:repetition and contrastA vocal work in which each poetic stanza is sung to the same melody is in:strophic formThe technique through which performers create music on the spot is known as:improvisationThe form based on a statement and a departure without a return to the complete opening statement is called:binaryWhich of the following best defines binary form?A-BThe restatement of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch is called:a sequenceA basic technique in thematic development is the fragmentation of themes into:motivesThe smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called:a motiveThe separate sections of a large musical work are calledmovementsThe rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its:tempoMusic that is despairing and sad usually has a _____ tempo.slowWhich marking is appropriate for a slow tempo?adagioAccelerando is a term indicating that the tempo is:getting fasterThe degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called:dynamicsWhich of the following dynamic markings is the softest?pianissimo (pp)The gradual swelling of the volume of music is called:crescendoWhich is NOT a property of a musical sound?textureThe quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another is:timbreThe term timbre refers to:the color of the toneA mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called:an instrumentThe standard ranges of the human voice from highest to lowest are:soprano, alto, tenor, bassWhich of the following voices has the lowest range?bassThe human voice:possess lyric beauty and expressiveness that has served as a model for instrument builders and playersInstruments that produce sound from a vibrating string are called:chordophonesInstruments that produce sound by using air as the vibrating means are called:aerophonesOf the following, which is NOT a chordophone?bagpipesHow do idiophones produce sound?by shaking, scraping, or striking the instrument itselfWhich is the correct order of bowed string instruments from highest to lowest in range?violin, viola, cello, double bassThe special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called:pizzicatoWhat is double stopping?playing on two strings at oncesHarmonics on a string instrument are produced by:lightly touching the string at certain points while the bow is drawnThe lowest member of the double reed family listed here is:bassoonWhich of the following is true of all brass instruments?Made of metal Blown with a metal mouthpiece Sound is created by the vibration of the lipsWhich of the following brass instruments is sometimes played with the performers hand plugging the bell?French HornWhich brass instrument uses a large, movable U-shaped slide to change notes?TromboneA fairly large body of singers who perform together is called:A ChorusThe term a cappella refers to choral music performed:without any accompanimentApproximately two thirds of a symphony orchestra consists of:stringsWhich instruments are traditionally seated in the front of the orchestra?stringsA jazz band is normally made up of:Woodwind Brass PercussionOf the following, which is a universal function of music found in most world cultures?Accompanies religious and civic ceremonies Provides entertainment Helps workers get their jobs done more efficientlyThe preservation of music without the help of written notation is called:Oral TransmissionThe concept of style can be identified with:Individual Artworks Creators personal manner of expression Music of an entire cultureWhich of the following is the proper chronological order of musical periods?Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Twentieth CentuaryMelodies that move principally by small, connected intervals are conjunct.TrueDisjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals.TrueA component unit of a melody is a phrase.TrueThe element that organizes movement in time is called harmony.FalseSyncopation is a rhythmic characteristic of American jazz.TrueSyncopation is typical of African-American dance music and spirituals.TrueMelody and harmony function independently of one another.FalseThe two scale types commonly found in Western music from about 1650 to 1900 are major and minor.TrueActive chords seek to be resolved to resting chords, imparting a sense of direction or goal.TrueThe art of combining two or more simultaneous melodic lines is called counterpoint.TrueThe art of counterpoint is most closely associated with monophonic texture.FalseHomophonic describes a single voiced texture without accompaniment.FalseMusical structure generally features a balance between unity and variety.TrueA musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form.FalseCall and response music is common in African and Native American cultures.TrueThroughout history, the voice has served as a model to instrumentalists and to instrument builders.TrueA genre is a category or type of music repertory.TrueThe gradual swelling of the volume of music is called:crescendoWhich of the following tempo markings is the fastest?prestoIn what language are tempo markings generally given?ItalianAllegro is an Italian term for a fast, cheerful tempo.TrueThe tempo of a piece affects its mood and character.TrueWhich of the following dynamic markings is the softest?pianissimo (pp)The degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called:dynamicsThe degree of loudness and softness in music is called dynamics.TrueAccelerando is a term indicating that the tempo is:getting faster.The rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its:tempoThe markings for tempo and dynamics contribute most directly to:the expressive content of a piece of music.Which of the following tempo markings does NOT indicate a slow tempo?prestoWhich of the following symbols indicates growing louder?
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