research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of


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Which of the following is a general feature of a vitamin? a. It is inorganic b. It may contain nitrogen c. It may be required in large amounts d. It may support growth but not maintenanceb
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins? a. Many serve in the role of enzyme inhibitors b. Structurally, many are found linked together c. Several may be oxidized to yield 4 kcalories per gram d. The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligramsd
What is a precursor? a. A conditionally essential vitamin b. A sign or symptom of a vitamin deficiency disorder c. A substance that is used to synthesize another compound d. A substance that is recycled through the liver and intestinesc
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food? a. The total amount available from plant and animal food b. The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body c. The amount that escapes destruction from food processing d. The number of different chemical forms of the same vitaminb
Which of the following is NOT among the general characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins? a. They must be consumed daily b. Toxic levels in the body are rarely found c. They are absorbed directly into the blood d. Excesses are eliminated by the kidneysa
Which of the following is NOT among the general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins? a. Excesses are eliminated by the kidneys b. Absorption is via the lymphatic circulation c. Several of them require protein carriers for transport d. They can be stored in relatively large amounts in certain body tissuesa
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect its content of a. folate. b. thiamin. c. vitamin A. d. riboflavin.c
What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins? a. Bile b. Kidney c. Intestine d. Perspirationb
Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk? a. Thiamin b. Vitamin A c. Riboflavin d. Vitamin B12b
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess? a. Not absorbed b. Excreted primarily in the urine c. Excreted primarily in the feces d. Stored in liver, bone, and adipose tissueb
What is a chief function of the B vitamins? a. Antioxidation b. Anticoagulation c. Antibody stabilization d. Coenzyme participationd
Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy? a. B vitamins are a source of kilocalories b. Absorption of carbohydrates and fats is decreased c. Oxygen for energy metabolism cannot be transported to the cells d. Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amountsd
Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme? a. Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme b. Attaches to cell membranes to assist in uptake of an enzyme c. Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place d. Attaches to an enzyme, which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulation Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme? a. Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme b. Attaches to cell membranes to assist in uptake of an enzyme c. Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place d. Attaches to an enzyme, which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulationc
Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin? a. Blood coagulation b. Formation of red blood cells c. Energy release from energy-yielding nutrients d. Formation of epithelial cell mucopolysaccharidesc
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme? a. Transfers amine groups in the synthesis of amino acids b. Transfers hydrogen atoms in the synthesis of erythrocytes c. Assists in addition of methyl groups to compounds involved in energy metabolism d. Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolismd
Which of the following is the coenzyme form of thiamin? a. Thiaminacide b. Thiamin pyrophosphate c. Thiamin adenine dinucleotide d. Thiamin flavin mononucleotideb
Beriberi results from a deficiency of a. niacin. b. thiamin. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin B12b
Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi? a. High intakes of white rice b. Low intakes of whole grains c. High intakes of unrefined rice d. Low intakes of enriched grainsa
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of a. folacin. b. thiamin. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin B12.b
Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition? a. The coenzyme contains pyrosulfate b. It is required for regeneration of folate c. It is required for regeneration of niacin d. It is an integral part of the nerve cell membraned
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency? a. 20 b. 40 c. 60 d. 80d
All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition EXCEPT a. severe deficiency may lead to edema. b. severe deficiency may occur without edema. c. recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents." d. recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity.c
Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size? a. Ham b. Squash c. Whole milk d. Whole-grain breadsa
Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition? a. Participates in activation of prothrombin b. Poor sources include seafood and cheeses c. Significant amounts are found in leafy vegetables d. Deficiency results in cheilosis and marked dermatitisb
How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability? a. Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin b. Prolonged heating of the food has little, if any, effect on the thiamin c. Boiling the food tends to conserve thiamin by forming a stable, hydrated complex d. Steaming the food can lead to substantial thiamin loss due to the high heat needed to form the steama
Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue? a. Pig b. Fish c. Steer d. Chickena
Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin? a. Lettuce b. Soy milk c. Cow milk d. Refined riceb
Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of a. methyl groups. b. 1-carbon units. c. 2-carbon units. d. hydrogen atoms.d
Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions? a. Biotin b. Cobalamin c. Riboflavin d. Pyridoxinec
Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin? a. Beriberi b. Diarrhea c. Keratomalacia d. Inflamed mouth membranesd
Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie? a. Dairy b. Meats c. Fruits d. Vegetablesd
What is ariboflavonosis? a. The vitamin B2 deficiency disease b. Food sources devoid of vitamin B2 c. Ultraviolet destruction of vitamin B2 d. Excessive heat destruction of vitamin B2a
The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as a. pellagra. b. antiflavonosis. c. ariboflavinosis. d. flavin adenine dinucleosis.c
Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in a. meats. b. grains. c. vegetables. d. dairy foodsd
Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to a. heat. b. acid. c. alkali. d. ultraviolet light.d
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk? a. Airtight b. Cardboard c. Transparent glass d. Translucent plasticb
The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin? a. Niacin b. Choline c. Thiamin d. Riboflavind
Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake? a. Milk b. Potatoes c. Orange juice d. Peanut buttera
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins? a. Folate b. Biotin c. Riboflavin d. Pantothenic acidc
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth? a. Biotin b. Niacin c. Riboflavin d. Ascorbic acidc
Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition? a. Stability to heat is good b. Deficiency leads to beriberi c. Requirements are proportional to body weight d. Significant amounts are found in citrus productsa
Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition? a. It is susceptible to destruction in foods exposed to light b. It participates primarily in reactions involving amino acids c. It is soluble in both water and lipids depending upon its chemical form d. It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophand
Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes? a. Unstable to irradiation b. Unstable to metal cooking utensils c. Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms d. Acceptance and transfer of carboxyl groupsc
When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin? a. Lysine b. Valine c. Tryptophan d. Phenylalaninec
Which of the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun? a. Niacin b. Choline c. Inositol d. Riboflavina
The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means a. "rough skin." b. "paralyzed limbs." c. "demented behavior." d. "flattened erythrocytes."a
A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin? a. Niacin b. Thiamin c. Vitamin C d. Vitamin B12a
What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein? a. Scurvy b. Pellagra c. Wet beriberi d. Pernicious anemiab
Which of the following is NOT among the common signs of pellagra? a. Diarrhea b. Dementia c. Dermatitis d. Desiccationd
A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems EXCEPT a. skin. b. skeletal system. c. nervous system. d. gastrointestinal tract.b
Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize a. FAD. b. biotin. c. niacin. d. inositol.c
While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of a. scurvy. b. cancer. c. pellagra. d. beriberi.c
Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of pellagra? a. Avidin b. Leucine c. Phytates d. Phenylalanineb
What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid? a. Niacin flush b. NAD dermatitis c. Niacin erythrema d. Bilateral symmetrical dermatitisa
Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid? a. Constipation b. Mental confusion c. Painful, tingling, itching sensation d. Hair loss, bloating, and photophobiac
When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury? a. Niacin b. Thiamin c. Vitamin B6 d. Vitamin B12a
Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following EXCEPT a. dilation of capillaries. b. increased HDL cholesterol. c. lowering of LDL cholesterol. d. disappearance of learning disorders in children.d
Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition? a. Low doses may lead to kidney stones b. High doses may lower blood cholesterol c. Low doses may lead to heartburn and low blood pressure d. High doses may elevate red blood cell count in mildly anemic individualsb
Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor, who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin B toxicity. However, she doesn't recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms? a. Niacin b. Biotin c. Riboflavin d. Vitamin B12a
What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults? a. 15 mg niacin equivalents b. 30 mg niacin equivalents c. 15 mg tryptophan equivalents d. 30 mg tryptophan equivalentsa
Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents? a. Milk b. Broccoli c. Chicken d. Strawberriesc
Which of the following is a characteristic of niacin nutrition? a. In foods, it is more unstable than thiamin and riboflavin b. The average intake is slightly lower than the RDA in the United States c. The amount in a serving of whole-wheat bread is about twice that in a serving of peanut butter d. About half of the daily need for most people could be met by the tryptophan found in protein foodsd
Which of the following is a feature of pantothenic acid in nutrition? a. Absorption from foods is inhibited by aspirin b. A deficiency or a toxicity shows similar symptoms c. Deficiencies are seen primarily in children ages 4-10 years d. It functions in the metabolism of amino acids, glucose, and fatty acidsd
Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should NOT a. be concerned as long as he consumes both the yolk and whites of the eggs. b. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to niacin and prevent its absorption. c. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to biotin and prevent its absorption. d. be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.d
Which of the following is NOT among the general features of biotin in nutrition? a. It functions in the breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids b. It functions as a carrier of carbon dioxide in energy metabolism c. A deficiency can be induced by ingesting large quantities of raw egg whites d. A deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorptiond
Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings? a. Biotin b. Inositol c. Lipoic acid d. Orotic acida
Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin? a. Aged wine b. Aged cheese c. Raw egg whites d. Raw cauliflowerc
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized in significant amounts by intestinal bacteria? a. Folate b. Biotin c. Cyanocobalamin d. Pantothenic acidb
Biotin can be synthesized by a. avidin. b. the skin. c. the liver. d. intestinal bacteria.d
What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin? a. 3 g/day b. 30 g/day c. 3 mg/day d. 30 mg/dayb
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A? a. Biotin b. Folate c. Riboflavin d. Pantothenic acidd
What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults? a. 1 mg/day b. 3 mg/day c. 5 mg/day d. 8 mg/dayc
Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food? a. Biotin b. Niacin c. Vitamin B12 d. Pantothenic acidd
Which of the following is NOT a form of vitamin B6? a. Pyridoxal b. Pyridoxine c. Pyrimidine d. Pyridoxaminec
Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue? a. Biotin b. Folate c. Vitamin B6 d. Pantothenic acidc
The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include a. confusion and depression. b. muscle cramps and stiffness. c. profound fatigue and anemia. d. hyperactivity and shortness of breath.a
What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism? a. Biotin b. Vitamin A c. Vitamin B6 d. Riboflavinc
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition? a. It is stored in muscle tissue b. It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure c. It can lead to irreversible nerve damage when taken in large doses d. It functions, in part, in the synthesis of glycine and glutamic acidb
All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism EXCEPT a. a deficiency or toxicity leads to depression. b. its destruction and excretion are promoted by alcohol intake. c. it functions primarily as the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. d. it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of l mg/g of dietary protein.d
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin B6? a. 100 mg/day b. 500 mg/day c. 1000 mg/day d. 10,000 mg/daya
A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin a. B6. b. B12. c. C. d. D.a
Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of vitamin a. B1. b. B2. c. B6. d. B12.c
Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity? a. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible b. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin C include constipation and hyperactivity c. Toxicities of the B vitamins occur almost as often from foods as from supplements d. Toxicity of niacin has been reported in body builders taking large amounts of amino acid supplementsa
In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism? a. It reduces acetaldehyde formation b. It increases fecal excretion of the vitamin c. It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme d. It interferes with synthesis of the PLP coenzymec
What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6? a. 1.3 mg/day b. 5.5 mg/day c. 15 mg/day d. 22 mg/daya
On a per-kcalorie basis, which of the following foods is richest in vitamin B6? a. Meats b. Fruits c. Legumes d. Grainsb
Which of the following is an essential dietary nutrient for human beings? a. Folate b. Inositol c. Methoxatin d. Lipoic acida
Pteroylglutamic acid is known as a. folate. b. choline. c. inositol. d. pyridoxamine.a
Which of the following is NOT among the properties of folate in nutrition? a. It is needed for proper functioning of vitamin B12 b. It functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups c. The coenzyme of folate requires vitamin B12 to function properly d. It requires enzymes on the intestinal mucosa to enhance its absorption from most foodsb
Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate? a. Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis b. Both require intrinsic factors for their release from food proteins c. Both are found in significant amounts in green leafy vegetables d. Both are considered problem nutrients for strict vegetariansa
Which of the following vitamins undergoes significant enterohepatic circulation? a. Folate b. Niacin c. Thiamin d. Pyridoxinea
Which of the following vitamins is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more glutamic acid molecules in food? a. Folate b. Thiamin c. Vitamin B6 d. Ascorbic acida
A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of a. folate. b. niacin. c. riboflavin. d. ascorbic acid.a
Which of the following is NOT a feature of folate nutrition? a. Most food folate is bound to a string of amino acids b. Folate is actively secreted back into the GI tract with bile c. Food folate must be hydrolyzed by intestinal cell enzymes prior to absorption d. Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membraned
What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency? a. Insufficient bile production, thereby promoting fat malabsorption and diarrhea b. Reduced mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning c. Decreased enzymatic capacity in the intestines, thereby resulting in malabsorption d. Decreased oxygen supply to body tissues, with the intestines being particularly affected because of their high metabolic activityb
Approximately what percentage of naturally occurring dietary folate is bioavailable? a. 10 b. 25 c. 50 d. 80c
The percent bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is a. 5. b. 25. c. 50. d. 100.d
How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 g of a folate supplement? a. 50 b. 70 c. 133 d. 170d
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of a. niacin. b. folate. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin B12.b
Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect? a. Scurvy b. Beriberi c. Pellagra d. Spina bifidad
Which of the following is true regarding B vitamins and homocysteine metabolism? a. Folate catabolyzes homocysteine b. Biotin supplements reduce blood homocysteine levels c. Excessive homocysteine intake reduces vitamin B12 absorption d. High blood homocysteine levels correlate with reduced incidence of colon cancera
Methylcobalamin is a coenzyme form of a. vitamin B1. b. vitamin B6. c. vitamin B12. d. niacinc
What vitamin contains cobalt? a. A b. B6 c. B12 d. Pantothenic acidc
Which of the following is a feature of folate nutrition? a. The coenzyme form is FAD b. Dairy foods are a poor source of folate except for goat's milk c. Insufficient folate intake results in deficiency of homocysteine d. Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folated
By law, what amount of folate (g) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice? a. 0 b. 5 c. 50 d. 140d
Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake. She is eating foods high in folate as well as taking folate supplements, and she is having a hard time determining how many dietary folate equivalents she is consuming. Below is a list of her daily intake with respect to folate: 1/2 cup of cooked lentils (180 g food folate) 1/2 cup of fresh orange juice (60 g food folate) folate supplement (200 g) How many DFEs is Nicole consuming? a. 440 b. 480 c. 540 d. 580d
. Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to a. 400 g. b. 600 g. c. 1,000 g. d. 2,000 g.c
A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood? a. Folate b. Biotin c. Niacin d. Vitamin Ka
The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of a. folate. b. niacin. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin B6.a
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells? a. Folate b. Niacin c. Thiamin d. Riboflavina
Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization? a. Insulin b. Calcium supplements c. Regular use of antacids d. Vitamin B12 supplementsc
Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods? a. Good sources are dairy products and meats b. Poor sources are fruit juices and vegetable juices c. Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation d. Only about 10% of the amount in foods is bioavailablec
Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status? a. Sedentary lifestyle b. Some anticancer drugs c. Excess protein intake d. Insufficient fiber intakeb
Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for a. biotin. b. folate. c. riboflavin. d. pantothenic acid.b
Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate? a. Hemolysis b. Hypoxemia c. Hemolytic anemia d. Macrocytic anemiad
Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed a. soy milk. b. goat's milk. c. chicken liver. d. infant formula.b
Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs? a. Folate b. Niacin c. Vitamin B6 d. Vitamin B12a
What is the RDA for folate for a woman weighing 132 pounds? a. 180 g/day b. 220 g/day c. 242 g/day d. 400 g/dayd
What is the adult RDA for folate (g/day)? a. 100 b. 200 c. 400 d. 800c
Which of the following foods is highest in folate? a. Meats b. Starches c. Dairy products d. Green, leafy vegetablesd
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12? a. Bile b. Lipase c. Intrinsic factor d. Carboxypeptidasec
Which of the following is NOT among the factors required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12? a. Pepsin b. Intrinsic factor c. Hydrochloric acid d. Mucosal cobalaminased
What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption? a. It catalyzes release of the vitamin from its protein-bound form b. It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the small intestine c. It acts as a storage protein for the vitamin within the intestinal epithelial cells d. It acts as a cofactor for mucosal enzymes involved in absorption of the vitaminb
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency? a. Inadequate intake b. Increased excretion c. Inadequate absorption d. Increased losses in food preparationc
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of a. folate. b. selenium. c. vitamin B12. d. iron and copper.c
The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of a. folate. b. vitamin B1. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin B12d
The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis? a. Choline b. Vitamin C c. Vitamin B12 d. Pantothenic acidc
Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12? a. It is efficiently recycled by the body b. It is necessary for protection from pinpoint hemorrhages c. It requires attachment to fatty acids for transport in the circulation d. It is absorbed from the stomach with the aid of a special binding proteina
A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either a. riboflavin or niacin. b. vitamin B12 or folate. c. thiamin or riboflavin. d. vitamin B6 or vitamin B12.b
Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption? a. Injection of cobalamin b. Topical administration of liver extract c. Oral supplements of B-vitamin complex d. A diet high in liver and green, leafy vegetablesa
If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for a. folate. b. vitamin C. c. vitamin B1. d. vitamin B12.d
Normally, the body's storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or secondary deficiency from occurring until after about a. 3 days. b. 3 weeks. c. 3 months. d. 3 years.d
In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop? a. One month b. Six months c. One year d. Three yearsd
Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and a. ariboflavonosis. b. lack of hydrochloric acid. c. lack of pancreatic vitaminases. d. pharmacologic intakes of folate.b
Which of the following is NOT known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic gastritis? a. Age over 50 yrs b. Iron deficiency c. Helicobacter pylori infection d. Avoidance of leafy vegetablesd
Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for a. biotin. b. thiamin. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin B12d
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition? a. Deficiencies lead to "wet" beriberi b. Even marginal deficiency impairs cognitive function c. Excess intake leads to loss of appetite and constipation d. Severe deficiency is characterized chiefly by free-radical damageb
Why are fermented soy products, sea algae, and most nutritional yeast products poor sources of vitamin B12? a. The vitamin is not in a bioavailable form b. These foods contain high amounts of antiintrinsic factor c. The vitamin is readily destroyed by the presence of microbes d. These foods contain high levels of folate, which inhibits B12 absorptiona
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 bioavailability? a. Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable b. Fermented soy products are optimal sources of the vitamin c. Yeast consumed by vegans is a good source of the vitamin d. Sea algae such as spirulina contain vitamin B12 that is about 50% availablea
Why are strict vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency? a. Vegetarian diets inhibit absorption of the vitamin b. Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin c. The fiber content of vegetarian diets causes decreased storage by the liver d. The fiber content of vegetarian diets causes increased excretion of the vitaminb
Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12? a. Pecans b. Hot dog c. Cauliflower d. Whole-grain breadb
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12 nutrition? a. Toxicity symptoms are serious and irreversible b. Units in food are expressed as cobalamin equivalents c. It is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave d. Bioavailable amounts are found in fermented soy productsc
The adult RDA for vitamin B12 (g/day) is a. 0.5. b. 1.25. c. 2.4. d. 4.0.c
Which of the following vitamins has an RDA? a. Biotin b. Choline c. Cobalamin d. Pantothenic acidc
Which of the following is a feature of choline in nutrition? a. It is an analog of ascorbic acid b. It is abundant in green leafy vegetables c. The body can synthesize it from cysteine d. Average intakes in the United States are lower than recommendedd
Which of the following nutrients is synthesized in significant amounts in the body? a. Choline b. Thiamine c. Ascorbic acid d. Pantothenic acida
Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body? a. Carnitine b. Orotic acid c. Methoxantin d. Pangamic acida
Which of the following is NOT known to be required in the diet of human beings? a. Folic acid b. Lipoic acid c. Ascorbic acid d. Pantothenic acidb
Which of the following is NOT known to be a vitamin for human beings? a. Cobalamin b. Ubiquinone c. Pyridoxine d. Pantothenic acidb
Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins? a. Bones b. Tongue c. Eyesight d. Hair and nailsb
Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency? a. Anemia b. Smooth tongue c. Abnormal liver function d. Abnormal heart functionb
Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate? a. Required for glycolysis b. Consumption prevents anemia c. Required in microgram quantities d. Found in citrus products and legumesb
What is a free radical? a. An inactive vitamin b. An unphosphorylated vitamin c. A molecule of unbound cobalamins d. A molecule with at least one unpaired electrond
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C? a. Antiviral agent b. Antifungal agent c. Anticancer agent d. Antioxidant agentd
In what capacity does vitamin C function? a. Coenzyme for energy release b. Cofactor in collagen formation c. Cofactor with calcium in blood coagulation d. Coenzyme in the formation of red blood cellsb
The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is a. keratin. b. albumin. c. collagen. d. hydroxyproline.c
The synthesis of collagen requires both vitamin C and a. iron. b. zinc. c. cobalamin. d. beta-carotene.a
What organ stores the highest concentration of vitamin C? a. Liver b. Muscle c. Thyroid gland d. Adrenal glandsd
Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C supplementation on the resistance to, and recovery from, colds? a. There was a reduction in the duration of colds by 50% on the average b. There was only a minor effect on reducing the number and severity of colds c. There was a consistent reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least 200 mg a day d. There was a significant reduction in the number of colds only in people who consumed more than three grams per dayc
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold? a. They deactivate histamine b. They reduce episodes of diarrhea c. They destroy intestinal pathogens d. They alter hypothalamic control of body temperaturea
Which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion? a. Niacin b. Vitamin E c. Vitamin C d. Vitamin B12c
What is the minimum daily amount of ascorbic acid that will prevent the appearance of scorbutic symptoms in human beings? a. 10 mg b. 30 mg c. 50 mg d. 60 mga
How much vitamin C is needed daily to raise blood ascorbic acid concentrations to a maximum? a. 10 mg b. 75 mg c. 125 mg d. 200 mgd
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency? a. Bleeding gums b. Pernicious anemia c. Appearance of a cold d. Hysteria and depressiona
In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C? a. 10-20 mg b. 50-60 mg c. 75-90 mg d. 100-135 mgc
People who smoke require additional vitamin C in the amount of a. 5 mg. b. 35 mg. c. 100 mg. d. 200 mg.b
Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C? a. Hair loss b. Muscle spasms c. Bilateral symmetrical dermatitis d. Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhagesd
People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking supplements of a. niacin. b. retinol. c. cobalamin. d. ascorbic acid.d
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin C in the body? a. Severe deficiency is irreversible b. Low levels are found in people who chew tobacco c. Extremes of physical stress impair mobilization of vitamin C d. Severe deficiency signs become apparent when blood levels fall by about 20%b
Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics of vitamin C? a. Easily degraded by heat b. Easily degraded by oxygen c. With moderate intake it acts chiefly as a prooxidant d. Adequate amounts are contained in breast milk but not cow's milkc
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C? a. Milk group b. Meat group c. Fruit group d. Grains groupc
What term is used to describe the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently shows that you have mononucleosis when in reality you do not? a. True positive b. True negative c. False positive d. False negativec
What term describes the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently indicates that you do not have an infection when in reality you do? a. True positive b. True negative c. False positive d. False negatived
John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you recommend? a. Liver, yogurt, milk b. Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries c. Banana, peanut butter, canned tuna fish d. Whole grains, pork, fortified corn flakesb
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C? a. Tofu b. Yogurt c. Legumes d. Broccolid
Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C? a. Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea b. Hot dog, cabbage, french fries, and milk c. Roast beef, broccoli, noodles, and coffee d. Spaghetti with tomato sauce, meatball, garlic bread, and red winea
Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian? a. Milk b. Eggs c. Broccoli d. Whole-grain breadc
All of the following are consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements EXCEPT a. they frequently cause diarrhea. b. they appear safe at levels up to 2000 mg/day. c. they enhance the action of anticlotting medications. d. they interfere with laboratory urine tests for the diagnosis of diabetes.c
Moderate intakes of which of the following would provide sufficient amounts of vitamin C? a. Potatoes b. Brown rice c. Low-fat milk d. Whole-wheat breada
What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite its modest vitamin C concentration? a. Potatoes b. Organ meats c. Breaded fish d. Whole-grain cerealsa
Which of the following would be the poorest dietary source of vitamin C? a. Liver b. Potatoes c. Whole grains d. Cruciferous vegetablesc
A vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that is a. 50% of the Daily Value. b. equal to the UL. c. up to 200% of the Daily Value. d. 100% or more of the Daily Value.d
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population takes a dietary supplement regularly? a. 5 b. 33 c. 50 d. 80c
The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following EXCEPT a. vitamin toxicity. b. the taker may ignore warning signs of a disease. c. the taker may feel a false sense of security and consume a poor diet. d. pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection.d
Which of the following statements is representative of vitamin supplementation practices? a. Most people who take supplements consume a poor diet b. Most people should take supplements daily because of the great difficulty in obtaining the needed amounts from food c. People who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation d. People should take supplements daily because nutrition surveys in the U.S. and Canada have detected deficiencies in some population groupsc
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of a. vitamin A. b. vitamin B6. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin D.d
Those groups of people who are at risk for developing marginal nutrient deficiencies and may benefit from taking vitamin supplements include all of the following EXCEPT a. vegans. b. food faddists. c. athletes who are engaged in intense competitive events. d. people with low energy intakes, such as habitual dieters and the elderly.c
Which of the following is NOT among the common effects from ingesting a mild iron overdose? a. Nausea b. GI distress c. Black tongue d. Black diarrheac
Why shouldn't vitamin E supplements be taken for at least one week before surgery? a. Vitamin E interferes with barbiturate pain medications b. The antioxidant activity affects stability of most anesthetic agents c. Vitamin E acts as a blood thinner and could lead to excessive bleeding d. The antioxidant activity interferes with synthesis of replacement erythrocytesc
Which of the following is a feature of nutrient intakes and supplement use in the United States? a. Few people ingest the optimal amounts of all vitamins and minerals from foods b. The NIH recommends that people use supplements to prevent chronic diseases c. The NIH recommends that people NOT use supplements to prevent chronic diseases d. The FDA recognizes that most nutrient supplements are associated with little, if any, harma
What nutrient is responsible for causing the most accidental ingestion deaths in children? a. Iron b. Calcium c. Vitamin A d. Vitamin Da
Nutrient supplements known as "green pills" often contain a. mostly food coloring. b. high-potency vitamin C. c. dehydrated alfalfa and parsley. d. dried extracts of spoiled meats.c
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