piaget was convinced that the mind of a child

piaget was convinced that the mind of a child


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Maturation is to education as ________ is to ________. A. accommodation; assimilation B. nature; nurture C. imprinting; critical period D. environment; learningB
25. Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones. A. both the sequence and the age-related timing B. the sequence but not the age-related timing C. the age-related timing but not the sequence D. neither the sequence nor the age-related timingC
26. Horace, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to A. habituation. B. maturation. C. responsive parenting. D. imprinting.B
7. The concept of maturation is most relevant to understanding the absence of A. secure attachments among infants. B. bladder control among 2-year-olds. C. self-esteem among kindergarten students. D. moral behavior among adolescents.B
28. Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to begin toilet training their year-old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of A. imprinting. B. fluid intelligence. C. maturation. D. object permanence.C
29. The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to A. infantile amnesia. B. habituation. C. insecure attachment. D. stranger anxiety.A
30. Four-year-old Karen can't remember anything of the first few months of her life. This is best explained by the fact that A. the trauma of birth interfered with the subsequent formation of memories. B. most brain cells do not yet exist at the time of birth. C. experiences shortly after birth are a meaningless blur of darkness and light. D. she lacked language skills for organizing her early life experiences.D
31. Cognition refers to A. an emotional tie linking one person with another. B. the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. C. any process that facilitates the physical development of the brain. D. any process of change that accompanies maturation.B
32. Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development? A. Konrad Lorenz B. Jean Piaget C. Sigmund Freud D. Erik EriksonB
33. Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child A. is like a blank slate at birth. B. is not heavily influenced by maturation. C. develops through a series of stages. D. is heavily dependent on the child's personality.C
34. According to Piaget, schemas are A. fixed sequences of cognitive developmental stages. B. children's ways of coming to terms with their sexuality. C. people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences. D. problem-solving strategies that are typically not developed until the formal operational stage.C
35. Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called A. egocentrism. B. assimilation. C. imprinting. D. accommodation.B
36. The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of A. assimilation. B. conservation. C. accommodation. D. maturation.A
37. Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________. A. conservation; egocentrism B. imprinting; maturation C. sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage D. assimilation; accommodationD
38. According to Piaget, accommodation refers to A. parental efforts to include new children in the existing family structure. B. incorporating new experiences into existing schemas. C. developmental changes in a child's behavior that facilitate social acceptance by family and peers. D. adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.D
39. Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of A. habituation. B. assimilation. C. accommodation. D. attachment.C
40. Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development? A. preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor B. sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational C. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational D. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operationalC
41. Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ________ stage. A. preoperational B. concrete operational C. sensorimotor D. formal operationalC
42. During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived? A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. concrete operational D. formal operationalA
43. When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage. A. sensorimotor B. formal operational C. concrete operational D. preoperationalA
44. After 4-month-olds habituated to an image of a cube, they stared longer when shown A. a smaller rather than a larger version of the cube. B. a larger rather than a smaller version of the cube. C. a possible rather than an impossible version of the cube. D. an impossible rather than a possible version of the cube.D
45. When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants A. stared longer at the outcome. B. displayed rapid imprinting. C. demonstrated an obvious lack of object permanence. D. showed signs of formal operational reasoning.A
46. Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget A. overestimated the continuity of cognitive development. B. underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants. C. overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence. D. underestimated the impact of object permanence on infant attachment.B
47. According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ________ stage. A. concrete operational B. sensorimotor C. formal operational D. preoperationalD
48. If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to A. deal with the discipline of toilet training. B. see things from the point of view of another person. C. recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape. D. retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences.C
49. Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of A. object permanence. B. conservation. C. egocentrism. D. accommodation.B
50. The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by A. Harlow's attachment theory. B. Kohlberg's moral development theory. C. Piaget's cognitive development theory. D. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.C
51. According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to A. a sensorimotor need for self-stimulation, as evidenced in thumb sucking. B. young children's exaggerated interest in themselves and their own pleasure. C. the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view. D. the difficulty realizing that things continue to exist even when they are not visible.C
52. Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of A. accommodation. B. object permanence. C. conservation. D. egocentrism.D
53. Psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff described chimpanzees' seeming ability to read intentions as indicative of A. imprinting. B. a theory of mind. C. object permanence. D. crystallized intelligence.B
54. Preschoolers' acquisition of a theory of mind suggests that Piaget overestimated young children's A. egocentrism. B. habituation. C. stranger anxiety. D. sense of object permanence.A
55. Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a A. secure attachment. B. conventional morality. C. theory of mind. D. concept of conservation.C
56. Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n) A. sense of object permanence. B. insecure attachment. C. concept of conservation. D. theory of mind.D
57. An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with A. crystallized intelligence. B. concrete operational thought. C. role confusion. D. autism.D
58. One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called A. fetal alcohol syndrome. B. menarche. C. Alzheimer's disease. D. Asperger syndrome.D
59. Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn A. stranger anxiety. B. fetal alcohol syndrome. C. infantile amnesia. D. male systemizing tendency.D
60. When people with autism watch another person's hand movements, they display less ________ than most others. A. habituation B. egocentrism C. mirror neuron activity D. stranger anxietyC
61. The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by A. basic trust. B. inner speech. C. conservation. D. imprinting.B
62. According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about events first develops during the ________ stage. A. sensorimotor B. formal operational C. concrete operational D. preoperationalC
63. According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage. A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. concrete operational D. formal operationalC
64. According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage. A. concrete operational; preoperational B. sensorimotor; preoperational C. concrete operational; formal operational D. preoperational; concrete operationalD
65. According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage. A. preoperational B. concrete operational C. formal operational D. sensorimotorB
66. According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to A. reason abstractly. B. adhere to social norms. C. distinguish between good and bad behaviors. D. become aware of the positive and negative consequences of their own behaviors.A
67. Four-year-olds are not completely egocentric and 5-year-olds can exhibit some understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the A. importance of critical periods in early life. B. role of motivation in cognitive development. C. continuity of cognitive development. D. importance of early attachment experiences.C
68. At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates A. role confusion. B. insecure attachment. C. egocentrism. D. stranger anxiety.D
69. Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne has also just A. mastered the principle of conservation. B. overcome the limitation of egocentrism. C. developed a sense of object permanence. D. lost her sense of secure attachment.C
70. Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their A. schemas. B. attachments. C. theory of mind. D. self-concept.A
71. The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called A. attachment. B. habituation. C. assimilation. D. conservation.A
72. Little Karen will approach and play with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first reassures her that it is safe to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of A. conservation. B. attachment. C. egocentrism. D. habituation.B
73. Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with A. adequate nourishment. B. body contact. C. the opportunity to explore. D. self-esteem.B
74. Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to A. habituation. B. stranger anxiety. C. object permanence. D. secure attachment.D
75. A critical period is a phase during which A. children frequently disobey and resist their parents. B. children become able to think hypothetically and reason abstractly. C. parents frequently show impatience with a child's slowness in becoming toilet trained. D. certain events have a particularly strong impact on development.D
76. The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n) A. attachment. B. identity. C. theory of mind. D. primary sex characteristic.A
Which of the following is an example of imprinting? A. A 2-year-old poodle approaches a stranger who calls it. B. A 4-year-old boy imitates aggression he sees on television. C. A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball. D. A 3-year-old girl is simultaneously learning two different languages.C
78. Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be told that A. human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a mother-infant attachment. B. physical contact with her infant immediately after birth would not contribute to the development of mother-infant attachment. C. infants should be left physically undisturbed during the first few hours of life so they can rest. D. as long as she can breast-feed her baby, no lasting damage will be done.A
79. Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by A. conservation. B. egocentrism. C. mere exposure. D. infantile amnesia.C
80. One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates A. accommodation. B. secure attachment. C. conservation. D. egocentrism.B
81. Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of A. habituation. B. egocentrism. C. insecure attachment. D. accommodation.C
82. Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of A. egocentrism. B. habituation. C. conservation. D. insecure attachment.D
83. In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to A. act as though their mothers are of little importance to them. B. use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings. C. cling to their mothers and ignore the new surroundings. D. show hostility when their mothers approach them after a brief absence.B
84. Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants' demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant A. habituation. B. attachment. C. conservation. D. egocentrism.B
85. A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to encourage A. conservation. B. insecure attachment. C. object permanence. D. egocentrism.B
86. Evidence that easy, relaxed infants develop secure attachments more readily than difficult, emotionally intense babies would illustrate the importance of A. egocentrism. B. temperament. C. conservation. D. object permanence.B
87. Nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________. A. secure attachment; imprinting B. heredity; maturation C. accommodation; assimilation D. temperament; responsive parentingD
88. Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers? A. conventional morality B. responsive parenting C. stranger anxiety D. authoritarian disciplineB
89. Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of A. habituation. B. egocentrism. C. crystallized intelligence. D. insecure attachment.D
90. When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the Harlows' infant monkeys demonstrated signs of A. insecure attachment. B. egocentrism. C. basic trust. D. curiosity.A
91. Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of A. maturation. B. accommodation. C. secure attachment. D. object permanence.C
92. Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to A. form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world. B. encounter some difficulty in overcoming the limitation of egocentrism. C. encounter some difficulty in forming an attachment to her father. D. achieve formal operational intelligence more quickly than the average child.A
93. Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This most clearly contributes to A. egocentrism. B. conservation. C. object permanence. D. basic trust.D
94. Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of A. habituation. B. attachment. C. conservation. D. object permanence.B
95. Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation A. were totally apathetic and indifferent to the first monkeys they encountered. B. were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity. C. showed slower social development but more rapid cognitive development. D. showed no lasting adverse effects when placed in a socially enriched environment.B
96. Edith abuses both her 3-year-old and 1-year-old daughters. Her behavior is most likely related to a lack of A. childhood experience with younger brothers and sisters. B. maturation. C. an early and secure attachment to her own parents. D. formal operational intelligence.C
97. When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in A. object permanence. B. brain chemistry. C. conservation. D. habituation.B
98. Severe and prolonged child sexual abuse places children at risk for A. fetal alcohol syndrome. B. menarche. C. imprinting. D. substance abuse.D
99. When infants between 6 and 16 months of age were removed from their foster mothers and placed in stable adoptive homes, they typically showed A. initial distress in infancy and subsequent maladjustment at age 10. B. initial distress in infancy but no subsequent maladjustment at age 10. C. no initial distress in infancy but subsequent maladjustment at age 10. D. neither initial distress in infancy nor subsequent maladjustment at age 10.B
100. For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex-wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of A. a critical period. B. conservation. C. object permanence. D. attachment.D
101. In considering day-care opportunities for their four children, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor should be most concerned about whether the experience will influence A. egocentrism in their 3-year-old son, James. B. object permanence in their 2-year-old son, Billy. C. secure attachment in their 6-month-old daughter, Julia. D. maturation in their 4-year-old daughter, Sandra.C
102. An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most time in day-care facilities had A. slightly advanced language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness. B. slightly inferior language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness. C. slightly advanced language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness. D. slightly inferior language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.A
103. Mrs. Carmichael secretly dabs some lipstick on the nose of her 2-year-old son and then allows him to see his face in a mirror. The child is most likely to A. touch his own nose. B. touch the mirror at the point where the lipstick shows. C. wave at his mirror image as if it were another child. D. assimilate the lipstick mark into his existing self-concept.A
104. Combined data from 88 studies indicate that there are no differences in the self-esteem scores of children who are A. adoptees rather than nonadoptees. B. securely rather than insecurely attached. C. raised by authoritative rather than by authoritarian parents. D. in their early rather than their late teens.A
105. Compared with others their own age, children who form a positive self-concept are more likely to be A. obedient. B. egocentric. C. sociable. D. habituated.C
106. Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they A. expect obedience but are responsive to their children's needs. B. submit to their children's desires but are unresponsive in times of need. imdience. C.impose rules and expect obedience. D. exert control by setting rules and explaining the reasons for those rules.C
107. The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as ________ parents. A. authoritarian B. egocentric C. permissive D. authoritativeA
108. Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be A. authoritarian. B. conservative. C. permissive. D. authoritative.D
109. Authoritative parents are likely to have children who A. are obedient but have low self-esteem. B. have high self-esteem and are self-reliant. C. have high self-esteem but are somewhat dependent. D. are rebellious and have low self-esteem.B
110. At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean's parents are A. permissive. B. conservative. C. authoritarian. D. authoritative.D
111. Compared with authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be A. more conservative. B. less educated. C. more responsive. D. less trusting.C
112. If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that A. authoritative parenting is more effective than authoritarian parenting. B. permissive parenting is more effective than authoritative parenting. C. children's self-esteem stimulates warmly supportive parenting. D. warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.D
113. Adolescence extends from A. the beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations. B. 12 to 15 years of age. C. the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood. D. the beginning to the end of the growth spurt.C
114. People experience rapid physical growth and sexual maturation during A. late adolescence. B. puberty. C. the preoperational stage. D. late childhood.B
115. The body structures that enable reproduction are the A. primary sex characteristics. B. secondary sex characteristics. C. teratogens. D. frontal lobes.A
116. Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic? A. female ovaries B. male facial hair C. the male grip D. female heightB
117. Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________. A. male testes; adrenal glands B. female ovaries; deepened male voice C. male testes; female ovaries D. adrenal glands; underarm hairB
118. Puberty is most closely related to the onset of A. menopause. B. menarche. C. crystallized intelligence. D. conventional morality.B
119. The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl. A. sexual intercourse B. puberty C. menarche D. secure attachmentC
120. Boys who mature at an early age tend to be more A. physically uncoordinated. B. sexually inhibited. C. popular and self-assured. D. academically successful.C
121. Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be A. the most popular student in class. B. self-assured and independent. C. challenging her teacher's authority. D. the object of some teasing.D
122. The selective loss of unused connections among brain cells is called A. pruning. B. imprinting. C. conservation. D. accommodation.A
123. During adolescence, maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the ________. A. brainstem; pituitary B. pituitary; brainstem C. limbic system; frontal lobe D. frontal lobe; limbic systemD
124. The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development. A. conventional B. preconventional C. preoperational D. formal operationalD
125. Fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" She responded, "Those who had previously been blind would become leaders." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development. A. concrete operational B. postconventional C. formal operational D. preoperationalC
126. Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to ________ development. A. emotional B. physical C. moral D. socialC
127. According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality. A. conventional B. preconventional C. concrete operational D. postconventionalB
128. Regis thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality. A. conventional B. postconventional C. preconventional D. preoperationalC
129. Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates a(n) _______ morality. A. conventional B. unconventional C. preconventional D. postconventionalA
130. According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves A. behavior based on self-interest. B. affirmation of self-defined ethical principles. C. strong concern for social approval. D. unquestioning obedience to authority figures.B
131. Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage. A. postconventional B. concrete operational C. preconventional D. conventionalA
132. Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality. A. conventional; postconventional B. preconventional; postconventional C. conventional; preconventional D. preconventional; conventionalD
133. Kohlberg emphasized that human behavior becomes less selfish as we mature due to A. social development. B. physical development. C. cognitive development. D. economic development.C
134. Compared with adults from Western cultures that favor individualism, those from collectivist societies are LESS likely to develop ________ morality. A. preconventional B. postconventional C. concrete operational D. conventionalB
135. Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of ________ than of ________. A. individualistic societies; collectivist societies B. socialists; capitalists C. African Americans; White Americans D. Catholics; ProtestantsA
136. Haidt's social intuitionist account highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on A. attachment. B. egocentrism. C. moral judgments. D. stranger anxiety.C
137. Many people would find it more morally repulsive to kill someone by thrusting a knife into his or her body than by shooting him or her with a gun from a distance. This is best explained in terms of A. Erikson's psychosocial development theory. B. Piaget's cognitive development theory. C. Haidt's social intuitionist theory. D. Kohlberg's moral development theory.C
138. The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from A. social influence. B. crystallized intelligence. C. abnormal cognitive development. D. postconventional moral thinking.A
139. Learning to delay gratification promotes A. maturation. B. imprinting. C. moral action. D. permissive parenting.C
140. According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to A. infancy. B. childhood. C. adulthood. D. adolescence.D
141. According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the A. toddler. B. preschooler. C. elementary schoolchild. D. adolescent.D
142. Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by A. seeking a lifelong romantic relationship. B. severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends. C. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles. D. adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.C
143. Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents' values but does not fully accept her friends' standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of A. autonomy. B. identity. C. initiative. D. integrity.B
144. According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet A. experienced a sense of basic trust. B. achieved a sense of autonomy. C. strived for a sense of competence. D. solidified a sense of identity.D
145. An awareness of your distinctive status as an international student in a university far from your homeland best illustrates a sense of A. stranger anxiety. B. postconventional morality. C. social identity. D. insecure attachment.C
146. Branden is so apathetic about his occupational future that within two years of his high school graduation he had already been fired by four different employers. According to Erikson, Branden best illustrates A. crystallized intelligence. B. preconventional morality. C. role confusion. D. egocentrism.C
147. Which of the following best describes adolescent self-esteem? A. It rises through the early teen years and falls during the late teen years. B. It falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years. C. It rises through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years. D. It falls through the early teen years and falls during the late teen years.B
148. Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for A. competence. B. intimacy. C. autonomy. D. trust.B
149. Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also tend to A. have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends. B. have somewhat less intimate relationships with girlfriends. C. take longer than normal to establish their own independence and separate identity. D. have difficulty forming intimate relationships with boys.A
150. Adolescence is typically a time of A. diminishing parental influence and diminishing peer influence. B. growing parental influence and growing peer influence. C. diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence. D. growing parental influence and diminishing peer influence.C
151. Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________, and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________. A. language accents; college choices B. dating practices; religious faith C. bedtime preferences; political viewsD
152. Today's earlier female sexual maturation is especially likely among A. underweight girls in father-absent homes. B. overweight girls in father-absent homes. C. underweight girls in father-present homes. D. overweight girls in father-present homes.B
153. An elaborate ceremony used to celebrate a person's emergence into adulthood is an example of a A. schema. B. critical period. C. secure attachment. D. rite of passage.D
154. Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared to previous centuries? A. It begins earlier in life and ends earlier in life. B. It begins later in life and ends earlier in life. C. It begins earlier in life and ends later in life. D. It begins later in life and ends later in life.C
155. A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called A. puberty. B. maturation. C. emerging adulthood. D. postconventional morality.C
156. Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during A. late adolescence. B. early adulthood. C. puberty. D. middle adulthood.B
225. Research on the perceptual abilities of newborns indicates that they A. see nothing for the first 12 hours. B. see only differences in brightness. C. recognize the outlines of objects but none of the details. D. look more at a facelike image than at a bull's-eye pattern.D
226. Research indicates that 3weekold human infants can distinguish A. their mother's voice from that of a female stranger. B. differences in light intensity but not differences in shape. C. their mother's face from that of a female stranger. D. differences in sound intensity but not differences in sound quality.A
227. Kristen is a normal, healthy newborn. Research indicates that A. she has most of the brain cells she is ever going to have. B. the neural connections that will enable her to think and talk are already completely formed. C. she is already capable of forming permanent lifelong memories. D. all of these statements are true.A
228. The immaturity of an infant's nervous system is best demonstrated by its limited A. teratogens. B. number of brain cells. C. imprinting. D. neural networks.D
229. Excess neural connections in the brain's association areas are reduced through a process of A. accommodation. B. imprinting. C. attachment. D. pruning.D
230. Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as A. habituation. B. imprinting. C. generativity. D. maturation.D
231. Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children's A. walking. B. crawling. C. bladder control. D. stranger anxiety.B
232. Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. This best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills. A. responsive parenting B. maturation C. accommodation D. habituationB
233. It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old. This best illustrates the importance of A. assimilation. B. imprinting. C. accommodation. D. maturation.D
234. Three-year-olds who experienced a fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker were unable to remember the cause of this vivid event when they were 10-year-olds. This best illustrates A. habituation. B. assimilation. C. infantile amnesia. D. crystallized intelligence.C
Poor memory for early life experiences results from a baby's relative lack ofmaturation.
WHEN tethered to a mobile, infants learned the association betweenkicking and the mobile's movement
237. Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development. A. social B. cognitive C. emotional D. physicalB
238. A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information is called a(n) A. attachment. B. temperament. C. schema. D. neural network.C
239. The processes of assimilation and accommodation were most clearly highlighted by A. Kohlberg's moral development theory. B. Harlows' attachment theory. C. Erikson's psychosocial development theory. D. Piaget's cognitive development theory.D
240. According to Piaget, assimilation involves A. the absorption of nutrients into the body for growth and development. B. training children to behave in a socially acceptable manner. C. interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding. D. altering existing schemas in order to incorporate new information.C
241. Three-year-old Zara calls all four-legged animals "kitties." Her tendency to fit all four-legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of A. conservation. B. assimilation. C. accommodation. D. egocentrism.B
242. Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called A. habituation. B. accommodation. C. assimilation. D. maturation.B
243. When people recognize the inaccuracy of ethnic stereotypes and revise their beliefs, they are demonstrating the process of A. maturation. B. assimilation. C. imprinting. D. accommodation.D
244. Piaget claimed that children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people, objects, and events during the ________ stage. A. concrete operational B. sensorimotor C. formal operational D. preoperationalB
245. The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as A. conservation. B. assimilation. C. object permanence. D. habituation.C
246. Lisa attempts to retrieve her bottle after her father hides it under a blanket. This suggests that Lisa has developed a sense of A. egocentrism. B. object permanence. C. conservation. D. accommodation.B
247. The discovery that 5-month-old infants stare longer at numerically impossible outcomes suggests that Piaget A. underestimated the importance of imprinting on infant attachment. B. overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence. C. underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants. D. overestimated the continuity of cognitive development.C
248. According to Piaget, children in the preoperational stage are able to A. represent objects with words and images. B. reason abstractly and test hypotheses. C. understand the world only by observing the consequences of their own actions. D. think logically about tangible things.A
249. The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called A. imprinting. B. conservation. C. object permanence. D. accommodation.B
250. Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of A. conservation. B. egocentrism. C. assimilation. D. object permanence.A
251. Current research on cognitive development indicates that A. Piaget overestimated the cognitive competence of young children. B. mental skills develop earlier than Piaget believed. C. Piaget's theory may apply only to middleclass male children. D. Piaget overlooked the importance of imprinting on cognitive development.B
252. Although Mr. Tong was obviously busy reading an absorbing novel, his 5-year-old daughter kept interrupting him with comments and questions about the TV cartoons she was watching. Before Mr. Tong becomes irritated with his daughter for being inconsiderate, he should be alerted to Piaget's concept of A. object permanence. B. conservation. C. egocentrism. D. accommodation.C
253. According to Piaget, an egocentric child can best be described as A. selfish. B. conceited. C. lacking in self-esteem. D. cognitively limited.D
254. A tendency to exaggerate the extent to which our own opinions are shared by others best illustrates A. egocentrism. B. habituation. C. conservation. D. accommodation.A
255. Children's ability to infer other people's intentions and feelings is indicative of their emerging A. theory of mind. B. conservation. C. conventional morality. D. object permanence.A
256. Children's emerging ability to tease, empathize, and persuade is a sign that they are developing a theory of mind and that they are not completely A. egocentric. B. imprinted. C. habituated. D. accommodated.A
257. The ability of preschool children to empathize with classmates who are feeling sad illustrates that preoperational children have developed A. a sense of integrity. B. conventional morality. C. a theory of mind. D. a concept of conservation.C
258. In an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children's A. habituation. B. moral reasoning. C. theory of mind. D. stranger anxiety.C
259. Autism is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired A. capacity for stranger anxiety. B. sense of object permanence. C. theory of mind. D. concept of conservation.C
260. Recognizing whether someone's facial expression is conveying a happy smile or a self-satisfied smirk is especially difficult for those with A. autism. B. fluid intelligence. C. infantile amnesia. D. crystallized intelligence.A
261. Men over 40 have a higher risk of fathering a child with autism than do men under 30 because they have a higher frequency of ________ in their sperm-producing cells. A. telomeres. B. teratogens. C. random genetic mutations. D. mirror neuron activity.C
262. According to Piaget, children acquire the mental operations needed to comprehend such things as mathematical transformations and conservation during the ________ stage. A. preoperational B. sensorimotor C. concrete operational D. formal operationalC
263. Gilbert notices that his sausage is sliced into six pieces, whereas his brother's is sliced into nine pieces. He understands, however, that his brother's sausage is not actually any larger than his own. This indicates that Gilbert has by now reached the ________ stage of development. A. concrete operational B. sensorimotor C. formal operational D. preoperationalA
264. According to Piaget, the preoperational stage is to the concrete operational stage as ________ is to ________. A. assimilation; accommodation B. object permanence; stranger anxiety C. egocentrism; conservation D. responsive parenting; temperamentC
265. According to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stage, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate A. object permanence. B. comprehension of mathematical transformations. C. the ability to think hypothetically. D. any evidence of logic.C
266. According to Piaget, people are first able to reason abstractly and think hypothetically during the ________ stage. A. preoperational B. postconventional C. formal operational D. concrete operationalC
267. Contemporary research suggests that Piaget identified fairly accurately ________ of major cognitive developmental milestones. A. both the sequence and the age-related timing B. the sequence but not the age-related timing C. the age-related timing but not the sequence D. neither the sequence nor the age-related timingB
268. Vygotsky emphasized that parents help children achieve advanced levels of thinking by sharing A. words. B. schemas. C. intimacy. D. critical periods.A
269. The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of A. conservation. B. stranger anxiety. C. self-awareness. D. egocentrism.B
270. Eighteen-month-old Justin follows his mother around the house, clinging tightly to her when he is frightened. This best illustrates A. object permanence. B. attachment behavior. C. stranger anxiety. D. accommodation.B
271. Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of A. habituation. B. conservation. C. attachment. D. egocentrism.C
272. The Harlows' studies of infant monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that body contact promotes A. egocentrism. B. attachment.B
Infant monkeys raised with a nourishing wire mother and a nonnourishing cloth mother . A. preferred the nourishing wire mother. B. preferred the nonnourishing cloth mother. C. showed no preference for one mother over the other. D. shifted their initial preference for the wire mother to the cloth mother as they matured.B
274. Mr. Johnson spends time each day caressing and rocking his infant daughter. This time together should serve most directly to promote A. secure attachment. B. stranger anxiety. C. egocentrism. D. conservation.A
275. Dr. Wong believes that children whose parents are not responsive to their needs during the first two months of life will never develop basic trust. Obviously, Dr. Wong believes that this developmental stage is a A. concrete operational stage. B. critical period. C. cognitive schema. D. teratogen.B
276. The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called A. imprinting. B. habituation. C. assimilation. D. accommodation.A
277. Lambs raised in the barn where the cattle are kept tend to stay near the cattle when subsequently placed in open pasture. This best illustrates a process known as A. imprinting. B. conservation. C. accommodation. D. egocentrism.A
278. Which of the following factors is important for the development of attachment bonds between human infants and their mothers? A. conservation B. familiarity C. egocentrism D. stranger anxietyB
279. At 12 months of age, Jeremy shows no more desire to be held by his own parents than by complete strangers. His behavior best illustrates A. object permanence. B. insecure attachment. C. conservation. D. egocentrism.B
280. Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her baby-sitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held. Alicia most clearly showed signs of A. conservation. B. stranger anxiety. C. secure attachment. D. egocentrism.C
281. Dr. Ensing studies the reactions of very young children who are briefly separated from their mothers while in an unfamiliar setting. It is most likely that Dr. Ensing is conducting research on A. attachment. B. conservation. C. egocentrism. D. imprinting.A
282. In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with an insecure maternal attachment are most likely to A. demonstrate unusually low levels of stranger anxiety. B. happily leave their mother's side and explore their new surroundings. C. feel happy when their mothers leave them. D. show indifference to their mother's return after a brief absence.D
283. A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to encourage A. egocentrism. B. stranger anxiety. C. secure attachment. D. conservation.C
284. Infants who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of A. B. C. D. Answer: C 285. When These A. B. C. D. egocentrism. conservation. insecure attachment. habituation.C
1-year-old Andrea tries to talk, her mother talks back; when she smiles, her mother smiles in return. these maternal reactions are most relevant to Andrea's development of a secure attachment. conservation. egocentrism. object permanence.A
286. At 16 months of age, Edmund is uncertain whether his busy parents will take time to feed him when he is hungry. This is most indicative of A. insecure attachment. B. egocentrism. C. conservation. D. habituation.A
287. Many young children with divorced or unmarried parents have been deprived of parental care and attention. This is likely to put them at increased risk for A. infantile amnesia. B. egocentrism. C. stranger anxiety. D. insecure attachments.D
288. Questions about the extent to which secure attachments are influenced by infant temperament or by responsive parenting are most directly relevant to the issue of A. continuity or stages. B. stability or change. C. nature or nurture. D. assimilation or accommodation.C
289. Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience A. stranger anxiety. B. egocentrism. C. basic trust. D. object permanence.C
290. Erik Erikson suggested that a sense of basic trust during infancy results from A. habituation. B. object permanence. C. responsive parenting. D. inborn temperament.C
291. Securely attached people exhibit less A. habituation. B. object permanence. C. authoritative parenting. D. fear of failure.D
292. Monkeys raised in total isolation have been observed to A. imprint to the first moving object they observe. B. become very fearful or aggressive when brought into close contact with other monkeys their age. C. form a close attachment to the first monkey with whom they experience bodily contact. D. show complete apathy and indifference to the first monkeys they encounter.B
293. Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were A. raised in a permissive and overindulgent environment. B. raised by authoritative parents. C. prevented from interacting with childhood peers. D. battered or neglected as children.D
294. Golden hamsters that are repeatedly threatened and attacked while young grow up to be ________ when caged with same-sized hamsters. A. egocentric. B. cowards. C. securely attached. D. bullies.B
295. Foster care that moves a young child through a series of foster families is most likely to result in the disruption of A. conservation. B. habituation. C. attachment. D. object permanence.C
296. Children who experience ________ have an increased likelihood of receiving both lower-quality day care and authoritarian parenting. A. stranger anxiety B. infantile amnesia C. family poverty D. crystallized intelligenceC
297. Problem behaviors are more likely to be associated with a child's ________ than with the amount of time the child spends in day care. A. sense of object permanence B. secondary sex characteristics C. infantile amnesia D. temperamentD
298. Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to A. recognize the image as himself. B. show no interest and ignore what he sees. C. reach toward the image as if it were another child. D. be somewhat frightened and turn away.C
299. To recognize that a face seen in a mirror is his or her own, a child must have a A. theory of mind. B. secure attachment. C. self-concept. D. concept of conservation.C
300. Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of A. egocentrism. B. object permanence. C. habituation. D. self-awareness.D
301. Psychologists describe childrearing in which rules are imposed without explanation as a(n) ________ style. A. authoritative B. egocentric C. permissive D. authoritarianD
302. Authoritarian parents are especially likely to be A. inflexible. B. educated. C. permissive. D. trusting.A
303. Two characteristics of authoritative parents are that they provide children with A. clear behavior expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness. B. confusing behavior expectations and demonstrate low levels of parental responsiveness. C. clear behavior expectations and demonstrate low levels of parental responsiveness. D. confusing behavior expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness.A
304. The Albertsons establish and enforce rules for their children to follow. They give reasons for the rules and invite their teenagers to join in the discussion when new rules are being made. Psychologists would characterize the Albertsons as ________ parents. A. authoritarian B. legalistic C. authoritative D. permissiveC
305. Parents who make few demands on their children and use little punishment are A. authoritarian. B. authoritative. C. egocentric. D. permissive.D
306. Levels of self-esteem in children are highest among children with ________ parents. A. permissive B. authoritative C. conservative D. authoritarianB
307. Parents who discuss and negotiate family rules are especially likely to raise children who are A. self-reliant. B. insecurely attached. C. disobedient. D. egocentric.A
308. In formulating his theory of psychosocial development, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young children's A. theory of mind. B. autonomy and initiative. C. assimilation and accommodation. D. conventional morality.B
309. Which of the following phases of development extends from the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood? A. puberty B. adolescence C. menopause D. menarcheB
310. The term puberty refers to the period of A. formal operations and the development of conventional morality. B. late adolescence when selfidentity is formed. C. rapid physical development and the onset of reproductive capability. D. sexual attraction to the oppositesex parent.C
311. An example of a primary sex characteristic is a A. woman's ovaries. B. man's larynx. C. woman's breasts. D. man's adrenal glands.A
312. Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called A. masculine prototypes. B. secondary sex characteristics. C. primary sex characteristics. D. teratogens.B
313. The term menarche refers to the A. onset of male sexual potency. B. first menstrual period. C. development of the primary sex characteristics. D. cessation of menstruation.B
314. A male's first ejaculation A. almost always produces feelings of guilt. B. typically facilitates habituation. C. usually occurs as a nocturnal emission. D. signifies a physical readiness to father children.C
315. Who is likely to be the most popular student in the fifth-grade class? A. Helmut, who is the tallest boy in the class B. Jeff, who is the statistician for the basketball team C. Hara, who is below average in height and physical maturity D. Sally, who is the most sexually mature girl in the classA
316. The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence due to the growth of A. myelin. B. the self-concept. C. the pituitary gland. D. secondary sex characteristics.A
317. The improved judgment and impulse control that occur as adolescents grow older is made possible by the development of A. primary sex characteristics. B. secondary sex characteristics. C. the frontal lobes. D. the limbic system.C
318. Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development. A. concrete operational B. formal operational C. preconventional D. postconventionalB
319. "If you're really concerned about the rights and dignity of women," Yigal asked his older brother, "how can you justify buying pornographic magazines?" Yigal's question indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development. A. formal operational B. conventional C. preconventional D. concrete operationalA
320. Like Piaget, Kohlberg emphasized that children's moral judgments build on their A. cognitive development. B. social development. C. physical development. D. economic development.A
321. Cognitive development is to Piaget as moral development is to ________. A. Erikson B. Harlow C. Lorenz D. KohlbergD
322. Which theory would most likely suggest that children often take turns passing and shooting a basketball because they want to avoid having others angry at them, whereas adolescents often do so because they want to play the game the way it's supposed to be played? A. Erikson's psychosocial development theory B. Piaget's cognitive development theory C. Harlows' attachment theory D. Kohlberg's moral development theoryD
323. Henry disapproves of stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Henry best represents a ________ morality. A. conventional B. preconventional C. concrete operational D. postconventionalB
324. According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ________ stage. A. preconventional B. preoperational C. conventional D. postconventionalC
325. A student who does not cheat on tests because he doesn't want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ________ stage. A. preconventional B. preoperational C. conventional D. postconventionalC
326. Formal operational thought is MOST necessary for the development of ________ morality. A. preoperational B. conventional C. preconventional D. postconventionalD
327. Preconventional morality is to postconventional morality as ________ is to ________. A. caring relationship; ethical principles B. selfinterest; social approval C. social approval; selfinterest D. selfinterest; ethical principlesD
328. A postconventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value A. individualism. B. crystallized intelligence. C. assimilation. D. authoritarian parenting.A
329. Which theory emphasizes that immediate gut-level feelings often precede and influence our moral reasoning? A. Erikson's psychosocial development theory B. Piaget's cognitive development theory C. Haidt's social intuitionist theory D. Kohlberg's moral development theoryC
330. Killing one person in order to save five by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley is judged as more morally acceptable than killing one person in order to save five by pushing a stranger directly into the path of the oncoming trolley. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect A. fluid intelligence. B. gut-level intuitions. C. stranger anxiety. D. formal operational thought.B
331. Today's character education programs teach children to experience A. habituation. B. object permanence. C. empathy. D. maturation.C
332. Piaget is to cognitive development as Erikson is to ________ development. A. moral B. physical C. emotional D. psychosocialD
333. According to Erikson, infancy is to trust as adolescence is to A. autonomy. B. identity. C. generativity. D. integrity.B
334. According to Erikson, later adulthood is to integrity as young adulthood is to A. autonomy. B. initiative. C. intimacy. D. identity.C
335. According to Erikson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience A. postconventional morality. B. role confusion. C. egocentrism. D. dementia.B
336. According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of A. autonomy. B. competence. C. initiative. D. identity.D
337. Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks A. identity. B. initiative. C. autonomy. D. industry.A
338. Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates A. separation anxiety. B. role confusion. C. egocentricity. inferiority.B
339. When surrounded by men, a woman may become mindful of her gender because ________ often forms around one's distinctiveness. A. social identity B. a secure attachment C. egocentrism D. object permanenceA
340. As individuals progress through their teen years into early adulthood, their selfconcepts typically become A. less personalized and unique. B. more fluid and changeable. C. less integrated. D. more positive.D
341. Erikson suggested that the capacity to form close, loving relationships in young adulthood depended on A. demonstrating generativity. B. developing a sense of integrity. C. mastering formal operational thinking. D. achieving a sense of identity.D
342. Adolescents and their parents are most likely to have disagreements regarding A. religious beliefs. B. career choices. C. college choices. D. homework.D
343. Research on teen social relationships indicates that most adolescents A. like their parents. B. seldom experience feelings of loneliness. C. want to avoid emotionally close relationships with peers. D. experience positive relationships with peers and negative relationships with parents.A
344. Compared with 40 years ago, in the United States today people are likely to A. establish their adult careers at an earlier age. B. marry for the first time at a later age. C. live separately from their parents at an earlier age. D. experience their first menstrual period at a later age.B
345. Which of the following is TRUE of adolescence today as compared to a century ago? A. Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs later in life. B. Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life. C. Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life. D. Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.D
346. Which of the following is true of physical development in adult life? A. The outward signs of advancing years are psychologically stressful for adults in every culture. B. Sensory ability and reaction time reach their peak by the midtwenties. C. Most adults are keenly aware of the first signs of physical decline. D. None of these statements are true.B
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