a consonance is a combination of tones that

a consonance is a combination of tones that

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rhyme schemethe arrangement of rhyming words or corresponding sounds at the end of poetic lines
climaxthe high point in a melodic line or piece of music, usually representing the peak of intensity, range and dynamics
countermelodyan accompanying melody sounded against the principal melody
contourthe overall shape of a melodic line. It can move upward, downward, remain static
notea musical symbol denoting pitch and duration
melodysuccession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unity
disjunctdisjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps
cadenceresting place in a musical phrase; music punctuation
intervaldistance and relationship between two pitches
conjunctsmooth connected melody that moves principally by small intervals
rangedistance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, instrument or a voice
timbre/ tone colorthe quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another
amplitudedegree of loudness or softness of a sound
frequencyrate of vibration of a string or column of air, which determines pitch
phrasemusical unit; often component of a melody
intervalthe distance between two pitches is called:
conjuncta melodic line that moves by small intervals is called:
frequencyscientifically, pitch is determined by its:
falsea melody is a concept that occurs only in Western music, true/false?
disjunctthe type of melodic movement in The Star Spangled Banner can be described as:
contourthe term referring to the overall shape of a melody is:
countermelodywhen a melody is accompanied by a second melody, that second melody is called a:
ba phrase and cadence in music can be compared to a: a) sentence and paragraph b) sentence and period c) paragraph and essay
narrowmost children's songs have a _______ range
rangethe distance between the highest and lowest pitches in a melodic line is considered its:
cadencea place in a melody where a musician will most likely pause for a breath is at the:
truea second melody played against the first is called a countermelody, true/false?
descendingthe contour of the opening phrase of Joy to the World is best described as:
climaxthe high point of melodic line is considered its:
trueunderstanding a bit about the music before listening to it can help develop a deeper appreciation toward it, true/false?
cat the concert, a program will tell you: a) the names of the performers b) the pieces on the concert c) both a and b
awhich of the following is NOT a recommended technique to study music? a) putting the music examples on as background for relaxation b) listening to a recording multiple times c) seeing a live performance
falsethe only place to see a live performances of classical music is in a major urban center true/false?
oboein a western orchestra, which instrument provides the note that the ensemble tunes to?
intermissionoftentimes in a concert there is a break where you can move around. This break is called the:
bwhich of the following is NOT a tradition of live western classical music performances? a) knowing when to clap b) audience participation on the stage c) the dress of the performers
truetechnology has affected the way people consume music true/false?
encoreif a performance is well received, an audience can request an _____ by extended applause
20 min earlywhen is the best time to arrive at a classical concert?
cwhich of the following is a term that can be used to label a piece of music that is composed? a) composition b) work c) both a and b
concertmasterthe first violinist in an orchestra is known as the:
falseat a classical concert you can come and go at will true/false?
truemusic can be described in the language of words true/false?
only at the end of the final movementin a concert in which a symphony is performed the audience is generally expected to clap:
black formal wearperformers of classical music typically dress in:
rhythmthe controlled movement of music in time
beatregular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time
accentthe emphasis on a beat resulting in its being louder or longer than another in measure
meterorganization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into larger, regular patterns, notated as measures
measurerhythmic group or metrical unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines
measure linesvertical lines through the staff that separate metric units, or measures
downbeatfirst beat of the measure, the strongest in any meter
duple meterbasic metrical pattern of town beats to a measure
triple meterbasic metrical pattern of three beats to a measure
quadruple meterbasic metrical pattern of four beats to a measure. Also commone time.
simple metergrouping of rhythms in which the beat is subdivided into two, as in duple, triple and quadruple meters
compound metermeter in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two
sextuple metercompound metrical pattern of six beats to a measure
upbeatthe last beat of a measure, weak beat, which anticipates the downbeat
syncopationdeliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat
offbeata weak beat or any pulse between the beats in a measured rhythmic pattern
polyrhythmthe simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and in certain african musics
additive meterpatterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups; common in certain Eastern European musics
nonmetricmusic lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-western musics
rhythmthe element that propels music forward in time is:
polyrhythmseveral meters occurring simultaneously is called:
additive metera grouping of beats that adds up to a larger overall pattern is called:
triplean accented beat followed by two weak beats would indicate a ____ meter.
cwhich of the following is NOT a simple meter? a) duple b) triple c) compound
upbeatwhen a melody does not begin on the first beat (or downbeat), it is said to begin on an:
nonmetricmusic that moves without a strong sense of beat might be considered:
threein a compound meter, the beat divides into groups of:
syncopation_______ is created when the accent is shifted to a weak beat or an offbeat.
downbeatthe first accented beat of each metric pattern is known as the:
firstin triple meter, the accent is typically on which beat?
meterthe number of beats in a measure determines the:
intervaldistance and relationship between two pitches
chordsimultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony
harmonythe simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords
scaleseries of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a key
octaveinterval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower
triadcommon chord type, consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of the scale
tonicthe first note of the scale or key
tonalityprinciple of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale
dissonancecombination of tones that sound discordant and unstable, in need of resolution
consonanceconcordant or harmonious combination of tones that provide a sense of relaxation and stability in music
dronesustained sounding of one or several tones or harmonic support, a common feature of some folk music
chordthree or more tones sounded together produce a:
dissonanta combination of tones that sounds discordant or in need of resolution can be described as:
dronesimple harmony can be created when a melody is accompanied by a long, sustained tone called a:
do-dousing the syllabic designations (do,ray,mi,fa...) for pitches, an octave would be described as:
scalea collection of pitches arranged in ascending and descending order constitutes a:
scalethe tonality of a piece is determined by the ___ chosen by the composer
vertical perspectivemelody is the horizontal dimension in music while harmony adds:
triadthe most common type of chord in Western music is the:
tonicthe first and last note in a major or minor scale is called the:
textureThe interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in the musical fabric.
monophonicSingle-line texture, or melody without accompaniment.
heterophonicTexture in which two or more voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody simultaneously, often the result of improvisation.
improvisationCreation of a musical composition whilte it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation, cadenzas of concertos, jazz, and some non-Western musics.
polyphonyTwo or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture, as distinct from monophonic.
counterpointThe art of combining in a single texture two or more melodic lines.
homophonicTexture with principal melody and accompanying harmony, as distinct from polyphony.
homorhythmicTexture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm.
imitationMelodic idea presented in once voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter.
canonType of polyphonic composition in which one musical line imitates another at a fixed distance throughout.
roundPerpetual canon at the unison in which each voice enters in succession with the same melody (for example, Row, Row, Row Your Boat).
canonA work that is comprised of a strictly imitative musical texture is called a:
bWhich of the following textures is based on counterpoint? a) monophony. b) polyphony. c) homophony.
imitationA round is based on the principle of ____________ where each voice enters in succession with the same melody.
trueMonophonic texture is the simplest musical texture, true/false?
imitationThe best description of melodic idea that is presented in one voice, then restated in another, is:
homophonicOne person singing Happy Birthday with simple chords accompanying the melody produces a _________ texture.
textureThe interweaving of melody and harmony produces ____________ in music
voiceA melody, whether sung or performed on an instrument, is often referred to as a:
heterophonicA texture that combines a melody with an ornamented version of itself is called:
homorhythmicA texture in which all voices move together in the same rhythm is called:
monophonyA single-line texture is known as:
formStructure and design in music, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organzing principle of music.
repetitionA compositional technique whereby a passage or section is restated.
contrastUse of opposing musical elements to emphasize difference and variety.
strophic formSong structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem.
variationThe compositional procedure of altering a pre-existing musical idea.
binary formTwo-part (A-B) form with each section normally repeated.
ternary formThree-part (A-B-A) form based on a statement (A), contrast or departure (B), and repetion (A).
themeMelodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition.
thematic developmentMusical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm.
sequenceRestatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level.
motiveShort melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit.
call and responsePerformance style with a singing leader who is imitated by a chorus of followers.
responsorial singingSinging, especially in Gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir.
ostinatoA short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one.
movementComplete, self-contained part within a larger musical work.
movementsIndependent parts of a large-scale work (a symphony, for example) are called:
trueEven when a performer improvises, the basic elements of repetition, contrast, and variation can be heard, true/false?
ostinatoA short, repeated musical pattern used as a structural device in music is known as an:
sequenceWhich term best describes the musical event in which a motive is repeated at a different pitch level?
call and responseA performance practice based on the concept of a singing leader imitated by a chorus of followers is called:
variationA principle of form that is based on repeated alterations of a given melody (but still recognizable) is called:
strophicRepeated music for each stanza of text in a song results in_______ form:
motiveA fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called a:
repetitionIn musical forms __________ fixes the material in the listener's mind and satisfies the need for the familiar.
ternaryWhich form features a statement of an idea, a contrasting idea, then a repetition of the first idea?
themeA ___________can serve as the building block in the construction of a musical work.
binaryThe form in which there is a statement, followed by a departure from that statement, is known as:
improvisedA work that is created spontaneously in performance is called:
truehe basic elements of form are repetition, variation, and contrast, true/false?
tempoRate of speed or pace of music
dynamicsElement of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound.
amplitudeA musical sound is perceived at a certain volume and can be measured according to its
crescendoWhich dynamic marking would indicate to the performer to play gradually louder?
the rate of speedtempo refers to:
accelerandoIf the music is gradually speeding up, the term used to describe this is:
volumeDynamics determine the ______________ at which music is played.
PpPianissimo would be indicated by the abbreviation:
aWhich of the following would indicate a fast tempo? a) vivace b) grave c) andante
diminuendoGradually getting softer in music is best indicated by which term in the score?
fortissimoWhich term indicates that a piece should be performed very loudly?
falseComposers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries used even less expression marks than their predecessors, true/false?
beats per minuteIf a composer wants to indicate tempo precisely, a ____________ indication is given in the score.
aIf a composer wants to indicate despair in a piece of music, which of the following tempos would be appropriate? a) Grave b) pianissimo c) Allegro
bIf a composer wants to indicate excitement in a piece of music, which of the following tempos would be appropriate? a) Forte b) Presto c) Adagio
a tempoReturning to the original tempo after a change in the music is best indicated by what marking in the score?
instrumentMechanism that generates musical vibrations and transmits them into the air.
registerSpecific area in the range of an instrument or voice.
sopranoHighest-ranged voice, normally possessed by women or boys.
mezzo sopranoFemale voice of the middle range.
altoLowest of the female voices
tenorMale voice of high range.
baritoneMale voice of the moderately low range.
basslowest of male voices
vibratoSmall fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intensify a sound.
aerophoneInstruments such as a flute, whistle, or horn that produce sound by usint air as the primary vibrating means.
chordophoneInstrument that produces sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points; the string may be set in motion by bowing, striking, or plucking.
idiophoneInstrument that produces sound from the substance of the instrument itself by being struck, blown, shaken, scraped, or rubbed. Examples inlude bells, rattles, xylophones, and cymbals.
membranophoneAny instrument that produces sound tightly stretched membranes that can be struck, plucked, rubbed, or sung into (setting the skin in vibration).
timbreThe property of sound that gives instruments and voices their unique tone color is:
bWhich of the following is an example of an idiophone? a) accordion b) cymbal c) harp
chordophoneAn instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string is called a:
bWhich is NOT an example of a chordophone? a) koto b) xylophone c) guitar
aerophonesFlutes, whistles, and bagpipes fall into what instrument classification?
trueA specific area within an instrument's range is known as its register, true/false?
membranophoneWhich best describes instruments made with stretched skins?
tenorWhich vocal range was often featured as a soloist part in early opera?
soprano, alto, tenor, basswhat is the correct order of vocal ranges from highest to lowest?
vibratoInstrument builders have sought to replicate the sound of the voice, including its characteristic throbbing, called:
instrumentA mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called a:
soprano and altoIn earlier eras in Western music, young boys were used to sing which vocal ranges?
Instruments are able to create a "throbbing" sound to imitate vocal______.vibrato
The bowed string instrument with the highest range is the:violin
Which instrument derives its name from the Italian word meaning "soft-loud"?piano
Which of the following is the highest-sounding woodwind instrument?piccolo
The "heart of the orchestra" is the:string section
The timpani is a percussion instrument with indefinite pitch. true/false?false
Brass and string instrument players utilize a _____ to muffle the sound produced.mute
All of the following are indefinite pitch percussion instruments, EXCEPT:chimes
Which woodwind instrument is no longer made of wood?flute
Which brass instrument dates back to ancient times and was used for religious ceremonies and military signals?trumpet
The youngest brass player in the Philadelphia Orchestra plays the:tuba
A pizzicato effect is created on a string instrument when:the strings are plucked.
Which of the following is a double-reed instrument?bassoon
Which instrument combines characteristics of both the woodwind and brass families?saxophone
Which brass instrument has a movable slide?trombone
The lowest sounding instrument in the woodwind family is the:contrabassoon
Playing a series of notes smoothly and with connection is called?legato
The sousaphone is the marching-band adaptation of which instrument?tuba
Which of the following is a pitched percussion instrument?xylophone
A rapid alternation between a tone and one adjacent to it is called a:trill
Which keyboard instrument produces sound with quills that pluck metal strings?harpsichord
Playing two notes simultaneously on a violin is called:double-stopping
Which keyboard instrument is also a wind instrument?organ
The term arpeggio, meaning "broken chord," is derived from the name of what instrument?harp
The English horn belongs to the brass family. true/false?false
On bowed string instruments, sliding the left hand along the string while bowing with the right produces a ________ effect.glissando
Which instrument has characteristics of both string and percussion instruments?piano
A piece of music being performed is called a:composition
The makeup of a string quartet is:two violins, a viola, and a cello.
Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is a work based on a dance tune by what composer?Purcell
A woodwind quintet is unusual in thatit includes a brass instrument.
What are the standard voice parts in a choral group arranged from highest to lowest?SATB
Which instrument performers in a symphony orchestra are located furthest from the conductor?percussion
Which performing ensemble would most likely be seen at an outdoor sporting event or parade?marching band
Which of the following would you NOT expect to hear in a jazz band?Oboe
In early times, choral music was often performed a cappella which means:it was performed without instrumental accompaniment.
A smaller specialized vocal ensemble is known as a:choir
A concert band differs from a symphony orchestra in that it lacks a:string section
The first-chair violinist in an orchestra is specifically known as a:concertmaster
The person who writes the musical work is known as acomposer
In Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, the theme is first stated by the entire orchestra and then by the:woodwind section
How many instrumentalists would you expect to find in a chamber group?between two and twelve
When musicians practice before a performance, that event is called a:rehearsal
The final section of Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is a:fugue
The string section makes up less than one half of a symphony orchestra. true/false?false
Which instrument performers in a symphony orchestra sit closest to the conductor?strings
Conductors of large instrumental ensembles use a _______ to help performers keep time.baton
In a conducting pattern, which is the strongest beat in any meter?downbeat
The conductor's role includes interpreting the music for the group.true
A specific area within an instrument's range is known as its register. true/false?true
A mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called a:instrument
Which of the following is an example of an idiophone?cymbal
In earlier eras in Western music, young boys were used to sing which vocal ranges?soprano and alto
Instrument builders have sought to replicate the sound of the voice, including its characteristic throbbing, called:vibrato
Flutes, whistles, and bagpipes fall into what instrument classification?aerophones
Which is NOT an example of a chordophone?xylophone
The property of sound that gives instruments and voices their unique tone color is:timbre
Which of the following terms best describes instruments made with stretched skins?membranophone
Which vocal range was often featured as a soloist part in early opera?tenor
Which of the following shows the correct order of vocal ranges from highest to lowest?soprano, alto, tenor, bass
An instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string is called achordophone
a consonance
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