independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

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In a typical angiosperm, what is the sequence of structures encountered by the tip of a growing pollen tube on its way to the egg? 1. micropyle 2. style 3. ovary 4. stigma 1 3 4 2 4 ? 2 3 1 3 2 4 1 4 3 2 14 ? 2 3 1
If an ovary contains 50 ovules, what is the minimum number of pollen grains that must land to form 50 mature seeds? 100 50 500 2550
Double fertilization means that _____. a) every sperm has two nuclei b) the egg of the embryo sac is dploid c) flowers must be pollinated twice to yield fruits and seeds d) one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nucleione sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei
What is typically the result of double fertilization in angiosperms? Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed. Two embryos develop in every seed. The endosperm develops into a diploid nutrient tissue. A triploid zygote is formed.Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.
Suppose that 100 pollen grains land on a stigma, and 50 mature seeds are formed in the fruit. What does this indicate about the pollination process and success? 50% success: 100 pollen grains grew to 50 ovules, and double fertilization occurred. 50% success: 50 sperm fertilized 50 eggs, and 50 sperm fused with 100 polar nuclei. 50% success: evidently, only 50 sperm pollinated 50 anthers. 50% success: 50 sperm fertilized 50 eggs, and 50 sperm fused with 50 polar nuclei.50% success: 50 sperm fertilized 50 eggs, and 50 sperm fused with 100 polar nuclei.
Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed? ovary stamen ovule carpelovule
The vast number and variety of flower species is probably related to various kinds of _____. seed dispersal agents climatic conditions pollinators herbivorespollinators
It is estimated that animal-pollinated or insect-pollinated plants produce 1000 pollen grains for each ovule; wind-pollinated plants produce 1,000,000 pollen grains for each ovule. What does that indicate about pollination systems?Wind pollination is less efficient than animal-assisted pollination.
Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction? Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction? In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit half of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring. In asexual reproduction, offspring are produced by fertilization without meiosis. Asexual reproduction produces only haploid offspring. Asexual reproduction, but not sexual reproduction, is characteristic of plants and fungi.In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit half of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring.
At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?metaphase
Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16? Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16? A gamete from this species has four chromosomes. Each diploid cell has eight homologous pairs. The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell. The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.Each diploid cell has eight homologous pairs.
Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common? I. Alternation of generations II. Meiosis III. Fertilization IV. Gametes V. SporesII, III, and IV
In a plant's sexual life cycle _____. In a plant's sexual life cycle _____. sporophytes produce gametes by mitosis gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis gametophytes produce gametes by meiosis sporophytes produce gametes by meiosisgametophytes produce gametes by mitosis
Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations? Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations? A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte). A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization, which is immediately followed by meiosis. A diploid animal produces gametes by meiosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization to produce a diploid zygote. A grandparent and grandchild each have dark hair, but the parent has blond hair.A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).
A given organism has 23 pairs of homologs in its karyotype. Therefore, we can conclude that it must _____. A given organism has 23 pairs of homologs in its karyotype. Therefore, we can conclude that it must _____. have gametes with 23 chromosomes reproduce sexually be human be an animalhave gametes with 23 chromosomes
A triploid cell contains sets of three homologous chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following? A triploid cell contains sets of three homologous chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following? 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes 63 chromosomes, each with three chromatids 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3 63 chromosomes in pairs63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3
Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45 chromosomes? Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45 chromosomes? failure of an egg to complete meiosis II incomplete cytokinesis during spermatogenesis after meiosis I an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase failure of the egg nucleus to be fertilized by the sperman error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase
In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common? In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common? length and position of the centromere only length, centromere position, and staining pattern only length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes They have nothing in common except that they are X-shaped.length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes
Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure below to answer the following question. Which of the life cycles is typical for animals? Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure below to answer the following question. Which of the life cycles is typical for animals? II only III only I only I and IIII only
Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure below to answer the following question. In a life cycle such as that shown in part III of the figure above, if the zygote's chromosome number is 10, which of the following will be true? Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure below to answer the following question. In a life cycle such as that shown in part III of the figure above, if the zygote's chromosome number is 10, which of the following will be true? The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 5 and the gametophyte's is 10. The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 10 chromosomes per cell. The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5. The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 5 chromosomes per cell.The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.
Homologous chromosomes _____. Homologous chromosomes _____. carry the same alleles carry information for the same traits are identical align on the metaphase plate in meiosis IIcarry information for the same traits
If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for those organisms that spend most of their life cycle in the diploid state? If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for those organisms that spend most of their life cycle in the diploid state? fertilization synapsis DNA replication reverse transcriptionfertilization
The human X and Y chromosomes _____. The human X and Y chromosomes _____. are the same size and have the same number of genes are called autosomes include genes that determine an individual's sex are both present in every somatic cell of males and femalesinclude genes that determine an individual's sex
Which of these is a karyotype? Which of these is a karyotype? a display of a cells mitotic stages a display of all of the cell types in an organism organized images of a cells chromosomes the appearance of an organismorganized images of a cells chromosomes
If a cell has completed meiosis I and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents? If a cell has completed meiosis I and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents? It is identical in content to another cell formed from the same meiosis I event. It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis. It has one-fourth the DNA and one-half the chromosomes as the originating cell. It has half the chromosomes but twice the DNA of the originating cell.It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.
The somatic cells of a privet shrub each contain 46 chromosomes. How do privet chromosomes differ from the chromosomes of humans ,who also have 46? The somatic cells of a privet shrub each contain 46 chromosomes. How do privet chromosomes differ from the chromosomes of humans ,who also have 46? Genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different than those in humans. Privet shrubs must be metabolically more like animals than like other shrubs. Privet cells cannot reproduce sexually. Privet sex cells have chromosomes that can synapse with human chromosomes in the laboratory.Genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different than those in humans.
After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is _____. After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is _____. diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatidhaploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that are in prophase of meiosis I? They have _____. How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that are in prophase of meiosis I? They have _____. half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA. half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.
Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I? Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I? Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other. The chromosome number per cell remains the same. Four daughter cells are formed. Sister chromatids are separated.Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other.
Sister chromatids separate from each other during _____. Sister chromatids separate from each other during _____. meiosis II only mitosis and meiosis II mitosis and meiosis I meiosis I onlymitosis and meiosis II
Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis? Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis? alignment of chromosomes at the equator condensation of chromosomes synapsis of chromosomes chromosome replicationsynapsis of chromosomes
When we first see chiasmata under a microscope, we know that _____. When we first see chiasmata under a microscope, we know that _____. separation of homologs has occurred anaphase II has occurred prophase I is occurring meiosis II has occurredprophase I is occurring
For the following question, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below. I. Prophase I V. Prophase II II. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase II III. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase II IV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II Homologous chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle. VI II IVII
For the following question, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below. I. Prophase I V. Prophase II II. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase II III. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase II IV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II Homologous chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle. VI II IVVII
Somatic cells of roundworms have four individual chromosomes per cell. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in an ovum from a roundworm? Somatic cells of roundworms have four individual chromosomes per cell. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in an ovum from a roundworm? eight four a diploid number twotwo
Which of the following can occur by the process of meiosis but not mitosis? Which of the following can occur by the process of meiosis but not mitosis? A diploid cell combines with a haploid cell. Diploid cells form haploid cells. Haploid cells fuse to form diploid cells. Haploid cells multiply into more haploid cells.Diploid cells form haploid cells.
In meiosis, homologous chromosomes are separated during _____. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes are separated during _____. anaphase I anaphase II prophase I mitosisanaphase I
What is a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis in animals? What is a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis in animals? Crossover takes place in meiosis II. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, and homologues separate in meiosis II. Homologues align on the metaphase plate in meiosis II. Meiosis II occurs only in haploid cells, while mitosis occurs only in diploid cells.Meiosis II occurs only in haploid cells, while mitosis occurs only in diploid cells
What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I in a diploid organism? What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I in a diploid organism? Only meiosis I results in daughter cells that contain identical genetic information. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis II. DNA replication takes place prior to mitosis, but not before meiosis I.Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I.
Crossing over normally takes place during which of the following processes? Crossing over normally takes place during which of the following processes? mitosis and meiosis II meiosis I meiosis II mitosismeiosis I
For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome _____. For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome _____. consists of a single strand of DNA is joined with its homologous pair to form a synaptonemal complex is paired with a homologous chromosome consists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromereconsists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromere
Homologous pairs of chromosomes align opposite of each other at the equator of a cell during _____. Homologous pairs of chromosomes align opposite of each other at the equator of a cell during _____. meiosis telophase II meiosis metaphase I mitosis metaphase meiosis metaphase IImeiosis metaphase I
Centromeres split and sister chromatids migrate to opposite poles in meiosis _____. Centromeres split and sister chromatids migrate to opposite poles in meiosis _____. anaphase I anaphase II telophase II telophase Ianaphase II
Quaking aspen can send out underground stems for asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is not as common, but when it does happen, the haploid gametes have 19 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the cells of the underground stems?38
In eukaryotes, genetic information is passed to the next generation by processes that include mitosis or meiosis. Which of the explanations identifies the correct process and supports the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another? In eukaryotes, genetic information is passed to the next generation by processes that include mitosis or meiosis. Which of the explanations identifies the correct process and supports the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another? Single-celled organisms can fuse their cells, reproducing asexually through mitosis to form new cells that are not identical to the parent cell. In asexual reproduction, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes. During mitosis, DNA replication occurs twice within the cell cycle to insure a full set of chromosomes within each of the daughter cells produced. Mitosis, followed by cytokinesis, produces daughter cells that are genetically different from the parent cell, thus insuring variation within the population.In asexual reproduction, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs during _____. Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs during _____. mitosis and meiosis II meiosis I only meiosis II only mitosis and meiosis Imeiosis I only
For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes? For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes? 46 23 about 1000 about 8 million8 million
Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of _____. Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of _____. the random combinations of eggs and sperm during fertilization the random way each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I the random distribution of the sister chromatids to the two daughter cells during anaphase II the diverse combination of alleles that may be found within any given chromosomethe random way each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I
When homologous chromosomes cross over, what occurs? When homologous chromosomes cross over, what occurs? Corresponding segments of non-sister chromatids are exchanged. Two sister chromatids exchange identical pieces of DNA. Maternal alleles are "corrected" to be like paternal alleles and vice versa. Two chromatids get tangled, resulting in one re-sequencing its DNA.Corresponding segments of non-sister chromatids are exchanged.
How is natural selection related to sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction? How is natural selection related to sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction? Sexual reproduction utilizes far less energy than asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction results in the greatest number of new mutations. Sexual reproduction results in many new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction. Sexual reproduction allows the greatest number of offspring to be produced.Sexual reproduction results in many new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction.
The diploid number of a roundworm species is 4. Assuming there is no crossover, and random segregation of homologues during meiosis, how many different possible combinations of chromosomes might there be in the offspring (not including variety generated by crossing over)? The diploid number of a roundworm species is 4. Assuming there is no crossover, and random segregation of homologues during meiosis, how many different possible combinations of chromosomes might there be in the offspring (not including variety generated by crossing over)? 4 16 8 6416
The bulldog ant has a diploid number of two chromosomes. Therefore, following meiosis, each daughter cell will have a single chromosome. Diversity in this species may be generated by mutations and _____. The bulldog ant has a diploid number of two chromosomes. Therefore, following meiosis, each daughter cell will have a single chromosome. Diversity in this species may be generated by mutations and _____. crossing over and independent assortment nothing else independent assortment crossing overcrossing over and independent assortment
The fastest way for organisms to adapt to a changing environment involves _____. asexual reproduction mutation sexual reproductionsexual reproduction
Imagine that there are twenty-five different species of protists living in a tide pool. Some of these species reproduce both sexually and asexually, and some of them can reproduce only asexually. The pool gradually becomes infested with disease-causing viruses and bacteria. Which species are more likely to thrive in the changing environment? Sexually and asexually reproducing species are equally likely to thrive. the sexually reproducing species the asexually reproducing speciesthe sexually reproducing species
Genetic variation leads to genetic diversity in populations and is the raw material for evolution. Biological systems have multiple processes, such as reproduction, that affect genetic variation. They are evolutionarily conserved and shared by various organisms. Which statement best represents the connection between reproduction and evolution? In order to increase genetic diversity for evolution in sexually reproducing organisms, mutations must occur in the zygote after fertilization. Plants that use sexual reproduction are rare since this type of reproduction in plants does not contribute to genetic diversity. Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation because random mutations can be shuffled between organisms. Since prokaryotic organisms reproduce asexually, there is no mechanism for them to add genetic diversity for evolution.Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation because random mutations can be shuffled between organisms.
independent assortment
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