antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by

antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by


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1. Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is A. aggressive, persistent, and intentional. B. selfish, habitual, and avoidable. C. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. D. biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change.C
2. Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as A. deviant. B. disinhibiting. C. dysfunctional. D. disorganized.A
3. Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is A. also noticeable in other members of her family. B. preventing her from functioning effectively. C. not caused by a biological disorder. D. difficult for her to change.B
4. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of A. OCD. B. PTSD. C. ADHD. D. DID.C
5. Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry's behavior is most characteristic of A. hypochondriasis. B. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.B
6. ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder. A. more; increasing B. less; decreasing C. more; decreasing D. less; increasingD
7. Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of ________. A. stimulant; PTSD B. stimulant; ADHD C. depressant; PTSD D. depressant; ADHDB
8. Individuals diagnosed with ________ experience a normal but delayed thinning of the frontal cerebral cortex. A. depression B. hypochondriasis C. generalized anxiety disorder D. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorderD
9. The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations A. were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia. B. encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity. C. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments. D. absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.C
10. According to the medical model, psychological disorders are A. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured. B. maladaptive responses to a troubling environment. C. purely imaginary symptoms of distress. D. learned habits that need to be extinguished.A
11. The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of A. psychoanalytic theory. B. the medical model. C.DSM-IV-TR. D. the social-cognitive perspective.B
12. The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of A. social circumstances and psychological factors. B. biological evolution. C. the DSM-IV-TR. D. genetically influenced abnormalities.A
13. It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western cultures. A. learning perspective B. medical model C. social-cognitive perspective D. biopsychosocial approachB
14. Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide. A. dissociative identity disorder B. anorexia nervosa C. schizophrenia D. sustoC
15. Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by A. DSM-IV-TR. B. the medical model. C. the learning perspective. D. the biopsychosocial approach.D
16. Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates A. the medical model. B. the learning perspective. C. linkage analysis. D. a biopsychosocial approach.D
17. The DSM-IV-TR does NOT A. include a classification of personality disorders. B. explain the causes of the various psychological disorders. C. include a very broad range of psychological disorders. D. provide reliable guidelines for diagnosing psychological disorders.B
18. DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to A. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses. B. shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis. C. avoid invading clients' psychological privacy. D. reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.A
19. Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels of the A. MDMA. B. DSM-IV-TR. C. PTSD. D. THC.B
20. DSM-IV-TR is most likely to be criticized for A. attempting to explain behavior by simply labeling it. B. classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered. C. failing to base diagnoses on observable behaviors. D. inhibiting scientific efforts to discover the underlying causes of psychological disorders.B
21. One facet of the positive psychology movement has been the introduction of a classification system designed to aid in the process of A. assessing human strengths. B. explaining psychological disorders. C. reducing current reliance on the DSM-IV-TR. D. shortening the time it takes to classify psychological disorders.A
22. A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often A. bias our perceptions of the labeled person. B. represent attempts by psychologists to explain behavior by simply naming it. C. interfere with effective research on the causes of these disorders. D. interfere with effective treatment of these disorders.A
23. After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the A. unreliability of DSM-IV-TR. B. shortcomings of the medical model. C. biasing power of diagnostic labels. D. dangers of the biopsychosocial approach.C
24. When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of A. the medical model. B. linkage analysis. C. self-fulfilling prophecies. D. the psychoanalytic perspective.C
25. The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients' complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of A. linkage analysis. B. diagnostic labels. C. the medical model. D. the biopsychosocial approach.B
26. A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to A. have schizophrenia. B. be depressed. C. be manic. D. be insane.D
27. Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of A. bipolar disorder. B. an anxiety disorder. C. catatonia. D. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.B
28. Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from A. bipolar disorder. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. a phobia.C
29. A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by A. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. B. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal. C. hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion. D. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.B
30. Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is A. cyclical. B. free-floating. C. narcissistic. D. completely outside of conscious awareness.B
31. While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from A. bipolar disorder. B. a panic attack. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. a delusion.B
32. In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are A. more intense and more prolonged. B. less intense and less prolonged. C. more intense and less prolonged. D. less intense and more prolonged.C
33. Which of the following disorders is characterized by the most sudden and unpredictable episodes of distress? A. social phobia B. panic disorder C. bipolar disorder D. alcohol dependenceB
34. Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of certain A. delusions. B. hallucinations. C. phobias. D. obsessions.C
35. Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. histrionic personality disorder. C. bipolar disorder. D. a phobia.D
36. An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of A. mania. B. catatonia. C. a specific phobia. D. a dissociative disorderC
37. An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of A. panic disorder. B. social phobia. C. antisocial personality disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.B
38. Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. a mood disorder. C. agoraphobia. D. bipolar disorder.C
39. Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie's behavior is most characteristic of A. agoraphobia. B. generalized anxiety disorder. C. somatoform disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.A
40. Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenthfloor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing A. panic disorder. B. hypochondriasis. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.D
41. Obsessions are A. persistent, irrational fears of specific objects or situations. B. false beliefs of persecution or grandeur. C. periodic episodes of intense dread accompanied by frightening physical sensations. D. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.D
42. Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of A. mania. B. an obsession. C. agoraphobia. D. panic disorder.B
43. The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of A. antisocial personality disorder. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. bipolar disorder. D. schizophrenia.B
44. Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your hands is to ________. A. schizophrenia; dissociation B. depression; mania C. delusion; phobia D. obsession; compulsionD
45. The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best illustrate symptoms of A. DID. B. ADHD. C. OCD. D. PTSD.D
46. Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of A. panic disorder. B. post-traumatic stress disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. conversion disorder.B
47. Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________, which floods the body with stress hormones. A. motor cortex B. cerebellum C. limbic system D. frontal lobeC
48. Some psychologists believe that due partly to a broader definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been overdiagnosing A. panic disorder. B. PTSD. C. OCD. D. schizophrenia.B
49. Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor A. mania. B. catatonia. C. dissociation. D. resiliency.D
50. Positive psychological changes that result from struggling with extremely challenging life crises demonstrate A. dissociation. B. linkage analysis. C. post-traumatic growth. D. the medical model.C
51. According to the ________ perspective, anxiety is sometimes produced by the submerged mental energy associated with repressed impulses. A. biological B. learning C. psychoanalytic D. social-cognitiveC
52. Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from A. stimulus generalization. B. observational learning. C. reinforcement. D. classical conditioning.D
53. Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective. A. humanistic B. learning C. biological D. psychoanalyticB
54. Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke's therapist suggests that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground accident in which he fell off a jungle gym. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ________ perspective. A. learning B. psychoanalytic C. humanistic D. biologicalA
55. A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates A. a conversion disorder. B. agoraphobia. C. stimulus generalization. D. linkage analysis.C
56. Julius is obsessed with avoiding germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 times a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his maladaptive bathing because this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety on many past occasions. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective. A. biological B. learning C. psychoanalytic D. humanisticB
57. Obsessive thoughts typically ________ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically ________ anxiety. A. increase; increase B. decrease; decrease C. increase; decrease D. decrease; increaseC
58. As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed toaster cord. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters. This best illustrates that fear can be learned through A. stimulus generalization. B. observational learning. C. linkage analysis. D. reinforcement.B
59. We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This is best explained from a ________ perspective. A. learning B. biological C. psychoanalytic D. humanisticB
60. It has been suggested that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to the survival of the human species. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective. A. humanistic B. learning C. psychoanalytic D. biologicalD
61. A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias. A. explanatory style B. catatonia C. genetic predispositions D. mood disordersC
62. Some studies suggest that an anxiety gene affects the brain's level of the neurotransmitter A. dopamine. B. serotonin. C. epinephrine. D. acetylcholine.B
63. The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with A. generalized anxiety disorder. B. a dissociative disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. antisocial personality disorder.C
64. A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a A. personality disorder. B. somatoform disorder. C. mood disorder. D. dissociative disorder.B
65. Compared with people in many Western countries, people in China more often A. experience anorexia nervosa. B. suffer from bipolar disorders. C. report physical symptoms of psychological distress. D. exhibit dissociative identity disorder.C
66. A conversion disorder is most likely to be characterized by A. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism. B. a continuous state of tensions, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal. C. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. D. very specific physical symptoms that have no apparent physiological basis.D
67. Which of the following disorders was more common in Freud's day than it is today? A. depression B. anorexia nervosa C. conversion disorder D. dissociative identity disorderC
68. During a heated argument with his father, Mike was suddenly unable to move his right arm. Medical examinations are unable to detect a physiological basis for the paralysis. It is likely that Mike suffers from A. agoraphobia. B. hypochondriasis. C. a dissociative disorder. D. a conversion disorder.D
69. Misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a dreaded disease is indicative of A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. catatonia. C. hypochondriasis. D. mania.C
70. Rachel is convinced that her occasional headaches are caused by a malignant brain tumor. Although several physicians have assured her that she has no serious physical problem, Rachel continues to seek medical attention for a brain tumor. Her behavior provides an example of A. dissociative disorder. B. generalized anxiety disorder. C. hypochondriasis. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.D
71. Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of ________ disorders. A. somatoform B. obsessive-compulsive C. generalized anxiety D. dissociativeD
72. William, an airplane pilot, is unable to remember anything of a bombing raid in which his plane was severely damaged and two crew members were killed. Because he himself suffered no physical injuries, psychologists suspect that William probably suffers from A. panic disorder. B. a dissociative disorder. C. a phobia. D. bipolar disorder.B
73. A sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. generalized anxiety disorder. C. agoraphobia. D. dissociation.D
74. Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n) A. conversion disorder. B. dissociative disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. antisocial personality disorder.B
75. The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by A. a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness. B. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. C. delusions of persecution and grandiosity. D. a lack of guilt feelings.A
76. College students were asked to pretend that they were accused murderers. Under hypnosis, they typically expressed a second personality when prompted to do so by the examining psychiatrist. This most strongly suggests that dissociative identity disorder may involve A. low self-esteem. B. unconscious fear. C. a negative explanatory style. D. role-playing.D
77. Researchers have suggested that the role-playing of fantasy-prone patients in response to the leading questions of therapists has often contributed to A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. dissociative identity disorder. C. bipolar disorder. D. agoraphobia.B
78. A biological perspective would be LEAST helpful for explaining the A. prevalence of schizophrenia throughout the world. B. fluctuations in mood experienced by those suffering a bipolar disorder. C. fear of snakes experienced by a high percentage of Americans. D. dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the past 40 or so years.D
79. Connie exhibits multiple personalities. Evidence that information learned by her secondary personality influences the moods and behaviors of her primary personality would most clearly rule out the contribution of ________ to her symptoms. A. role-playing B. sexual trauma C. dissociation D. motivational conflictC
80. Noah's therapist suggests that Noah developed a dissociative identity disorder in order to misbehave without feeling a strong sense of personal shame. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective. A. humanistic B. social-cognitive C. psychoanalytic D. biologicalC
81. Evidence that many DID patients have suffered abuse as children leads some psychologists to include dissociative disorders under the umbrella of A. panic disorder. B. social phobia. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. post-traumatic stress disorder.D
82. The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of A. social phobia. B. flat affect. C. emotional extremes. D. paranoia.C
83. The experience of depression ________ risk taking and ________ aggression. A. inhibits; stimulates B. stimulates; inhibits C. inhibits; inhibits D. stimulates; stimulatesC
84. Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. evolutionary C. psychoanalytic D. learningB
85. A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by A. delusions of persecution. B. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism. C. a persistent irrational fear of other people. D. feelings of personal worthlessness.D
86. For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from A. agoraphobia. B. major depressive disorder. C. PTSD. D. antisocial personality disorder.B
87. A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as A. paranoia. B. mania. C. a panic attack. D. hypochondriasis.B
88. Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customers' cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into "real racing machines." When an employee tried to restrain him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of A. a dissociative disorder. B. catatonia. C. a panic attack. D. mania.D
89. In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement? A. conversion disorder B. bipolar disorder C. obsessive-compulsive disorder D. schizophreniaB
90. Since the early 1990s, adolescents with strong mood swings have been increasingly likely to be diagnosed as suffering from A. panic disorder. B. hypochondriasis. C. bipolar disorder. D. agoraphobia.C
91. During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to A. be overactive. B. experience delusions of persecution. C. feel uncontrollable grief and despair. D. experience visual or auditory hallucinations.A
92. George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of A. agoraphobia. B. a dissociative disorder. C. bipolar disorder. D. hypochondriasis.C
93. Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among A. preadolescent children. B. teen children. C. young adults. D. old adults.A
94. Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n) A. decrease in self-focused thinking. B. increased expectation of negative outcomes. C. increased externalization of blame. D. increased obsession with experiencing physical pleasure.B
95. Research regarding depression indicates that A. depression is typically unrelated to stressful life events. B. depression is unlikely to be overcome without professional help. C. depression is associated with abnormally high levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. D. with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence.D
96. Which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger toward parents? A. social-cognitive B. biological C. psychoanalytic D. learningC
97. Laura's husband died three years ago, but she is still depressed. Her therapist suggests that she is really angry at her husband for abandoning her. The therapist's interpretation reflects the ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. psychoanalytic C. learning D. biologicalB
98. Linkage analysis is of greatest interest to those who attempt to explain mood disorders from a ________ perspective. A. psychoanalytic B. biological C. social-cognitive D. humanisticB
99. Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women. A. higher; higher B. lower; lower C. higher; lower D. lower; higherA
100. The risk of suicide is greatest when people A. anticipate the onset of a depressive episode. B. experience the first symptoms of a depressive episode. C. experience depressive symptoms at their most extreme levels of severity. D. begin to rebound from their depression.D
101. Of those who talk of suicide, ________ actually attempt suicide. Of those who attempt suicide, ________ succeed in completing the act. A. only a few; most B. most; only a few C. only a few; only a few D. most; mostC
102. Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter A. acetylcholine. B. norepinephrine. C. dopamine. D. estrogen.B
103. Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with A. panic attacks. B. schizophrenia. C. depression. D. dissociative disorders.C
104. By boosting serotonin, antidepressant drugs stimulate the growth of neurons in the A. cerebellum. B. hippocampus. C. reticular formation. D. sympathetic nervous system.B
105. Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression? A. psychoanalytic B. biological C. social-cognitive D. humanisticC
106. According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to A. have unrealistically optimistic goals in life. B. experience learned helplessness. C. experience low levels of norepinephrine. D. experience cyclical variations in hormone levels.B
107. Women are at greater risk of depression than men partially because women are more likely to ________ in response to stressful circumstances. A. overthink B. externalize blame C. suffer memory loss D. become socially withdrawnA
108. The social-cognitive perspective has emphasized that depression is perpetuated by A. motivational conflict. B. self-blaming attributions. C. egocentrism. D. conscious role-playing.B
109. Internal, stable, and global explanations of one's own failures are indicative of A. optimism. B. extraversion. C. pessimism. D. introversion.C
110. Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression? A. psychoanalytic B. biological C. learning D. social-cognitiveD
111. Inanna suffers from chronic depression. According to the social-cognitive perspective, how is she most likely to respond when told that she performed very poorly on a test she took the previous day? A. "I'm academically incompetent and always will be." B. "Yesterday was just my unlucky day." C. "I suspect that none of the students in my class did well on that test." D. "Hardly any of the professors are effective teachers."A
112. A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective. A. biological B. psychoanalytic C. humanistic D. social-cognitiveD
113. One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative attributions A. are more characteristic of men than of women. B. may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression. C. do not coincide with actual episodes of depression. D. are more clearly associated with mania than with depression.B
114. People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing A. unrealistic optimism. B. reduced self-awareness. C. excessive levels of norepinephrine. D. social rejection.D
115. In order to break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both A. internal and stable. B. external and global. C. internal and global. D. external and temporary.D
116. Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. schizophrenia. C. panic disorder. D. conversion disorder.B
117. Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the "King of the Universe." Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from A. delusions. B. obsessions. C. hallucinations. D. dissociative identity disorder.A
118. In which type of disorder is a person's speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and phrases that it could be characterized as a "word salad"? A. hypochondriasis B. obsessive-compulsive disorder C. schizophrenia D. dissociative disorderC
119. A breakdown in selective attention is most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. phobias. C. generalized anxiety disorders. D. schizophrenia.D
120. Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. catatonia. C. a dissociative disorder. D. hallucinations.D
121. Flat affect and catatonia are symptoms most closely associated with A. schizophrenia. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. bipolar disorder. D. antisocial personality disorder.A
122. Although Mrs. Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms. She most likely suffers from A. a somatoform disorder. B. a bipolar disorder. C. an obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. catatonia.D
123. Delusions of persecution are most common among those with ________ schizophrenia. A. catatonic B. disorganized C. residual D. paranoidD
124. One of the defining characteristics of disorganized schizophrenia is A. excessive, purposeless movement. B. delusions of grandeur. C. flat inappropriate emotion. D. extreme negativism.C
125. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ________ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors. A. absence; absence B. presence; presence C. absence; presence D. presence; absenceD
126. One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is A. an expressionless face. B. loud and meaningless talking. C. inappropriate laughter. D. uncontrollable outbursts of rage.A
127. Schizophrenia that develops rapidly, seemingly as a reaction to stress, is called ________ schizophrenia. A. chronic B. catatonic C. acute D. processC
128. People with reactive schizophrenia more often have the ________ symptoms that respond to drug therapy. A. negative B. positive C. bipolar D. unipolarB
129. Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for A. norepinephrine. B. dopamine. C. serotonin. D. acetylcholine.B
130. Dopamine overactivity appears to be most clearly related to A. flat affect. B. agoraphobia. C. hallucinations. D. bipolar disorder.C
131. Vigorous activity in the thalamus of schizophrenia patients has been found to be associated with A. hearing voices. B. flat affect. C. disorganized speech. D. repetitive rocking motions.A
132. Among schizophrenia patients, the fluid-filled areas of the brain are A. abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally small. B. abnormally small and the thalamus is abnormally large. C. abnormally small and the thalamus is abnormally small. D. abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally large.A
133. Low birth weight is a known risk factor for A. dissociative identity disorder. B. major depressive disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. schizophrenia.D
134. Evidence suggests that prenatal viral infections contribute to A. somatoform disorders. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. schizophrenia. D. bipolar disorders.C
135. People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia. A. North America; February B. Asia; September C. Australia; February D. Europe; SeptemberA
136. Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that A. there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. B. almost anybody will develop schizophrenia if exposed to extensive environmental stress. C. schizophrenia patients suffer from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin. D. if adopted children's adoptive parents have schizophrenia, they will, too.A
137. If identical twins share a single placenta rather than having separate placentas, their chances of being similarly affected by ________ are dramatically increased. A. hypochondriasis B. schizophrenia C. a dissociative disorder D. antisocial personality disorderB
138. An adopted child's chances of developing schizophrenia ________ if the biological parents have schizophrenia. The child's chances ________ if the adopted parents have schizophrenia. A. increase; increase B. do not increase; do not increase C. increase; do not increase D. do not increase; increaseC
139. Disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as early warning signs of A. panic disorder. B. hypochondriasis. C. schizophrenia. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.C
140. Psychologists are LEAST likely to suggest that ________ contribute(s) to the development of schizophrenia. A. neglectful child-rearing practices B. prenatal viral infections C. dopamine overactivity D. shrinkage of cerebral tissueA
141. Which of the following has been pinpointed as an early warning sign for the subsequent onset of schizophrenia? A. periodic panic attacks B. sudden weight increase C. violent behavior D. poor muscle coordinationD
142. Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible, enduring, and socially maladaptive behavior patterns are called ________ disorders. A. acute B. free-floating C. reactive D. personalityD
143. The distinctive features used to identify the three clusters of personality disorders are A. obsessions, compulsions, and delusions. B. genetics, culture, and self-awareness. C. optimism, pessimism, and perfectionism. D. anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity.D
144. Those with an avoidant personality disorder are most likely to display A. a lack of guilt feelings. B. a sense of self-importance. C. shallow, attention-getting emotions. D. a fear of social rejection.D
145. One cluster of personality disorders marked by dramatic or impulsive behaviors is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. schizoid C. catatonic D. histrionicD
146. Those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with A. an irrational fear of people. B. delusions of persecution. C. physical symptoms of distress. D. their own self-importance.D
147. The distinctive older term psychopath refers to an individual with A. schizophrenia. B. bipolar disease. C. dissociative identity disorder. D. antisocial personality disorder.D
148. Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by A. a persistent, irrational fear of people. B. episodes of intense autonomic nervous system arousal. C. disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity. D. a lack of guilt feelings.D
149. Which of the following disorders is more common among men than women? A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. antisocial personality disorder C. dissociative identity disorder D. schizophreniaB
150. Anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. He has swindled several older people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is evidence of A. schizophrenia. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. a personality disorder. D. a dissociative disorder.C
151. There is some evidence that a relatively low level of autonomic nervous system arousal may contribute to A. post-traumatic stress disorder. B. antisocial personality disorder. C. dissociative disorders. D. generalized anxiety disorder.B
152. The reduced self-control of murderers is most closely related to reduced brain activity in their ________ lobes. A. frontal B. temporal C. occipital D. parietalA
153. A World Health Organization study of 20 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year. A. Japan B. Germany C. Mexico D. the United StatesD
154. Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate A. ADHD. B. depression. C. schizophrenia. D. dissociative disorders.B
155. Psychiatrists and psychologists are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is A. consciously motivated. B. difficult to change. C. biologically influenced. D. personally distressful.D
156. Ongoing patterns of behavior that interfere with normal day-to-day life are best characterized as A. deviant. B. antisocial. C. dysfunctional. D. catatonic.C
157. Psychiatrists and psychologists would be likely to identify agoraphobia as a psychological disorder because it is A. personally dysfunctional. B. socially unacceptable. C. ethically unjustifiable. D. unconsciously motivated.A
158. ADHD is most clearly characterized by A. delusions. B. distractibility. C. dissociation. D. hypochondriasis.B
159. Matt is restless and often jumps out of his seat or interferes with ongoing class activities in response to the sound of outside traffic. Matt most clearly exhibits symptoms of A. generalized anxiety disorder. B. antisocial personality disorder. C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.C
160. Toddlers who watch lots of TV are, at age 7, more likely than average to display symptoms of A. ADHD. B. DID. C. OCD. D. PTSD.A
161. The U.S. National Institute of Mental Health has indicated that the development of ADHD is a consequence of A. genetic influences. B. a high-sugar diet. C. low-quality schools. D. a stressful family environment.A
162. An eye-tracking device that measures an individual's ability to focus on and follow spots of light has been used for the assessment of A. OCD. B. PTSD. C. DID. D. ADHD.D
163. Although the brain maturation of children diagnosed with ADHD is normal, it lags behind that of their peers by about A. 6 months. B. 15 months. C. 3 years. D. 7 years.C
164. The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the A. psychoanalytic theory. B. humanistic perspective. C. medical model. D. biopsychosocial approach.C
165. Mira claims that alcohol dependence is a disease that, like pneumonia or meningitis, can be cured or prevented with proper treatment. Her belief is most clearly consistent with A. the biopsychosocial approach. B. psychoanalytic theory. C. the medical model. D. the social-cognitive perspective.C
166. If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to A. psychoanalytic theory. B. the medical model. C. the social-cognitive perspective. D. the DSM-IV-TR.B
167. To call psychological disorders "sicknesses" is especially likely to encourage research supporting A. the biopsychosocial approach. B. the learning perspective. C. the social-cognitive perspective. D. the medical model.D
168. A biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse would be most likely to emphasize A. the distinction between consciously and unconsciously motivated substance abuse. B. the similarities between substance abuse disorders and personality disorders. C. the interactive influences of nature and nurture on substance abuse. D. that substance abuse is simply a life-style choice and not a psychological disorder.C
169. It is most helpful to use the ________ for explaining why certain psychological disorders occur only in particular cultures. A. psychoanalytic perspective B. medical model C. biopsychosocial approach D. DSM-IV-TRC
170. Today's psychologists assume that disordered behavior is influenced by A. social circumstances. B. inner psychological dynamics. C. genetic predispositions and physiological states. D. all of these factors.D
171. A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders. A. cure B. prevent C. explain D. identifyD
172. The DSM-IV-TR was developed in coordination with the tenth edition of the A. OCD. B. DID. C. ICD. D. PTSD.C
173. Using DSM-IV-TR guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis. This indicates that the DSM-IV-TR is A. biopsychosocial. B. reliable. C. medical. D. analytic.B
174. To facilitate diagnostic reliability, the DSM-IV-TR typically bases diagnoses on A. chemical analyses of blood and urine samples. B. physiological measures of blood pressure, perspiration, and muscle tension. C. observable patterns of behavior. D. all of these factors.C
175. Which of the following is one of the six clusters of human strengths included in the Values in Action Classification of Strengths? A. speed B. physical coordination C. temperance D. brain maturationC
176. In a study by David Rosenhan, researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices." This study best illustrated the negative effects of A. the medical model. B. psychoanalytic theory. C. linkage analysis. D. diagnostic labels.D
177. After Anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor's tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. This best illustrates the A. value of the psychoanalytic perspective. B. shortcomings of the medical model. C. unreliability of DSM-IV-TR. D. biasing power of diagnostic labels.D
178. If individuals expect someone labeled as mentally ill to be hostile, they may act in unfriendly ways that provoke that person to respond with hostility. This illustrates the dangers of A. the medical model. B. linkage analysis. C. self-fulfilling prophecies. D. the biopsychosocial approach.C
179. Judicial systems are responsible for making decisions regarding A. mania. B. insanity. C. catatonia. D. agoraphobia.B
180. Anxiety is considered disordered if it is A. persistent and distressing. B. hard to control. C. genetically influenced. D. a biopsychosocial phenomenon.A
181. Indira, a third-grade teacher, frequently suffers from dizziness, heart palpitations, and fatigue. She is also continually agitated and unable to relax outside the classroom, but she cannot pinpoint a reason for her problems. Her behavior is most indicative of A. a dissociative disorder. B. a phobia. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. generalized anxiety disorder.D
182. In which of the following disorders is a person continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic arousal? A. generalized anxiety disorder B. antisocial personality disorder C. bipolar disorder D. conversion disorderA
183. Generalized anxiety disorder is often accompanied by A. delusions. B. depression. C. catatonia. D. antisocial personality disorder.B
184. Episodes of intense dread that last for several minutes and are accompanied by shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, or heart palpitations are most characteristic of A. mania. B. panic disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. generalized anxiety disorder.B
185. Panic attacks are most closely associated with A. schizophrenia. B. anxiety disorders. C. somatoform disorders. D. mood disorders.B
186. Phobias are most likely to be characterized by A. a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. B. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy the person. C. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal. D. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.A
187. Jeremy experiences so much anxiety about taking the elevator that he climbs 10 flights of stairs to get to his office each workday. Jeremy appears to suffer from A. post-traumatic stress disorder. B. specific phobia. C. bipolar disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.B
188. Manuel is extremely shy and is so easily embarrassed when he is with other people that he often misses his college classes just to avoid social interactions. Manuel appears to suffer from A. a dissociative disorder. B. antisocial personality disorder. C. social phobia. D. generalized anxiety disorder.C
189. Which of the following disorders is most often characterized by the avoidance of situations in which panic may strike? A. schizophrenia B. bipolar disorder C. agoraphobia D. major depressive disorderC
190. A person who has agoraphobia is most likely to A. avoid dust and dirt. B. stay away from fire. C. avoid household pets. D. stay close to home.D
191. After Charles Darwin began suffering panic disorder, he lived in relative seclusion and traveled only in his wife's company. His panic disorder was apparently accompanied by A. catatonia. B. agoraphobia. C. delusions. D. maniaB
192. An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions is called A. bipolar disorder. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. a phobia. D. panic disorder.B
193. Ravi brushes his teeth 18 times a day. Each time, he uses exactly 83 strokes up and 83 strokes down. After he eats, he must brush twice with two different brands of toothpaste. Ravi suffers from A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. hypochondriasis. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. bipolar disorder.A
194. While driving to work, Pedro hears a radio advertisement for a new restaurant. Throughout the day, the tune associated with the advertisement keeps running through his head. Pedro's inability to stop thinking about the tune best illustrates the nature of a(n) A. delusion. B. hallucination. C. obsession. D. compulsion.C
195. Compulsions are best described as A. persistent fears. B. repetitive behaviors. C. suicidal thoughts. D. false beliefs.B
196. Repeatedly checking to see if your stove is turned off is to ________ as repeatedly thinking you might try to set your own house on fire is to ________. A. depression; mania B. compulsion; obsession C. hallucination; delusion D. paranoia; catatoniaB
197. A post-traumatic stress disorder is considered to be a(n) ________ disorder. A. dissociative B. mood C. somatoform D. anxietyD
198. Repeated distressing dreams and intrusive memories of an intensely fearful and life-threatening experience are symptoms most commonly associated with A. panic disorder. B. agoraphobia. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. post-traumatic stress disorder.D
199. Although experiencing severely traumatic events may lead to PTSD, it is also likely to lead to A. schizophrenia. B. linkage analysis. C. bipolar disorder. D. increased personal strength.D
200. Cancer survivors who develop a fresh delight in their children and savor the joy of each new day best illustrate A. the medical model. B. a biopsychosocial approach. C. post-traumatic growth. D. linkage analysis.C
201. A therapist claims that Luke's irrational fear of snakes results from repressed childhood feelings of hostility toward his own father. The therapist's interpretation reflects a ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. psychoanalytic C. biological D. learningB
202. Dogs come to fear neutral stimuli associated with shock. This best illustrates A. linkage analysis. B. post-traumatic growth. C. hypochondriasis. D. classical conditioning.D
203. As infants become mobile and experience falls, they become increasingly afraid of heights. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on fear. A. linkage analysis B. observational learning C. classical conditioning D. reinforcementC
204. A therapist suggests that Mr. Ozawa's fear of darkness can probably be traced back to his early childhood when he was occasionally beaten and locked up in a small, dark closet by an older brother. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective. A. learning B. psychoanalytic C. humanistic D. biologicalA
205. A rape victim may experience a panic attack when she sees anyone wearing a coat that resembles the one worn by her attacker. This reaction best illustrates the process of A. observational learning. B. reinforcement. C. stimulus generalization. D. linkage analysis.C
206. Learning theorists have suggested that compulsive behaviors are A. habitual defenses against unconscious impulses. B. reinforced by anxiety reduction. C. classically conditioned habits. D. unconditioned responses to stress.B
207. A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective. A. biological B. humanistic C. psychoanalytic D. learningD
208. After watching her sister's fearful response to the sight of a spider, Kerri became intensely fearful of spiders. This best illustrates that a specific phobia can be learned through A. reinforcement. B. classical conditioning. C. linkage analysis. D. observational learning.D
209. It is easy to condition but hard to extinguish fears of the types of stimuli that threatened our ancestors. This fact is best explained from a ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. psychoanalytic C. biological D. humanisticC
210. Although World War II air raids were extremely traumatic for those who experienced them, few of these people developed lasting phobic reactions to overhead planes. This fact is best explained from a ________ perspective. A. learning B. psychoanalytic C. biological D. humanisticC
211. Research on anxiety disorders indicates that A. some people are more genetically predisposed than others to develop anxiety disorders. B. obsessive-compulsive disorders are more common than phobias. C. people, but not animals, may acquire fear through observational learning. D. phobic reactions to cats are much more common than to dogs.A
212. Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the A. amygdala. B. thalamus. C. hypothalamus. D. anterior cingulate cortex.A
213. Saul frequently feels like he has a lump in his throat that makes it difficult for him to speak or swallow. Medical examinations, however, indicate that there is no apparent physical cause for these symptoms. Saul appears to be suffering from a A. generalized anxiety disorder. B. dissociative disorder. C. somatoform disorder. D. mood disorder.C
214. Experiencing physical symptoms, such as blindness or paralysis, that make no physiological sense is indicative of A. schizophrenia. B. conversion disorder. C. dissociative disorder. D. generalized anxiety disorder.B
215. A conversion disorder is a type of ________ disorder. A. somatoform B. personality C. dissociative D. anxietyA
216. Freud's efforts to understand and treat psychological disorders stemmed from his puzzlement over ________ disorders. A. conversion B. dissociative identity C. antisocial personality D. bipolarA
217. During a stressful military battle, Fong suddenly went blind. When hypnotized by an army psychiatrist, his blindness vanished. Fong apparently suffered from a A. dissociative disorder. B. conversion disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. bipolar disorder.B
218. Hypochondriasis is characterized by A. a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. B. disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity. C. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. D. the misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.D
219. Every week, Ruslan complains to a doctor about swollen glands, heart palpitations, constipation, or some other physical symptom. He is sure these symptoms are a sign of cancer, even though more than a dozen physicians have told him he is physically healthy. Ruslan's behavior is most characteristic of a(n) ________ disorder. A. somatoform B. generalized anxiety C. dissociative D. obsessive-compulsiveA
220. Dissociative disorders are most likely to be characterized by A. disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity. B. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. C. a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state of emotion. D. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.A
221. The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is a disturbance of A. mood. B. appetite. C. memory. D. perception.C
222. Several weeks after being fired from a job he had held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recognize his wife. Landon's experience is most indicative of A. a dissociative disorder. B. generalized anxiety disorder. C. conversion disorder. D. catatonia.A
223. Two or more distinct identities appear to alternately control the behavior of those with A. OCD. B. PTSD. C. ADHD. D. DID.D
224. The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the past 40 or so years most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve A. illicit drug usage. B. promiscuous sexual behavior. C. internal attribution of blame. D. role-playing.D
225. Niesha demonstrates seven different personalities that appear to take turns controlling her behavior. Evidence that the same life memories are consciously experienced by all the alternate personalities would most clearly rule out the contribution of ________ to her disorder. A. childhood sexual trauma B. dissociation C. motivational conflict D. role-playingB
226. Evidence that dissociative identity disorder is not simply a product of conscious role-playing is most clearly provided by the A. periodic intervals during which patients with this disorder become violent. B. distinct brain and body states associated with differing personalities. C. inability of psychiatric experts to hypnotize patients with this disorder. D. dramatic increase in reported cases of this disorder during the past 40 or so years.B
227. Midori's therapist suggests that she developed a dissociative identity disorder as a way of protecting herself from an awareness of her own hatred for her abusive mother. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. humanistic C. biological D. psychoanalyticD
228. It has been suggested that the desperate efforts of traumatized victims to detach themselves from the experience of severe and prolonged abuse may contribute to A. bipolar disorder. B. generalized anxiety disorder. C. dissociative identity disorder. D. antisocial personality disorder.C
229. Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes are called A. somatoform disorders. B. personality disorders. C. dissociative disorders. D. mood disorders.D
230. Which of the following disorders is classified as a mood disorder? A. hypochondriasis B. bipolar disorder C. generalized anxiety disorder D. agoraphobiaB
231. The number one reason people seek mental health services is A. agoraphobia. B. schizophrenia. C. depression. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.C
232. Feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with A. mania. B. major depressive disorder. C. panic disorder. D. antisocial personality disorder.B
233. Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least A. one week. B. two weeks. C. two months. D. four months.B
234. Norby, an 18-year-old first-year university student, has missed almost all his classes during the past month. He spends most of his time in his bedroom, frequently not even bothering to get dressed or eat meals. He thinks his whole life has been a failure and blames himself for being a social misfit. Norby is most likely suffering from A. major depressive disorder. B. antisocial personality disorder. C. a dissociative disorder. D. a somatoform disorder.A
235. Mania is most likely to be experienced by those suffering A. a panic attack. B. bipolar disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. a dissociative disorder.B
236. Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of A. guilt. B. fear. C. elation. D. indifference.C
237. Bipolar disorder is most likely to be characterized by A. a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness. B. the simultaneous experience of delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur. C. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently intrude into conscious awareness. D. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.D
238. After several weeks of feeling apathetic and dissatisfied with his life, Mark has suddenly become extremely cheerful and so talkative he can't be interrupted. He seems to need less sleep and becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Mark's behavior is indicative of A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. schizophrenia. C. bipolar disorder. D. hypochondriasis.C
239. Compared with men, women are much more likely to be diagnosed as suffering from A. antisocial personality disorder. B. a bipolar disorder. C. alcoholism. D. depression.D
240. Stressful life events like the loss of a job are most likely to increase one's risk of A. schizophrenia. B. depression. C. antisocial personality disorder. D. social phobia.B
241. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, depression results from A. the internalization of anger. B. learned helplessness. C. self-defeating attributions. D. a weak conscience.A
242. Although it has been two years since his girlfriend left him, Joaquin still suffers from depression. His therapist believes that Joaquin remains depressed because the girlfriend reminded him of his mother, who died when he was a child. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects the ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. learning C.psychoanalytic D. biologicalC
243. The incidence of major depression is greatest among those A. reared together with a nontwin sibling who suffers the disorder. B. reared apart from a fraternal twin who suffers the disorder. C. reared together with a fraternal twin who suffers the disorder. D. reared apart from an identical twin who suffers the disorder.D
244. To identify genes that put people at risk for depression, researchers have used A. fMRI scans. B. linkage analysis. C. PET scans. D. the DSM-IV-TR.B
245. Suicide rates are ________ among the rich than the poor, and they are ________ among young men than old men. A. higher; higher B. lower; lower C. higher; lower D. lower; higherC
246. Compared with those who suffer no disorder, those who abuse alcohol have a ________ risk of committing suicide. Compared with the general population, those who have been depressed have a ________ risk of committing suicide. A. higher; higher B. lower; lower C. higher; lower D. lower; higherA
247. Severely depressed individuals are especially likely to show reduced brain activity in the A. right frontal lobe. B. left frontal lobe. C. right occipital lobe. D. left occipital lobe.B
248. In terms of neurotransmitter levels, depression is associated with A. high norepinephrine levels and low serotonin levels. B. low norepinephrine levels and high serotonin levels. C. high norepinephrine levels and high serotonin levels. D. low norepinephrine levels and low serotonin levels.D
249. Learned helplessness is most closely associated with A. depression. B. schizophrenia. C. compulsions. D. antisocial personality disorder.A
250. Research suggests that women are more vulnerable to depression than men because women are more likely to respond to negative life events with self-focused rumination. This suggestion best illustrates a ________ perspective. A. humanistic B. biological C. psychoanalytic D. social-cognitiveD
251. Self-blaming attributions are most likely to be associated with A. schizophrenia. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. phobias. D. depression.D
252. Failures are most likely to lead to depression if they are explained in terms that are A. internal, temporary, and specific. B. external, temporary, and global. C. internal, stable, and global. D. external, stable, and specific.C
253. A therapist believes that Chet is chronically depressed because he takes too little credit for his many achievements and assumes too much responsibility for his few failures. The therapist's interpretation reflects a ________ perspective. A. psychoanalytic B. social-cognitive C. humanistic D. biologicalB
254. The rise of Western individualism appears most clearly responsible for an increase in A. depression. B. schizophrenia. C. personality disorders. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.A
255. The vicious cycle of depression is often initiated by A. unrealistic optimism. B. excessive levels of norepinephrine. C. stressful life experiences. D. external attributions of blame.C
256. One way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to A. accept more personal responsibility for their own bad moods. B. spend more time in quiet rest, seclusion, and personal meditation. C. frequently talk to their friends about their negative thoughts and depressive feelings. D. participate more often in activities they consider pleasant and rewarding.D
257. Which group of severe disorders is characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions? A. anxiety disorders B. dissociative disorders C. personality disorders D. schizophreniaD
258. Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by A. disorganized and fragmented thinking. B. a lack of guilt feelings. C. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism. D. periodic intervals of uncontrollable violence.A
259. Mr. Kalish, a long-term government employee, falsely believed that his supervisor was a communist agent who was putting poison in the employees' coffee. When Mr. Kalish was referred to a psychiatrist, he claimed to be the grandson of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Kalish is most likely suffering from A. dissociative identity disorder. B. agoraphobia. C. schizophrenia. D. conversion disorder.C
260. False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called A. obsessions. B. compulsions. C. delusions. D. hallucinations.C
261. Hallucinations and delusions are most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from A. dissociative identity disorder. B. schizophrenia. C. major depressive disorder. D. agoraphobia.B
262. Seeing one-eyed monsters would be a(n) ________. Believing that you are Christopher Columbus would be a ________. A. delusion; compulsion B. obsession; delusion C. obsession; compulsion D. hallucination; delusionD
263. The hallucinations experienced by those who suffer from schizophrenia are most likely to involve ________ things that are not there. A. seeing B. hearing C. tasting D. smellingB
264. A parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements is most common among those with ________ schizophrenia. A. catatonic B. disorganized C. undifferentiated D. paranoidA
265. Symptoms of withdrawal following the disappearance of hallucinations and delusions are most indicative of ________ schizophrenia. A. disorganized B. residual C. paranoid D. catatonicB
266. One of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia includes A. an expressionless face. B. a lack of guilt feelings. C. hallucinations. D. flat affect.C
267. Schizophrenia that develops gradually over a long period of time is called ________ schizophrenia. A. acute B. paranoid C. reactive D. chronicD
268. The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops A. rapidly in response to a stressful life situation. B. slowly over a period of years. C. in reaction to abnormalities in brain chemistry. D. during adolescence or early adulthood.A
269. People are more likely to recover from ________ schizophrenia than from ________ schizophrenia. A. acute; reactive B. process; chronic C. chronic; acute D. reactive; processD
270. Cocaine may ________ symptoms of schizophrenia by ________ dopamine levels. A. increase; decreasing B. decrease; increasing C. increase; increasing D. decrease; decreasingC
271. Drugs that interfere with glutamate receptors would be most likely to produce A. hallucinations. B. delusions. C. flat affect. D. inappropriate laughter.C
272. An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with A. dissociative disorders. B. somatoform disorders. C. bipolar disorder. D. schizophrenia.D
273. A PET scan study of people with ________ found increased activity in the amygdala. A. mania B. paranoia C. catatonia D. antisocial personality disorderB
274. Schizophrenia victims have difficulty focusing attention. This is most likely to be related to a smaller-than- normal A. thalamus. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. pituitary gland.A
275. Evidence suggests that ________ contribute(s) to schizophrenia. A. depressed serotonin levels B. a pessimistic explanatory style C. conscious role-playing D. prenatal viral infectionsD
276. North Americans born during the winter and spring months are at a slightly increased risk for A. depression. B. bipolar disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. schizophrenia.D
277. People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia. A. the United States; September B. Argentina; February C. Australia; September D. South Africa; FebruaryC
278. Of all the twins who share identical genes with a schizophrenia victim, about ________ do not themselves develop schizophrenia. A. one-fifth B. one-fourth C. one-third D. one-halfD
279. If an identical twin has schizophrenia, the co-twin's chances of being similarly affected are only 1 in 10 if they had different A. placentas. B. dietary supplements. C. educational opportunities. D. childhood friends.A
280. One study monitored teens and young adults who had two relatives with schizophrenia. Those who subsequently developed schizophrenia displayed a tendency to be ________ prior to the onset of their disorder. A. highly suggestible B. artistically creative C. socially withdrawn D. addicted to drugsC
281. A short attention span is an early warning sign of A. agoraphobia. B. panic disorder. C. hypochondriasis. D. schizophrenia.D
282. Personality disorders are best described as A. symptoms of distress that are not caused by biological abnormalities. B. disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of self-identity. C. patterns of delusional and disorganized thoughts and feelings. D. inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.D
283. One cluster of personality disorders marked by anxiety is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. antisocial C. avoidant D. catatonicC
284. One cluster of personality disorders marked by noticeably odd or eccentric behavior is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. narcissistic C. schizoid D. histrionicC
285. A schizoid personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by A. emotionless disengagement. B. shallow, attention-getting emotional displays. C. a sense of self-importance. D. a fear of social rejection.A
286. Those with a histrionic personality disorder are most likely to display A. a lack of guilt feelings. B. delusions of persecution. C. apathy and lack of energy. D. dramatic, attention-getting behaviors.D
287. A lack of conscience is most characteristic of those who experience ________ disorder. A. a dissociative B. antisocial personality C. conversion D. obsessive-compulsiveB
288. Within the last year, Mr. Shangkun has been fired by three different employers because they each discovered that he was stealing money or materials from their companies. Although he feels no remorse for his misdeeds, his outward signs of repentance have dissuaded his former employers from taking him to court. Mr. Shangkun's behavior is most indicative of A. antisocial personality disorder. B. post-traumatic stress disorder. C. a dissociative disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.A
289. Researchers have found low levels of ________ in 13-year-old boys who were later convicted of a crime as 18- to 26-year-olds. A. dopamine B. serotonin C. adrenaline D. acetylcholineC
290. Marked deficits in frontal lobe cognitive functions, such as planning and organization, are associated with A. agoraphobia. B. antisocial personality disorder. C. generalized anxiety disorder. D. panic disorder.B
291. The surging rates of violent crime in Western nations during the past 40 years or so are best understood in terms of A. the medical model. B. an evolutionary perspective. C. psychoanalytic theory. D. a biopsychosocial approach.D
292. Researchers recently estimated that approximately ________ percent of adult Americans had suffered a clinically significant psychological disorder during the prior year. A. 26 B. 35 C. 50 D. 60A
293. Immigrants to the United States from Mexico average ________ mental health than Mexican-Americans born in the United States. Immigrants to the United States from Asia average ________ mental health than Asian- Americans born in the United States. A. better; poorer B. improves; better C. better; better D. poorer; poorerC
294. The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ________. A. antisocial personality; schizophrenia B. major depression; bipolar disorder C. obsessive-compulsive disorder; phobias D. major depression; alcohol abuseA
Psychology

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