absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except

# absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except

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Transmission of nerve impulses relies on the concentrations of ______ in the neuron. A. cholesterol B. sodium and potassium C. B vitamins D. calcium and magnesiumB. sodium and potassium
Which of the following is stored within the nucleus of the cell and acts as a code book for synthesizing specific proteins? A. RNA B. Cells C. Organs D. DNAD. DNA
All of the following must be supplied by the diet to support the chemical processes of human physiology EXCEPT A. vitamins and minerals. B. lipids. C. phytochemicals. D. carbohydrates.C. phytochemicals
______ tissue is part of rigid body structures, such as bone and cartilage. A. Nervous B. Epithelial C. Muscle D. ConnectiveD. Connective
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow? A. Epiglottis B. Tongue C. Tonsils D. EsophagusA. Epiglottis
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver? A. Hepatic portal vein B. Mesenteric vein C. Subclavian vein D. Hepatic veinA. Hepatic portal vein
Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system? A. Contributes to acid-base balance of the blood B. Excretion of fat-soluble vitamins C. Excretion of water-soluble vitamins D. Helps to regulate water content of the bodyB. Excretion of fat-soluble vitamins
Nutrient-rich blood leaving the intestine goes by way of a vein to the A. kidneys. B. heart. C. liver. D. pancreas.C. liver
All of the following are features of the epiglottis EXCEPT which one? A. It covers the opening of the trachea. B. It prevents food from entering the windpipe during swallowing. C. It guides food down the esophagus. D. It is the first GI tract sphincter.D. It is the first GI tract sphincter.
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter? A. Prevents esophageal contents from emptying too quickly into the stomach B. Prevents stomach contents from backing up into the esophagus C. Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach D. Prevents intestinal contents from emptying too quickly into the colonC. Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach
What sphincter separates the small intestine from the large intestine? A. Pyloric B. Esophageal C. Anal D. IleocecalD. Ileocecal
The ring-like muscles that retard or prevent backflow of partially digested food in the gastrointestinal tract are called A. sphincters. B. passages. C. openings. D. gates.A. sphincters.
Which of the following is a description of chyme? A. A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines B. The semisolid mass of undigested food that is swallowed C. The mixture of pancreatic juices containing enzymes for digestion D. A thick, viscous material synthesized by mucosal cells for protection against digestive juicesA. A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles? A. Breaks apart food particles B. Controls passage of food through the GI tract C. Controls peristalsis D. Releases enzymes and hormones into the GI tractB. Controls passage of food through the GI tract
Which of the following, upon digestion, is NOT normally absorbed directly into the bloodstream? A. Minerals B. Fats C. Carbohydrates D. ProteinsB. Fats
Which of the following body organs produces bile? A. Stomach B. Salivary glands C. Pancreas D. LiverD. Liver
The muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract are called A. regurgitation. B. peristalsis. C. propulsion. D. compression.B. peristalsis.
What percentage of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine? A. 25% B. 55% C. 80% D. 95%D. 95%
Which of the following is true about digestive enzymes? A. One enzyme can speed many types of chemical processes. B. Enzymes are not sensitive to temperature. C. Enzymes that work in the acidic environment of the stomach cannot work in the basic or alkaline environment of the small intestine and vice versa. D. Enzymes typically work independently of vitamins or minerals.C. Enzymes that work in the acidic environment of the stomach cannot work in the basic or alkaline environment of the small intestine and vice versa.
Excessive acid production in the stomach or upper small intestine could result in A. poor iron, calcium, and folate absorption. B. excessive intestinal bacterial growth. C. an ulcer. D. decreased fiber digestion and absorption.C. an ulcer
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT A. sustained absorption. B. passive absorption. C. active absorption. D. facilitated absorption.A. sustained absorption.
Which pH best describes the environment of the stomach when stimulated? A. Neutral B. Both acidic and basic C. Acidic D. BasicC. Acidic
When food enters the small intestine, a hormone stimulates the release of ______ from the pancreas. A. acid B. bicarbonate C. mucus D. bileB. bicarbonate
Which of the following is true regarding bile? A. It is an enzyme. B. It stimulates the release of pancreatic juices. C. It is produced by the liver. D. It is a hormone.C. It is produced by the liver.
The villi of the small intestine A. provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption. B. store fat-soluble vitamins. C. continuously push food through the small intestine to the colon. D. inactivate enzymes consumed with food.A. provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.
In passive absorption, nutrients enter the cell A. with a carrier. B. with the expenditure of energy. C. from an area of higher solute concentration to one of lower concentration. D. from an area of lower solute concentration to one of higher concentration.C. from an area of higher solute concentration to one of lower concentration.
Which of the following therapies is appropriate for treatment of occasional heartburn? A. Aspirin B. Antacids C. Orange juice D. Milk and creamB. Antacids
All of the following are characteristics of heartburn EXCEPT which one? A. It is a gnawing pain in the upper chest. B. It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal. C. It can damage the esophagus permanently. D. It is caused by a backflow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.B. It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal.
Constipation can best be prevented by A. eating dietary fiber. B. restricting fluids. C. restricting physical exercise. D. using laxatives.A. eating dietary fiber.
Which of the following is an important dietary recommendation for avoiding heartburn? A. Eat smaller meals that are lower in fat. B. Eat large meals. C. Eat meals low in carbohydrate. D. Avoid fluids.A. Eat smaller meals that are lower in fat.
A(n) _______________ is a medication that inhibits the ability of gastric cells to secrete hydrogen ions. A. antibiotic B. NSAID C. proton pump inhibitor D. antacidC. proton pump inhibitor
Which absorptive process in the small intestine requires a carrier and energy to transport nutrients into absorptive cells? A. Active absorption B. Passive diffusion C. Phagocytosis D. Facilitated diffusionA. Active absorption
When a nutrient moves freely from an area of higher solute concentration into an absorptive cell where the concentration is lower, this is called A. Facilitated diffusion B. Phagocytosis C. Passive diffusion D. Active absorptionC. Passive diffusion
When a nutrient moves, with the help of a carrier, from an area of higher solute concentration into an absorptive cell where the concentration is lower, this is called A. facilitated diffusion. B. active absorption. C. phagocytosis. D. passive diffusion.A. facilitated diffusion.
The organelles that are known as the "power plants" or the "powerhouses" of the cell are the A. mitochondria. B. lysosomes. C. nuclei. D. ribosomes.A. mitochondria.
The RDAs for nutrients are set A. to cover the needs of 97% - 98% of the population. B. based on the dietary intakes of people who appear to be maintaining nutritional health. C. by the FDA for food labeling purposes. D. based on a person's height and weight.A. to cover the needs of 97% - 98% of the population.
Which meal contains foods from all food groups represented in MyPlate? A. Chef's salad containing ham, lettuce, an egg, Thousand Island dressing, and croutons; bagel; apple; and soft drink B. Steak, baked potato with margarine, broccoli, salad with oil and vinegar dressing, milk C. Refried beans, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese wrapped in a tortilla; orange; and water D. Pasta, marinara (tomato) sauce with clams, house salad with vegetables, Italian bread with butter, and wineC. Refried beans, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese wrapped in a tortilla; orange; and water
Which statement best describes the healthful diet principle of moderation? A. Choose a number of different foods within any given food group rather than the "same old thing." B. Consume a variety of foods from MyPlate's five major food groups every day. C. Pay attention to portion size and plan your entire day's diet so that you don't overconsume nutrient sources. D. Consume foods that have the most nutrition for their kilocalories.C. Pay attention to portion size and plan your entire day's diet so that you don't overconsume nutrient sources.
Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called A. sonography. B. electrocardiography. C. echocardiography. D. anthropometry.D. anthropometry.
The acronym RDA stands for A. Recommended Dietary Allowance. B. Recommended Daily Allowance. C. Required Dietary Allowance. D. Required Daily Allowance.A. Recommended Dietary Allowance.
The RDAs are considered to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of A. all persons except the very young and very old. B. all persons except pregnant and lactating women. C. nearly all healthy persons. D. all persons diseased and healthy.C. nearly all healthy persons.
The RDAs for nutrients generally are A. the minimum amounts the average adult male requires. B. more than twice the requirements. C. designed to prevent deficiency disease in half the population. D. designed to be adequate for almost all healthy people.D. designed to be adequate for almost all healthy people.
Tina is consuming 15 mg of iron per day. Her RDA is 18 mg. She has no condition warranting a greater-than-normal need for iron. Which of the following statements is true about her consumption of this nutrient? A. She is likely to be deficient in iron. B. She will need to consume significantly more iron, above the RDA, to make up for her intake. C. Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency. D. She couldn't possibly be getting enough iron for her needs.C. Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency.
Adequate Intakes (AI) A. are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs. B. are established for carbohydrate, total fat, and dietary fiber. C. represent minimum nutrient needs. D. are established for all vitamins and minerals.A. are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs.
You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The Nutrition Facts panel tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron. A. RDA B. Daily Value C. Minimum Requirement D. ESADDIB. Daily Value
One serving of Raisin Bran cereal contains 50 percent of the 18 mg Daily Value for iron. How much iron will one serving of your cereal provide? A. 5 mg B. 9 mg C. 15 mg D. 36 mgB. 9 mg
A food label states that a serving of a particular product provides 20 percent of the Daily Value for fat. This means that A. when you eat a serving of this product, you will be getting 20 percent of the RDA for fat. B. a serving of this product provides about 13 grams of fat. C. you should eat more of the product to get the amount of fat you need that would equal 100 percent of the Daily Value. D. you should eat more of the product to get the amount of fat you need that would equal 100 percent of the RDA.B. a serving of this product provides about 13 grams of fat.
The term "Daily Values" on a food label refers to A. a generic standard set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard. B. RDAs. C. minimum requirements. D. AIs.A. a generic standard set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard.
According to MyPlate, consumption of foods from the Grains group should include A. an equal amount of whole grain and refined grain products. B. at least half of the grain servings as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day. C. only whole grain products. D. a serving of grain products at each meal.B. at least half of the grain servings as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day.
According to MyPlate, an adult age 18 or older should consume how many cups of milk or milk equivalents per day on a 2,000-calorie diet? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4C. 3
Margaret, an elderly woman, needs to limit her kilocalorie intake without sacrificing needed nutrients. Keeping in mind MyPlate, which of the following could she do? A. Eliminate carbohydrates. B. Carefully select foods rich in nutrients but low in kilocalories. C. Count kilocalories and not worry about the food groups. D. Eliminate dairy foods.B. Carefully select foods rich in nutrients but low in kilocalories.
Which of the following is NOT a wise application of MyPlate? A. Using low-fat and nonfat choices for milk and cheese B. Including several servings of vegetable proteins per week C. Using whole grain breads and cereals D. Eliminating foods from the Fruits group to lose weightD. Eliminating foods from the Fruits group to lose weight
Nutrient density can be defined as the amount of A. a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kilocalories in that serving. B. a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of grams of protein. C. kilocalories in a food divided by the amount of kilocalories needed in a day. D. a nutrient in a serving of food divided by the amount of the nutrient needed for that day.A. a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kilocalories in that serving.
One cup of apple juice has 111 kilocalories and 1.4 mg of vitamin C. The same serving size of orange juice has 112 kilocalories and 124 mg of vitamin C. Which of the following is true regarding their nutrient density? A. Apple juice is more nutrient dense for vitamin C than orange juice. B. To get adequate vitamin C while watching kilocalorie intake, it would be better to consume apple juice than orange juice. C. Apple juice provides more vitamin C per kilocalorie than orange juice. D. Orange juice is more nutrient dense for vitamin C than apple juice.D. Orange juice is more nutrient dense for vitamin C than apple juice.
The acronym DRI stands for A. Dietary Required Intake. B. Dietary Reference Intake. C. Daily Required Intake. D. Daily Reference Intake.B. Dietary Reference Intake.
Which of the following statements is consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans? A. Choose a diet very low in fat and cholesterol. B. Balance the calories you eat with physical activity. C. Choose a diet with plenty of animal products including milk and meats. D. Eat an abundance of saturated fats.B. Balance the calories you eat with physical activity.
Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products. This part of the examination is the A. anthropometric assessment. B. physical examination. C. biochemical evaluation. D. clinical examination.C. biochemical evaluation.
Mrs. Mitchell was hospitalized after being found unconscious in her home. A dietitian conducted a nutritional assessment, noting the general appearance of Mrs. Mitchell's skin, eyes, and tongue. Which part of the assessment is this? A. Medical history B. Diet history C. Biochemical evaluation D. Clinical examinationD. Clinical examination
Kate consumes 1,900 kilocalories each day. She requires 1,750 kilocalories to meet daily energy needs. Over time, Kate's kilocalorie consumption could lead to A. undernutrition. B. balanced nutrition. C. overnutrition.C. overnutrition.
By law, which of the following food items must display a nutrition facts label? A. Box of granola bars B. Navel oranges C. Fresh catfish fillet D. Fresh spinachA. Box of granola bars
Which of the following is NOT required on a nutrition label? A. The amount per serving of all vitamins and minerals for which there is an RDA B. The serving size C. Total kilocalories from fat per serving D. Total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol per servingA. The amount per serving of all vitamins and minerals for which there is an RDA
According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, the food and nutrients to increase are A. milk, meat, and beans. B. fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole grains. C. grains, beans, and solid fats. D. fruit juice, beans, and meat.B. fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole grains.
The number of servings to consume from each MyPlate food group depends on a person's A. height, weight, and waist circumference. B. taste preferences. C. age, gender, height, and weight. D. frame size.C. age, gender, height, and weight.
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, released in 2008, advise a minimum of _____ minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity for adults. A. 30 B. 60 C. 90 D. 150D. 150
RDAs are NOT used in food labeling because A. they are age- and gender-specific. B. they are too generic. C. their values are set too low. D. their values are set too high.A. they are age- and gender-specific.
In order to make healthful and logical nutrition decisions, beware of A. testimonials about personal experience. B. reputable publication sources. C. registered dietitians. D. evidence from other scientific studies.A. testimonials about personal experience.
Using MyPlate's Daily Food Plan for 2000 kilocalories as a reference, the Grains are A. adequate in number of servings but lacking fiber. B. adequate in number of servings and fiber. C. inadequate in number of servings. D. inadequate in number of servings and fiber.A. adequate in number of servings but lacking fiber.
When using MyPlate to choose fruits and vegetables, one should include a vitamin C source such as citrus fruit and a dark green vegetable each day, as a source of A. vitamin A. B. vitamin D. C. selenium. D. zinc.A. vitamin A.
A comparison of the kilocalorie content of a food to the weight of that food is A. energy density. B. body density. C. nutrient density. D. diet quality.A. energy density.
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend consuming less than 10% of calories from A. trans fatty acids. B. saturated fatty acids. C. essential fatty acids. D. total fat.B. saturated fatty acids.
Which of the following is the leading nutrition-related cause of death in the United States? A. Cancer B. Heart disease C. Pneumonia D. DiabetesB. Heart disease
Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use? A. Lipids and oils B. Fiber C. Vitamins D. MineralsA. Lipids and oils
Certain nutrients provide us with energy. Some are important for growth and development. Others act to keep body functions running smoothly. Which of the following nutrients does not promote growth and development as its primary function? A. Lipids B. Carbohydrates C. Proteins D. MineralsB. Carbohydrates
The essential nutrients A. must be consumed at every meal. B. are required for infants but not adults. C. can be made in the body when they are needed. D. cannot be made by the body and therefore must be consumed to maintain health.D. cannot be made by the body and therefore must be consumed to maintain health.
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates that 10% to 35% of calories come from protein and ________________ from carbohydrate. A. 20% to 35% B. 45% to 65% C. 50% to 70% D. 55% to 75%B. 45% to 65%
Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as A. carbohydrates. B. protein. C. lipids. D. minerals.A. carbohydrates.
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins? A. Provide energy B. Become structural components of the body C. Enable chemical processes in the body D. Made in sufficient quantities by the bodyC. Enable chemical processes in the body
Gram for gram, which provides the most energy? A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Alcohol D. FatsD. Fats
Which of the following is not a characteristic of protein? A. Major component of body structure B. Supplies 4 kilocalories per gram C. Most significant energy source for humans D. Forms enzymesC. Most significant energy source for humans
Which of the following yield greater than 4 kilocalories per gram? A. Plant fats B. Plant carbohydrates C. Plant proteins D. Animal proteinsA. Plant fats
A serving of bleu cheese dressing containing 23 grams of fat would yield _____ kilocalories from fat. A. 161 B. 92 C. 207 D. 255C. 207
A large hamburger (e.g., Whopper) sandwich contains 628 kilocalories and 36 grams of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat? A. 23% B. 52% C. 19% D. 41%B. 52%
Healthy People 2020 was designed to A. eliminate health disparities, improve access to health education and quality health care, and strengthen public health services. B. disclose dietary practices that best support health. C. prevent chronic disease. D. eliminate dietary inadequacies and excesses, and to encourage healthful practices.A. eliminate health disparities, improve access to health education and quality health care, and strengthen public health services.
Which of the following is true about the North American diet? A. Most of our protein comes from plant sources. B. Approximately half of our carbohydrates come from simple sugars. C. Most of our fats come from plant sources. D. Most of our carbohydrates come from fibers.B. Approximately half of our carbohydrates come from simple sugars.
Which of the following contain no calories? A. Alcohol B. Proteins C. Carbohydrates D. VitaminsD. Vitamins
Which of the following includes all energy-yielding substances? A. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein B. Vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, protein C. Alcohol, carbohydrates, lipids, protein D. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins, minerals, waterC. Alcohol, carbohydrates, lipids, protein
Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food? A. Appetite B. Hunger C. Satiety D. SaturationA. Appetite
Current factors that can influence American food habits negatively are A. more offerings of chicken and fish in restaurants as alternatives to beef. B. social changes that are leading to a general time shortage for many of us. C. the variety of new, low fat products in the supermarket. D. more published information on the nutritional content of fast foods.B. social changes that are leading to a general time shortage for many of us.
It is estimated that obesity kills more than ____________ Americans a year. A. 20,000 B. 50,000 C. 150,000 D. 200,000D. 200,000
Which of the following is not one of the six categories of Healthy People 2020: Nutrition and Weight Status Objectives? A. Healthier Food Access B. Food Insecurity C. Iron Deficiency D. Calcium DeficiencyD. Calcium Deficiency
The 2012 Food and Health Survey indicated that after taste, __________ is now the number two reason why people choose the food they do. A. nutrition B. convenience C. costC. cost
Which of the following are among the six classes of essential nutrients? _____ water _____ phytochemicals _____ protein _____ alcoholWater and Protein
When in Europe, you are told that you are eating a steak weighing 140 grams. This is equivalent to how many ounces? A. 5 ounces B. 3920 ounces C. 8.75 ounces D. 1.4 ouncesA. 5 ounces
Pat purchases a 2-liter bottle of root beer. This would be approximately A. 4 cups. B. 2 gallons. C. 2 pints. D. 2 quarts.D. 2 quarts.
One cup of chocolate milk contains 15 grams of carbohydrates, 8 grams of fat, and 8 grams of protein. This cup of chocolate milk supplies ______ kilocalories. A. 279 B. 124 C. 31 D. 164D. 164
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kilocalories and 30 grams of fat. Approximately ______ of the total energy is provided by fat. A. 15% B. 19% C. 2% D. 9%B. 19%
Which of the following are potential health consequences of eating disorders? ____ loss of menstrual periods ____ bone loss ____ heart abnormalities _____ high blood sugarloss of menstrual periods, bone loss, and heart abnormalities
Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology? A. A test made to examine the validity of an educated guess B. An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon C. A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups D. An explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support itC. A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
T or F The health status of "baby boomers" appears lower than that of the previous generation.True
In the _________________ experimental design, neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant's assignment (test or placebo) or the outcome of the study until it is completed. rev: 03_17_2014_QC_47029 A. animal model B. case control C. double-blinded D. clinical trialC. double-blinded
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