attribution theory was designed to account for

# attribution theory was designed to account for

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1. Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another? A. developmental psychology B. social psychology C. personality psychology D. clinical psychologyB
2. Attribution theory was designed to account for A. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others. B. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior. C. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations. D. how people explain others' behavior.D
3. Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their A. heredity or their environment. B. biological motives or their psychological motives. C. thoughts or their emotions. D. dispositions or their situations.D
4. Ksana insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of A. the bystander effect. B. deindividuation. C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. D. a dispositional attribution.D
5. The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others. A. normative influences; informational influences B. informational influences; normative influences C. personal dispositions; situational influences D. situational influences; personal dispositionsD
6. Freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Freire did poorly because A. he is unmotivated to do well in school. B. the test covered material that had not been adequately covered in class. C. his parents had an argument the evening before the test. D. he was not given enough time to complete the test.A
7. Compared with people from East Asian cultures, those from individualistic Western countries are more likely to demonstrate A. conformity. B. ingroup bias. C. ethnic stereotyping. D. the fundamental attribution error.D
8. The fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others' behavior is influenced by A. genetics. B. assigned roles. C. their level of motivation. D. personality traits.B
9. We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers we have observed in only one type of situation in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________. A. informational influence; normative influence B. situational constraints; personality traits C. normative influence; informational influence D. personality traits; situational constraintsD
10. The fundamental attribution error is likely to be restrained by observing someone A. in a variety of situations. B. who is unemployed. C. who is wealthy. D. we dislike.A
11. Our explanations of our own admirable actions are ________ likely to involve situational attributions than our explanations of our own shameful actions. Our explanations of our own actions performed long ago are ________ likely to involve dispositional attributions than our explanations of our own very recent actions. A. less; less B. more; more C. less; more D. more; lessC
12. Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to A. social norms. B. role-playing. C. personality traits. D. the mere exposure effect.C
13. Carol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of A. group polarization. B. the mere exposure effect. C. deindividuation. D. the fundamental attribution error.D
14. The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to attribute a stranger's A. lack of employment to a weak economy. B. act of kindness to a compassionate personality. C. criminal behavior to a poor education. D. friendliness to social role requirements.B
15. Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ________ and in terms of situational influences by ________. A. the poor; the rich B. attribution theory; social exchange theory C. social psychologists; evolutionary psychologists D. political conservatives; political liberalsD
16. Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior. A. norms and roles B. superordinate goals C. belief-based feelings D. dispositional attributionsC
17. Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates A. the central route to persuasion. B. normative social influence. C. social facilitation. D. cognitive dissonance.A
18. Compared with the central route to persuasion, the peripheral route to persuasion tends to A. be more durable. B. occur more rapidly. C. be more likely to influence behavior. D. involve a greater number of logical arguments.B
19. Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates A. the social-responsibility norm. B. deindividuation. C. the peripheral route to persuasion. D. informational social influence.C
20. Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that A. a pooling of efforts toward a common goal contributes to social loafing. B. the presence of others interferes with individual performance on difficult tasks. C. actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes. D. group discussion enhances a group's prevailing attitudes.C
21. A person's behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when A. the attitudes are implicit rather than explicit. B. external influences on behavior are minimal. C. the person has not publicly communicated those attitudes. D. the attitudes are discrepant with most other people's opinions.B
22. Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is LEAST likely to steal the merchandise if A. her negative feelings about shoplifting result from normative social influence. B. she is suffering the effects of deindividuation. C. she easily recalls her negative feelings about shoplifting. D. she has recently shoplifted jewelry from several different stores.C
23. The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the A. fundamental attribution error. B. foot-in-the-door phenomenon. C. mere exposure effect. D. frustration-aggression principle.B
24. The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to A. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group. B. perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others. C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request. D. experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar.C
25. When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of A. the fundamental attribution error. B. the social-responsibility norm. C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. D. deindividuation.C
26. After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates A. the chameleon effect. B. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. social facilitation.B
27. Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will A. experience a substantial loss of self-esteem. B. develop an increasing dislike for his brother. C. experience a sense of deindividuation. D. develop a great sense of admiration and respect for his brother.B
28. The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n) A. ingroup bias. B. attribution. C. attitude. D. role.D
29. After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes. A. deindividuation B. social facilitation C. role-playing D. mirror-image perceptionsC
30. Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of A. team membership on social loafing. B. self-disclosure on conciliation. C. frustration on aggression. D. role-playing on attitudes.D
31. Having observed participants in his simulated prison study, Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq's Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo's explanation best exemplified A. the catharsis hypothesis. B. the two-factor theory. C. a situational attribution. D. mirror-image perceptions.C
32. The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called A. cognitive dissonance. B. implicit prejudice. C. deindividuation. D. social loafing.A
33. Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes? A. scapegoat theory B. cognitive dissonance theory C. social exchange theory D. the two-factor theoryB
34. We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel A. little sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove. B. little sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally approve. C. a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove. D. a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally approve.C
35. Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory. A. cognitive dissonance B. social exchange C. scapegoat D. the two-factorA
36. Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as A. group polarization. B. the chameleon effect. C. social facilitation. D. social loafing.B
37. If a cluster of people stand gazing upward, passersby will often pause to do likewise. This best illustrates A. the mere exposure effect. B. the bystander effect. C. social loafing. D. the chameleon effect.D
38. Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others? A. the bystander effect B. the chameleon effect C. mirror-image perceptions D. social facilitationB
39. We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates A. the mere exposure effect. B. mood linkage. C. the reciprocity norm. D. mirror-image perceptions.B
40. Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called A. the reciprocity norm. B. peripheral route persuasion. C. social loafing. D. conformity.D
41. Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of A. altruism. B. visual perception. C. learning. D. aggression.B
42. Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines A. only when the group was composed of at least six members. B. even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect. C. even when the group seemed uncertain and repeatedly altered its judgment. D. only when members of the group were friends prior to the experiment.B
43. Alex thinks smoking is addictive but other players on his hockey team insist that it's not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if A. he has publicly voiced his opinion on this issue. B. there is obvious disagreement among team players regarding the issue. C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team. D. there are very few team members whom he currently wants to befriend.C
44. Professor Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. He personally disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Jones is most likely to vote in favor of their plan if A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion. B. he stated his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion. C. committee voting is done by private ballot. D. he has a high level of self-esteem.A
45. Normative social influence results from peoples' desire to A. clarify reality. B. maintain personal control. C. gain social approval. D. demonstrate self-restraint.C
46. Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of A. the mere exposure effect. B. informational social influence. C. normative social influence. D. social facilitation.C
47. Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Luella's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of A. deindividuation. B. normative social influence. C. informational social influence. D. social facilitation.B
48. Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________. A. deindividuation; social facilitation B. social facilitation; deindividuation C. informational social influence; normative social influence D. normative social influence; informational social influenceC
49. After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of A. normative social influence. B. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. C. social facilitation. D. informational social influence.D
50. When the task of correctly identifying an individual in a slide of a four-person lineup was both difficult and important, participants in an experiment were especially likely to conform to others' wrong answers. This best illustrates the impact of A. informational social influence. B. the mere exposure effect. C. normative social influence. D. ingroup bias.A
51. A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage A. nonconformity. B. ingroup bias. C. groupthink. D. superordinate goals.A
52. Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to A. play the role of the prison guards. B. write an essay supporting a position they didn't believe in. C. deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers. D. participate in a team tug-of-war by pulling on a rope as hard as they could.C
53. Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because A. the "learners" made so few learning errors under stressful circumstances. B. the "teachers" actually enjoyed shocking another person. C. the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted. D. the "learners" obediently accepted painful shocks without any protest.C
54. The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the A. "teachers" actually seemed to enjoy shocking the "learners." B. "learners" received painful electric shocks even if they had heart problems. C. experiments were performed despite mass student protests against the research. D. "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.D
55. In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were MOST likely to deliver high levels of shock when A. the experimenter was perceived to be an ordinary college student like themselves. B. the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher." C. they saw that other "learners" disobeyed the experimenter. D. they saw how "learners" who disobeyed the experimenter were punished.B
56. In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter's orders when A. the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University. B. the "learner" complained of a slight heart condition just before the experiment began. C. the "learner" screamed as the shocks became more punishing. D. the "learner" was in another room where his physical well-being couldn't be observed by the "teacher."A
57. In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when A. they fail to realize their actions are morally wrong. B. their victims are distant and depersonalized. C. they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures. D. they derive personal satisfaction from destructive acts.C
58. According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that A. people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive. B. even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction. C. the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives. D. people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something.B
59. The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by A. the increased number of suicides shortly after Marilyn Monroe's highly publicized death. B. President John F. Kennedy's ill-fated decision to invade Cuba. C. the tragic murder of Kitty Genovese just outside her New York apartment. D. the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.D
60. Social facilitation refers to the tendency to A. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group. B. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others. C. lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity. D. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.B
61. The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because A. an increasing familiarity with novel stimuli facilitates liking. B. the loss of self-restraint often accompanies arousal and anonymity. C. arousal inhibits the correct performance of difficult tasks. D. group discussion enhances whatever attitude is initially dominant in a group.C
62. Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates A. social facilitation. B. group polarization. C. the bystander effect. D. the mere exposure effect.A
63. On which of the following tasks would the presence of others be MOST likely to lead to improved performance? A. reciting the months of the year in alphabetical order B. learning foreign language words C. counting backward from 10 to 1 D. learning nonsense syllablesC
64. Comedy routines that are mildly amusing to people in an uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room. This is best explained in terms of A. the mere exposure effect. B. social facilitation. C. the bystander effect. D. ingroup bias.B
65. Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to A. perform a complex task more poorly when others are present. B. exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal. C. exert less effort when they are paid by the hour, not by the amount of work completed. D. become more distracted from their tasks when working with friends than when working with strangers.B
66. University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates A. social loafing. B. the chameleon effect. C. group polarization. D. social facilitation.A
67. Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among A. women in cultures that value collectivism. B. women in cultures that value individualism. C. men in cultures that value collectivism. D. men in cultures that value individualism.D
68. Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among A. audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced. B. factory workers paid on the basis of individual level of productivity. C. a group of runners competing for first place in a race. D. students who are each assigned a different topic for their course term papers.A
69. Deindividuation refers to A. lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group. B. the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior. C. a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. D. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.C
70. When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of A. social facilitation. B. groupthink. C. deindividuation. D. ingroup bias.C
71. After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of A. the just-world phenomenon. B. deindividuation. C. the bystander effect. D. social facilitation.B
72. The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called A. group polarization. B. social facilitation. C. ingroup bias. D. the mere exposure effect.A
73. Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which A. little communication is possible. B. individuals share a similar opinion. C. each individual has a unique perspective. D. individuals have not formed any opinion.B
74. Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of A. social facilitation. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. group polarization. D. deindividuation.C
75. Groups of citizens from liberal Boulder, Colorado, and groups of citizens from conservative Colorado Springs, Colorado, were asked to discuss socially relevant issues such as affirmative action and same-sex unions. After group discussion, the groups from Boulder expressed increasingly ________ positions and the groups from Colorado Springs expressed increasingly ________ positions. A. liberal; liberal B. moderate; moderate C. conservative; liberal D. liberal; conservativeD
76. Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be A. even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished. B. convinced that the death penalty should be retained. C. sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished. D. in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.A
77. A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates A. the bystander effect. B. deindividuation. C. group polarization. D. social loafing.C
8. The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of A. deindividuation. B. the bystander effect. C. the mere exposure effect. D. groupthink.D
79. Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink? A. social facilitation B. cognitive dissonance C. group polarization D. self-disclosureC
80. Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink? A. "In order to proceed democratically, we need to know the honest opinions of all group members." B. "We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue." C. "Do any of you see any potential problem with our group's position?" D. "As a group, we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue."B
81. A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts' critiques of her company's developing plans is most likely to inhibit A. groupthink. B. cognitive dissonance. C. social facilitation. D. superordinate goals.A
82. Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected. This best illustrates A. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. B. mirror-image perceptions. C. the chameleon effect. D. personal control.D
83. Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal of the defendant in a murder trial. To influence the majority he should A. express some uncertainty about his position. B. be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint. C. be the last member to speak and present his argument as briefly as possible. D. address his arguments specifically to the member of the majority who seems most disagreeable.B
84. Prejudice is best defined as A. the tendency to favor members of one's own group. B. an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. C. a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals. D. the belief that victims of misfortune deserve their fate.B
85. Overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people that often underlie prejudicial emotions are called A. superordinate goals. B. situational attributions. C. stereotypes. D. social norms.C
86. Which of the following describes a stereotype? A. Vladimir is especially attracted to Latin-American women. B. Peter feels very uncomfortable interacting with Blacks. C. Robin is convinced that university professors are usually impractical and forgetful. D. Cyril never hires people over age 50 to work in his restaurant.C
87. A store owner charges Black customers more than Hispanic customers for the very same merchandise. The owner is most clearly engaging in A. deindividuation. B. stereotyping. C. group polarization. D. discrimination.D
88. Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________. A. dispositional attribution; situational attribution B. ingroup bias; outgroup bias C. normative influence; informational influence D. attitude; behaviorD
89. On the basis of what Americans say, in the last half-century A. gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has increased. B. gender prejudice has increased and racial prejudice has decreased. C. gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has decreased. D. gender prejudice has increased and racial prejudice has increased.C
90. Studies of implicit attitudes indicate that prejudice is often A. triggered by deindividuation. B. a response to frustration. C. unconscious. D. unlearned.C
91. Prejudice can be not only subtle but also automatic and unconscious. This is best illustrated in studies of A. deindividuation. B. implicit attitudes. C. group polarization. D. mirror-image perceptions.B
92. At a conscious level, Aaron doesn't think he's prejudiced. Yet he automatically feels uncomfortable in situations where he has to interact with people of different races from his own. Aaron's experience best illustrates the distinction between A. equity and self-disclosure. B. situational and dispositional attributions. C. explicit and implicit attitudes. D. normative and informational social influence.C
93. In one experiment, White respondents typically took longer to identify words such as peace and paradise as "good" when the words were associated with Black-sounding names rather than White-sounding names. This best illustrated A. the mere exposure effect. B. the other-race effect. C. mirror-image perceptions. D. implicit prejudice.D
94. Priming people with a flashed Black face rather than a flashed White face makes them more likely to misperceive a flashed tool as a gun. This best illustrates the subtle character of A. ingroup bias. B. deindividuation. C. implicit racial associations. D. the fundamental attribution error.C
95. In one study, researchers found that police officers judge Black faces that appear more typical of their race to be more A. childlike. B. unattractive. C. familiar. D. criminal.D
96. When Americans were surveyed about their gender preferences if they could have only one child, a ________ reported having a gender preference. Of those who had a gender preference, the _______ said they would prefer a girl. A. majority; majority B. minority; minority C. majority; minority D. minority; majorityC
97. When shown computer-generated faces that are slightly feminized or slightly masculinized, people prefer the slightly ________ faces. Women are most likely to perceive a man with a slightly ________ face as having placed a personal ad seeking a "special lady to love and cherish." A. masculinized; masculinized B. feminized; feminized C. masculinized; feminized D. feminized; masculinizedB
98. Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying A. group polarization. B. deindividuation. C. the bystander effect. D. social inequalities.D
99. If poverty causes high rates of crime, the high crime rates can be used to justify discrimination against those who live in poverty. This best illustrates A. the mere exposure effect. B. the bystander effect. C. the blame-the-victim dynamic. D. deindividuation.C
100. Compared with numerical majorities, numerical minorities, such as the Scots in Britain, are especially conscious of their A. superordinate goals. B. implicit attitudes. C. reciprocity norms. D. social identities.D
101. Ingroup bias best illustrates the impact of our ________ on prejudice. A. superordinate goals B. social identities C. deindividuation D. reciprocity normsB
102. Placing people into groups based on the arbitrary outcome of a coin toss leads people to show favoritism to their own group when dividing any rewards. This best illustrates A. the mere exposure effect. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. deindividuation. D. ingroup bias.D
103. Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates A. the just-world phenomenon. B. ingroup bias. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. scapegoatingB
104. According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from A. the other-race effect. B. the just-world phenomenon. C. ingroup bias. D. frustration.D
105. Montel, a White university student, is on academic probation for poor grades. Ever since he received notice of his probation, Montel has become increasingly hostile toward racial minority students and staff on campus. His increasing hostility can best be explained in terms of A. the chameleon effect. B. the just-world phenomenon. C. the scapegoat theory. D. the reciprocity norm.C
106. Disparaging or belittling a despised outgroup provides people with a heightened sense of A. the fundamental attribution error. B. superordinate goals. C. self-esteem. D. social loafing.C
107. People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other. A. different from; similar to B. similar to; different from C. similar to; similar to D. different from; different fromB
108. The tendency to categorize people on the basis of their gender is most likely to lead Jack to believe that A. women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex. B. women seem to be unpredictable, because no two are alike. C. most men tend to be logical and emotionally controlled. D. in contrast to women, men have very similar tastes in dress and fashion.A
109. The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races is called A. ingroup bias. B. the other-race effect. C. deindividuation. D. the mere exposure effect.B
110. The longer Chinese people have resided in a Western country, the less they exhibit A. social loafing. B. self-disclosure. C. the other-race effect. D. the fundamental attribution error.C
111. Twenty Wallonians were arrested for nonviolent crimes, whereas 20 Pireaneans were arrested for violent crimes. The tendency to judge that more crimes were committed by Pireaneans than by Wallonians best illustrates the power of A. ingroup bias. B. the mere exposure effect. C. deindividuation. D. vivid cases.D
112. In laboratory experiments, merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim. This reaction is best explained in terms of A. the just-world phenomenon. B. the bystander effect. C. the scapegoat theory. D. the mere exposure effect.A
113. An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of A. deindividuation. B. ingroup bias. C. the bystander effect. D. the just-world phenomenon.D
114. Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman's behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim blaming is fueled by A. the bystander effect. B. the foot-in-the-door-phenomenon. C. hindsight bias. D. deindividuation.C
115. According to the text, aggression always involves A. physical damage. B. anger and hostility. C. the intent to hurt. D. a reaction to frustration.C
116. Which of the following persons is most clearly acting aggressively? A. a noisy neighbor who often mows his lawn at 8 o'clock on Saturday mornings B. a child who tries to hit another child with a rock C. an assertive salesperson who interrupts your evening meal with a telephone sales pitch D. a careless motorist who accidentally smashes into the fender of a parked carB
117. The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is NOT A. a reaction to frustration. B. influenced by social norms. C. an unlearned instinct. D. a product of deindividuation.C
118. Comparisons of identical and fraternal twins highlight the impact of ________ on aggression. A. proximity B. deindividuation C. genetic influences D. the bystander effectC
119 the Y chromosome is the most well-known genetic marker identifying those who are most likely to? A. form stereotypes. B. engage in aggression. C. experience cognitive dissonance. D. commit the fundamental attribution error.B
When a mild-mannered woman had an electrode implanted in her amygdala, she A. developed more aggressive tendencies. B. acted just as she had before the implantation. C. became even milder, unable even to say "no" to anyone's request for help. D. lost her ability to remember events that had recently occurred.A
121. Testosterone levels of male college basketball fans were observed to be the highest A. just before a big game that was won by their team. B. just after a big game that was won by their team. C. just before a big game that was lost by their team. D. just after a big game that was lost by their team.B
122. Aggressive behavior is most likely to be ________ by injections of testosterone and ________ by consumption of alcohol. A. increased; decreased B. decreased; increased C. increased; increased D. decreased; decreasedC
123. The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when A. false stereotypes influence perceptions of others. B. an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked. C. there are striking differences of opinion among group members. D. self-awareness and self-restraint are reduced.B
124. After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is best explained in terms of the A.Foot-in-the-door phenomenon. B. fundamental attribution error. C.bystander effect. D.frustration-aggression principle.D
125. Stress often generates a readiness to be aggressive that is associated with A. stereotyping. B. ingroup bias. C. social facilitation. D. the fight-or-flight reaction.D
126. Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious. This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by A. superordinate goals. B. scapegoating. C. frustration. D. reinforcement.D
127. Ostracism has been observed to intensify A. self-disclosure. B. aggression. C. hindsight bias. D. deindividuation.B
128. High violence rates among White Americans in southern U.S. towns settled by Scots-Irish herders illustrate the impact of ________ on aggression. A. ingroup bias B. social influence C. deindividuation D. hindsight biasB
129. Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of A. conformity. B. group polarization. C. social facilitation. D. aggression.D
130. Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their 6-year-old son? A. "Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic." B. "Be consistent in spanking your child after every outburst so he'll realize that aggression never pays." C. "Encourage your son to watch the devastating consequences of violence portrayed on TV." D. "Don't be concerned about your child's aggressiveness, unless the behavior pattern continues beyond the fifth grade."A
131. Aggression-replacement programs are most likely to advise parents to avoid A. implicit prejudice. B. the other-race effect. C. modeling violence. D. the mere exposure effect.C
A132. Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that A. many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters. B. most rapes are commonly committed by victims' dates or acquaintances. C. women are more likely rape victims than are men. D. most rapes are never reported to the police.
133. After watching a large number of violent pornographic movies, Ollie will probably be A. more likely to believe that such movies should be banned. B. less likely to believe that women are seriously harmed by rape. C. more likely to favor long prison sentences for convicted rapists. D. less likely to believe that women enjoy aggressive sexual treatment from men.B
134. Repeated exposure to pornographic films causes viewers to A. see their partners as more attractive and to be less accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists. B. see their partners as less attractive and to be less accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists. C. see their partners as less attractive and to be more accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists. D. see their partners as more attractive and to be more accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists.C
135. People heavily exposed to violent pornography are likely to engage in sexually aggressive behaviors that reflect a misleading A. hindsight bias. B. social script. C. bystander effect. D. two-factor theory.B
136. Culturally modeled guides for how to act in various situations are called A. social scripts. B. situational attributions. C. superordinate goals. D. mirror-image perceptions.A
137. Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ________ in its viewer. A. provoke frustration B. reduce angry feelings C. trigger violent behaviors D. prime aggressive thoughtsD
138. Experimental studies indicate that college men who are randomly assigned to play a violent video game A. experience increasing levels of arousal and become increasingly likely to hurt a fellow student. B. experience decreasing levels of arousal and become decreasingly likely to hurt a fellow student. C. experience increasing levels of arousal and become decreasingly likely to hurt a fellow student. D. experience decreasing levels of arousal and become increasingly likely to hurt a fellow student.A
139. In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves A. acquiring social scripts. B. role-playing aggression. C. desensitization to violence. D. priming aggressive thoughts.B
140. Joel's sexually violent behavior is influenced by his unrealistic sexual scripts, his repeated experience of ostracism, and his persistent abuse of alcohol. An integrated understanding of Joel's behavior within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by A. social exchange theory. B. the frustration-aggression principle. C. a biopsychosocial approach. D. the reciprocity norm.C
141. Vince, an extraverted university freshman, has just moved into a dormitory. Vince is most likely to become friends with A. Alfonse, a junior who is majoring in psychology and lives across the hall. B. Mohammed, an introverted student who lives on the next floor and enjoys playing chess. C. James, a lonely sophomore who lives down the hall and is undecided about his major. D. Bill, his assigned roommate who is majoring in computer science.D
142. On average, Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are ________ likely than relationships formed in person to last beyond two years. When conversing online with someone for 20 minutes, participants in one study felt ________ liking for that person than they did for someone they talked with face to face. A. more; less B. less; more C. more; more D. less; lessC
143. The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people A. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others. B. become more extreme in their opinions following group discussion. C. more readily comply with a large request if they previously complied with a small request. D. experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar.D
144. Four equally attractive women silently attended a 200-student class for zero, 5, 10, or 15 class sessions. When shown slides of each woman, students in the class rated the women who had attended ________ class sessions as the most attractive. A. zero B. 5 C. 10 D. 15D
145. After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates A. the fundamental attribution error. B. the mere exposure effect. C. mirror-image perceptions. D. the bystander effect.B
146. People's preference for mirror-image photographs of themselves illustrates the impact of A. the bystander effect. B. deindividuation. C. the mere exposure effect. D. cognitive dissonance.C
147. Participants in a voter preference study favored the presidential candidate whose face blended some of their own facial features with those of the candidate. This best illustrates the impact of A. the mere exposure effect. B. deindividuation. C. the chameleon effect. D. social facilitation.A
148. What determined whether college freshmen who had been randomly paired for a Welcome Week dance liked each other? A. similarity in attitudes B. similarity in intelligence C. physical attractiveness D. self-disclosure skillsC
149. Svetlana, a 20-year-old undergraduate, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive women. A. be perceived as more socially skilled B. have a much higher level of self-esteem C. be perceived as less intelligent D. date less frequentlyA
150. Makato, a 21-year-old college junior, is physically unattractive. Compared with good-looking students, Makato is more likely to A. be physically coordinated and athletic. B. have difficulty making a favorable impression on potential employers. C. earn low grades in his college courses. D. be well liked by other male college students.B
151. People's physical attractiveness is unrelated to their A. feelings of popularity. B. level of earned income. C. frequency of dating. D. self-esteem.D
152. Women are attracted to healthy-looking men, but especially to those who seem to be A. submissive. B. insecure. C. mature. D. less attractive than themselves.C
153. College students judged an averaged, composite face as A. less attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was less symmetrical. B. more attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was more symmetrical. C. less attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was more symmetrical. D. more attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was less symmetrical.B
154. Felippe, a 19-year-old university freshman, is very talkative, intelligent, assertive, and politically conservative. Research suggests that he would be most likely to develop a close friendship with A. Toren, who is talkative and assertive. B. Erez, who is quiet and passive. C. Tom, who is intelligent and quiet. D. Fabio, who is politically liberal and talkative.A
155. Which of the following is most clearly supported by research on social attraction? A. The beautiful are the lonely. B. Birds of a feather flock together. C. Familiarity breeds contempt. D. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.B
156. The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain A. passionate love. B. social facilitation. C. the mere exposure effect. D. the just-world phenomenon.A
157. Casandra, who is attractive and likable, has just telephoned Mike and asked him for a date. According to the two-factor theory of emotion, Mike is likely to experience the most intense romantic feelings for Casandra during their telephone conversation if he has just A. awakened from a short nap. B. finished eating a delicious meal. C. completed a series of aerobic exercises. D. been studying his history lecture notes.C
158. In an experiment by Dutton and Aron, one group of men were asked by an attractive woman to complete a short questionnaire immediately after they had crossed a swaying footbridge suspended 230 feet above the Capilano River. This experiment was designed to study the factors that contribute to A. the bystander effect. B. the mere exposure effect. C. passionate love. D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.C
159. The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as A. altruism. B. self-disclosure. C. companionate love. D. the mere exposure effect.C
160. Which of the following is true of non-Western cultures, as compared with Western cultures? They have A. lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as more important for marriage. B. higher divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage. C. lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage. D. higher divorce rates and consider passionate love as more important for marriage.C
161. Sharing household chores ranks high on a list of things people associate with successful marriages. This best illustrates the perceived value of A. equity. B. proximity. C. passionate love. D. self-disclosure.A
162. Ellie is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family's resources on his own interests. Ellie's relationship with her husband is best characterized as A. deindividuated. B. companionate. C. inequitable. D. implicit.C
163. Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of A. passionate love. B. social facilitation. C. self-disclosure. D. the mere exposure effect.C
164. Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates A. altruism. B. deindividuation. C. the bystander effect. D. the just-world phenomenon.A
165. The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social-psychological research on A. altruism. B. the mere exposure effect. C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. D. the effects of exposure to violent pornography.A
166. Darley and Latan observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of A. the ingroup bias. B. a failure to interpret the incident as an emergency. C. indifference and apathy. D. a diffusion of responsibility.D
167. When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in A. the mere exposure effect. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. the just-world phenomenon. D. the bystander effect.D
168. Social psychologists have arranged for people to drop coins or pencils in elevators in order to study the A. foot-in-the-door phenomenon. B. mere exposure effect. C. just-world phenomenon. D. bystander effect.D
169. The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the A. emergency takes place in a large city. B. observer has just endured a frustrating experience. C. emergency is being observed by a number of other people. D. observer has been exposed to many similar emergencies in the past.C
170. When 68-year-old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, when an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs. Blake's experience best illustrates A. the fundamental attribution error. B. the mere exposure effect. C. group polarization. D. the bystander effect.D
171. Which of the following people would be most likely to help Gita study for her history exam? A. Gita's older brother, who probably has nothing better to do that evening B. Gita's mother, who is excited about the unexpected bonus she just received from her employer C. Gita's father, who always points out how differently men and women think and act D. Gita's younger sister, whose boyfriend just canceled their date for the next eveningB
172. According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by A. calculations of costs and benefits. B. feelings of social responsibility. C. reciprocity norms. D. family tiesA
173. Two classmates ask you to spend a couple of hours helping them prepare for a chemistry test. According to social exchange theory, you would be most likely to help them if A. your parents helped you study for tests when you were younger. B. you know you would feel terribly guilty for refusing their request. C. you know that someone else helped them prepare for an earlier test. D. your classmates cannot afford to pay for a private tutor.B
174. Employees who receive a windfall bonus are later happier if they have done something for other people with it. This suggests that altruism is A. a superordinate goal. B. intrinsically rewarding. C. a bystander effect. D. a just-world phenomenon.B
175. After she received a free hand-painted Christmas ornament from a religious organization, Mrs. Montevecchi felt obligated to mail a cash donation to the organization. Her response to the free gift best illustrates the impact of A. the mere exposure effect. B. the just-world phenomenon. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. the reciprocity norm.D
176. An expectation that people will help those who depend on them is known as the A. ingroup bias. B. just-world phenomenon. C. superordinate goal. D. social-responsibility norm.D
177. Gallup surveys indicate that Americans who frequently attend religious services are more likely than those who do not attend religious services to A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm. B. demonstrate the bystander effect. C. violate the social-responsibility norm. D. base their altruistic acts on the principle of reciprocity.A
178. To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals is indicative of A. social loafing. B. prejudice. C. conflict. D. group polarization.C
179. A social trap is a situation in which A. people lose self-awareness in group situations that foster anonymity. B. there are insufficient resources to satisfy the needs of all group members. C. a lack of critical thinking results from a strong desire for group harmony. D. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.D
180. To help people avoid social traps, psychologists should promote an increased awareness of A. social facilitation. B. the mere exposure effect. C. normative social influence. D. the social-responsibility norm.D
181. Continuing to operate a fuel-inefficient car despite warnings about the effect of greenhouse gases best illustrates the dynamics of A. social loafing. B. a social trap. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. the mere exposure effect.B
182. Despite government warnings of a severe shortage of heating fuels, most citizens continue to turn up their home thermostats in the belief that their personal fuel consumption will have little effect on the country's total fuel reserves. This reaction best illustrates the dynamics of A. the bystander effect. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. D. a social trap.D
183. Two conflicting groups who share the same negative views of one another demonstrate A. the reciprocity norm. B. deindividuation. C. GRIT. D. mirror-image perceptions.D
184. Haley thinks Keith's silence indicates that he's angry, so she avoids talking to him. Unfortunately, Keith thinks Haley's quietness signifies that she's angry and wants to be left alone. This situation best illustrates A. mirror-image perceptions. B. the reciprocity norm. C. superordinate goals. D. deindividuation.A
185. University College London volunteers used a mechanical device to press on another volunteer's finger, after feeling pressure on their own finger. They typically responded to the pressure on their finger A. with less pressure than they had just experienced. B. with more pressure than they had just experienced. C. with the same amount of pressure they had just experienced. D. with Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction.B
186. Noncompetitive contact between members of two different ethnic groups is likely to reduce prejudice when the contact is between individuals with A. ingroup bias. B. implicit prejudice. C. equal status. D. mirror-image perceptions.C
187. An increase in ________ has been followed by more positive attitudes between South African Whites and Blacks. A. the other-race effect B. implicit prejudice C. deindividuation D. interracial contactD
188. Sherif's study of conflict in a Boy Scout camp indicated that conflict between two groups of boys could be reduced most effectively by A. bringing the members of both groups into close contact. B. having one group make conciliatory gestures to the other group. C. allowing leaders of the two groups to communicate. D. exposing the groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation.D
189. Psychologists describe shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation as A. implicit. B. deindividuated. C. companionate. D. superordinate.D
190. Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by A. ingroup bias. B. group polarization. C. superordinate goals. D. the mere exposure effect.C
191. If one were to generalize from Sherif's study of conflict resolution between two groups of campers, the best way for the United States and China to improve their relationship would be to A. hold highly publicized athletic contests between the two countries. B. minimize their trade and economic exchanges. C. conduct a joint space program designed to land humans on Mars. D. allow citizens of each country the right to freely immigrate to the other country.C
192. In one experiment, White Americans read a newspaper article about a foreign terrorist threat against all Americans. They subsequently expressed A. an increased sense of deindividuation. B. reduced confidence in their personal religious beliefs. C. lowered approval of the president's job performance. D. reduced prejudice against African-Americans.D
193. Pablo and Sabina argued bitterly about which of them should have use of the family car that night. Neither realized, however, that Sabina needed the car only in the early evening and that Pablo needed it only in the late evening. Pablo and Sabina's failure to resolve their argument for their mutual benefit illustrates a failure to develop A. mirror-image perceptions. B. ingroup bias. C. a win-win solution. D. GRIT.C
194. GRIT attempts to reduce conflict through A. third-party mediation. B. intimidation. C. conciliation. D. pacifism.C
195. Which of the following would be most consistent with a GRIT strategy? A. announcing that even a small attack on an ally will result in a nuclear attack on the enemy B. announcing that defense expenditures will be cut by 5 percent and inviting the enemy to do likewise C. announcing that one has formed an alliance with several countries encircling the enemy D. announcing that the opposing party's invasion of a neutral country will be challenged in an international court of lawB
96. The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people ________ one another. A. understand, feel about, and behave toward B. think about, influence, and relate to C. observe, understand, and communicate with D. understand, predict, and controlB
197. To analyze how people explain others' behavior, Fritz Heider developed A. cognitive dissonance theory. B. social exchange theory. C. attribution theory. D. self-disclosure theory.C
198. Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates A. deindividuation. B. the bystander effect. C. a situational attribution. D. the reciprocity norm.C
199. The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior is called A. the bystander effect. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. deindividuation. D. the mere exposure effect.B
200. A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a stranger's violent behavior stems from his or her aggressive personality best illustrates A. the frustration-aggression principle. B. the mere exposure effect. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. deindividuation.C
201. Recognizing the powerful impact of social influence on others' behaviors is most likely to minimize A. passionate love. B. social facilitation. C. the mere exposure effect. D. the fundamental attribution error.D
202. Students who were told that a young woman had been instructed to act in a very unfriendly way for the purposes of the experiment concluded that her behavior A. reflected her personal disposition. B. was situationally determined. C. demonstrated role-playing. D. illustrated normative social influence.A
203. A dispositional attribution is to ________ as a situational attribution is to ________. A. normative influence; informational influence B. high ability; low motivation C. personality traits; assigned roles D. politically liberal; politically conservativeC
204. Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude A. "Patricia's brakes must have failed." B. "Patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble." C. "Patricia's children probably distracted her." D. "The road must have been wet and slippery."B
205. People are especially likely to demonstrate the fundamental attribution error in cultures that value A. individualism. B. sexual stereotyping. C. the reciprocity norm. D. superordinate goals.A
206. In explaining our own behavior or the behavior of those we know well, we often resort to A. deindividuation. B. social facilitation. C. social loafing. D. situational attributions.D
207. You would probably be LEAST likely to commit the fundamental attribution error in explaining why A. you failed a college test. B. a classmate you don't know was late for class. C. your professor gave a boring lecture. D. the college administration decided to raise next year's tuition costs.A
208. One explanation for the fundamental attribution error involves observers' A. diffusion of responsibility. B. limited visual perspective. C. social-responsibility norm. D. mirror-image perceptions.B
209. The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people A. are victims of discrimination. B. are irresponsible and unmotivated. C. have parents who provided poor models of social responsibility. D. attended schools that provided an inferior education.B
210. Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of ________ by political liberals and in terms of ________ by political conservatives. A. personal dispositions; situational constraints B. normative influence; informational influence C. situational constraints; personal dispositions D. informational influence; normative influenceC
211. Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called A. roles. B. norms. C. attitudes. D. attributionsC
212. Opinion change resulting from incidental cues such as a speaker's attractiveness illustrates A. informational social influence. B. the peripheral route to persuasion. C. superordinate goals. D. social facilitation.B
213. The central route to persuasion is most likely when people A. are naturally analytical. B. are uninvolved in an issue. C. make snap judgments. D. have difficulty paying attention.A
214. Magazine computer ads seldom feature endorsements from Hollywood stars or great athletes. Instead, they offer detailed information for consumers to develop more positive opinions about the company's products. This advertising strategy best illustrates A. the reciprocity norm. B. the central route to persuasion. C. normative social influence. D. deindividuation.B
215. Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to cheat on his income tax returns? A. Jake, who loves his country B. Jonas, who admires personal honesty C. Mikhail, who positively values paying his full income tax D. Fabio, who cares little about personal wealthC
216. Our attitudes are more likely to guide our actions when we A. experience a sense of deindividuation. B. feel incompetent or insecure. C. can easily recall our attitudes. D. are exposed to normative social influence.C
217. The tendency for initial compliance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as the A. mere exposure effect. B. fundamental attribution error. C. reciprocity norm. D. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.D
218. To "brainwash" captured American soldiers during the Korean War, Chinese communists made effective use of A. the just-world phenomenon. B. the bystander effect. C. the frustration-aggression principle. D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.D
219. After giving in to her friends' request that she drink alcohol with them, 16-year-old Jessica found that she couldn't resist the pressure they exerted on her to try heroin. Her experience best illustrates A. ingroup bias. B. the mere exposure effect. C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. D. the bystander effect.C
220. A life insurance salesperson who takes advantage of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon would be most likely to A. emphasize that his company is one of the largest in the insurance industry. B. promise a free gift to those who agree to purchase an insurance policy. C. ask customers to respond to a brief survey of their attitudes regarding life insurance. D. address customers by their first names.C
221. In the years immediately following the introduction of school desegregation in the United States and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, White Americans expressed diminishing racial prejudice. According to the text author, this best illustrated the impact of A. groupthink on deindividuation. B. actions on attitudes. C. bystanders on altruism. D. group polarization on stereotypes.B
222. Studies of role-playing most directly highlight the effects of A. group size on social loafing. B. personal anonymity on deindividuation. C. an audience on social facilitation. D. actions on attitudes.D
223. The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study A. were assigned the roles of prisoner or guard on the basis of their personality test scores. B. found it very difficult to play the role of prison guard. C. were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued. D. became a cohesive unit when they pursued superordinate goals.C
224. Feeling responsible for behavior that violates our conscience is most likely to contribute to A. the bystander effect. B. cognitive dissonance. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. group polarization.B
225. Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the A. mere exposure effect. B. fundamental attribution error. C. foot-in-the-door phenomenon. D. bystander effect.C
226. When no weapons of mass destruction were found following the U.S. invasion of Iraq, some Americans revised their memories of the main rationale for going to war. The text author suggests that we can best explain why people changed their memories in terms of A. social exchange theory. B. equity theory. C. the two-factor theory. D. cognitive dissonance theory.D
227. During a test, Abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby student's paper. He felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enough to expose their test sheets. Which theory best explains why Abe adopted this new attitude? A. frustration-aggression theory B. attribution theory C. social exchange theory D. cognitive dissonance theoryD
student in a classroom begins to cough, others are likely to do the same. This best illustrates A. ingroup bias. B. the mere exposure effect. C. the bystander effect. D. the chameleon effect....
229. The chameleon effect involves A. scapegoating. B. automatic mimicry. C. cognitive dissonance. D. the fundamental attribution error.B
230. Just hearing someone reading a neutral text in a sad voice creates "mood contagion" in listeners. This best illustrates A. the mere exposure effect. B. the bystander effect. C. the chameleon effect. D. ingroup bias.C
231. The text indicates that the clusters of suicides that sometimes follow a highly publicized suicide may be the result of A. suggestibility. B. the bystander effect. C. deindividuation. D. social facilitation.A
232. Conformity is best described as A. performing simple tasks more quickly in the presence of others. B. adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard. C. neglecting critical thinking in order to preserve group harmony. D. losing self-awareness in group situations that foster anonymity.B
233. Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study A. the mere exposure effect. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. social facilitation. D. conformity.D
234. Naseeb disagrees with his classmates on an issue. During a class discussion of the issue, Naseeb is MOST likely to conform to his classmates' opinion if he A. has a high level of self-esteem. B. does not have to reveal his personal opinion at the close of the class discussion. C. believes the rest of the class is unanimous in their position. D. verbally expresses his own unique opinion early in the class discussion.C
235. Conformity resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval is said to be a response to A. the reciprocity norm. B. social facilitation. C. normative social influence. D. informational social influence.C
236. Professor Maslova attends faculty meetings simply to gain the approval of the college dean. Professor Maslova's behavior exemplifies the importance of A. ingroup bias. B. informational social influence. C. normative social influence. D. deindividuation.C
237. Toby publicly agrees with his fraternity brothers that Ahmed, a senior, would make the best student senate president. On the secret ballot, however, he actually votes for Yoram. Toby's public conformity to his fraternity brothers' opinion best illustrates the power of A. social facilitation. B. informational social influence. C. normative social influence. D. the mere exposure effect.C
238. Conformity resulting from the acceptance of others' opinions about reality is said to be a response to A. group polarization. B. social facilitation. C. informational social influence. D. normative social influence.C
239. Yuri decided to delay his road trip after hearing a weather forecaster warn that a severe snowstorm would pass through the area within several hours. Yuri's decision best illustrates the impact of A. the mere exposure effect. B. informational social influence. C. social facilitation. D. the reciprocity norm.B
240. Participants in an experiment were asked to judge which individual in a slide of a four-person lineup had been presented alone in a slide they had just seen. They were most likely to Topic: onform to the wrong answers of two confederates when the task was A. easy and important. B. easy and unimportant. C. difficult and important. D. difficult and unimportant.C
241. The value of social conformity is most likely to be emphasized in A. England. B. France. C. Japan. D. North America.C
242. In Milgram's first study of obedience, the majority of "teachers" who were ordered to shock a "learner" A. refused to deliver even slight levels of shock. B. initially complied but refused to deliver more than slight levels of shock. C. complied until ordered to deliver intense levels of shock. D. complied fully and delivered the highest level of shock.D
243. When the participants in Milgram's study were later surveyed about taking part in the research, most reported that they A. did not believe they were actually delivering shock to the "learner." B. had actually enjoyed shocking the "learner." C. did not regret taking part in the experiment. D. did not believe the study should be repeated.C
244. In all of Milgram's obedience experiments, participants were deceived about A. the association of the research with a prestigious university. B. Milgram's professional status as a research psychologist. C. how much they would actually be paid for participating in the research. D. the amount of shock the victim actually received.D
245. The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the "teacher" was ________ the experimenter and ________ the "learner." A. at a distance from; at a distance from B. close to; close to C. at a distance from; close to D. close to; at a distance fromD
246. In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were LEAST likely to deliver the highest levels of shock when A. the experiment was conducted at a prestigious institution such as Yale University. B. the experimenter became too pushy and told hesitant participants, "You have no choice, you must go on." C. the "teachers" observed other participants refuse to obey the experimenter's orders. D. the "learner" said he had a heart condition.C
247. In Milgram's experiments, participants were torn between whether they should respond to the pleas of the ______ or the demands of the ______. A. obedient role model; "teacher" B. "teacher"; "learner" C. "teacher"; defiant role model D. "learner"; experimenterD
248. The gradually escalating levels of destructive obedience in the Milgram experiments best illustrate one of the potential dangers of A. deindividuation. B. social facilitation. C. the fundamental attribution error. D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.D
249. Norman Triplett observed that adolescents wound a fishing reel faster in the presence of someone working simultaneously on the same task. This best illustrates A. the mere exposure effect. B. the bystander effect. C. social facilitation. D. group polarization.C
250. After a light turns green, drivers take about 15 percent less time to travel the first 100 yards when another car is beside them at the intersection than when they are alone. This best illustrates A. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. B. the mere exposure effect. C. the bystander effect. D. social facilitation.D
251. Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks. A. challenging B. unenjoyable C. novel D. simpleD
252. The presence of others ________ a person's performance on well-learned tasks and ________ a person's performance on unmastered tasks. A. improves; has no effect on B. hinders; improves C. has no effect on; hinders D. improves; hindersD
253. On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be LEAST likely to lead to better and faster performance? A. raking leaves B. washing dishes C. reciting the alphabet D. solving a crossword puzzleD
254. Job applicants are interviewed by either friendly or unfriendly employers who sit either very close to or at a normal distance from the applicants. Research suggests that applicants will like best the friendly employers who sit at a ________ distance and will like least the unfriendly employers who sit at a ________ distance. A. very close; normal B. very close; very close C. normal; normal D. normal; very closeB
255. The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as A. deindividuation. B. the bystander effect. C. social loafing. D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.C
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