freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it

freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it


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1. An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her A. self-esteem. B. personality. C. reality principle. D. hierarchy of needs. B
2. The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of A. moral integrity. B. self-consciousness. C. behavioral consistency. D. self-actualization. C
3. Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive A. fixation. B. personality. C. attributional style. D. collective unconscious. B
4. By professional training, Freud was a A. philosopher. B. sociologist. C. physician. D. literary scholar. C
5. Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms A. resulted from the physical abuse they received from their parents during childhood. B. reflected an internal locus of control. C. illustrated a reciprocal determinism. D. made no neurological sense. D
6. Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from A. genetic defects. B. an inferiority complex. C. psychological processes. D. an internal locus of control. C
7. Free association is central to the process of A. factor analysis. B. self-serving bias. C. psychoanalysis. D. reciprocal determinism. C
8. A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as A. fixation. B. free association. C. factor analysis. D. hypnosis. B
9. Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be A. displaced. B. preconscious. C. fixated. D. unconscious. B
10. According to Freud, the unconscious is A. the part of personality that cannot process information. B. the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware. C. a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past. D. a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behavior. B
11. Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams? A. fixation B. factor analysis C. projective testing D. free association D
12. Freud believed that ________ are the "royal road to the unconscious." A. projective tests B. dreams C. erogenous zones D. psychosexual stages B
13. Freud suggested that the remembered events and images in our dreams were a censored expression of the dream's A. psychosexual stages. B. latent content. C. reality principle. D. collective unconscious. B
14. According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the A. id. B. ego. C. superego. D. erogenous zones. A
15. When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his A. superego. B. ego. C. id. D. Oedipus complex. C
16. Freud emphasized that the id operates on the ________ principle. A. self-transcendence B. collectivism C. identity D. pleasure D
17. Ego is to id as ________ is to ________. A. unconscious; conscious B. biology; morality C. reality principle; pleasure principle D. regression; repression C
18. When 16-year-old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car. He decided, instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college education. Hafez shows signs of a A. weak superego. B. weak id. C. strong collective unconscious. D. strong ego. D
19. According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the A. Oedipus complex. B. ego. C. id. D. superego. D
20. Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine's A. ego. B. id. C. superego. D. inferiority complex. C
21. No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a A. weak id. B. weak ego. C. strong id. D. strong superego. D
22. Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's ________ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires. A. self-transcendence B. superego C. Oedipus complex D. ego D
23. Freud suggested that the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body known as A. psychosexual stages. B. the Big Five. C. erogenous zones. D. Oedipus complexes. C
24. Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is going through the ________ stage of development. A. phallic B. anal C. latency D. oral B
25. According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage. A. anal B. phallic C. oral D. latency B
26. The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe A. the erogenous zones that are the focus of the latency stage. B. the passive dependence of someone who is orally fixated. C. children's efforts to overcome feelings of inferiority. D. boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother. D
27. One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n) A. oral fixation. B. reaction formation. C. self-serving bias. D. Oedipus complex. D
28. Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected A. self-actualization. B. an Electra complex. C. the spotlight effect. D. unconditional positive regard. B
29. Freud suggested that a boy's identification with his father during the phallic stage illustrates the process of A. unconditional positive regard. B. self-transcendence. C. free association. D. conflict resolution. D
30. Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of A. the Oedipus complex. B. free association. C. the superego. D. erogenous zones. C
31. Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity? A. Allport's trait theory B. Maslow's humanistic theory C. Bandura's social-cognitive theory D. Freud's psychoanalytic theory D
32. Gene spends a good deal of time bragging about his numerous sexual exploits. Freud would have suggested that Gene is fixated at the ________ stage. A. oral B. latency C. phallic D. anal C
33. Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as A. projection. B. fixation. C. displacement. D. repression. B
34. Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit A. passive dependence. B. an inferiority complex. C. an Electra complex. D. the spotlight effect. A
35. Arjean's opinions are so dependent on what her friends think that she will swallow just about anything they tell her. Freud would have suggested that Arjean demonstrates a A. fixation. B. free association. C. reaction formation. D. collective unconscious. A
36. According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the A. id to defend against the accusations and guilt feelings produced by the superego. B. ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized. C. superego to prevent expression of sexual and aggressive drives. D. id, ego, and superego in a repetitive sequence of internal conflicts. B
37. When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of A. repression. B. rationalization. C. regression. D. displacement. A
38. Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete A. fixation. B. displacement. C. rationalization. D. repression. D
39. Freud would have suggested that an excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to A. regression. B. learned helplessness. C. reciprocal determinism. D. self-serving bias. A
40. Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates A. reaction formation. B. projection. C. regression. D. denial. C
41. Reaction formation refers to the process by which people A. disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others. B. consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses. C. retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development. D. offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action. B
42. Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of A. projection. B. regression. C. rationalization. D. reaction formation. D
43. The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called A. projection. B. displacement. C. fixation. D. reaction formation. A
44. Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a A. regression. B. projection. C. denial. D. reaction formation. B
45. Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells her friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates A. reaction formation. B. projection. C. displacement. D. regression. B
46. The defense mechanism in which selfjustifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is A. projection. B. denial. C. rationalization. D. displacement. C
47. Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she, "You could better spend the time playing with our kids." Melissa's comment best illustrates A. projection. B. rationalization. C. displacement. D. reaction formation. B
48. While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor's treatment of students as an example of A. reaction formation. B. displacement. C. projection. D. regression. b
49. Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as A. regression. B. denial. C. displacement. D. projection. B
50. A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates A. denial. B. displacement. C. fixation. D. projection. A
51. Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of A. the unconscious dynamics underlying behavior. B. childhood sexual instincts. C. anxiety and defense mechanisms. D. distinguishing between id, ego, and superego. B
52. Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term A. oral fixation. B. reciprocal determinism. C. inferiority complex. D. unconditional positive regard. C
53. Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from A. an Electra complex. B. the spotlight effect. C. an inferiority complex. D. the Barnum effect. C
54. Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women A. have weak superegos. B. perceive an internal locus of control. C. have stronger sexual instincts than men. D. never experience a phallic stage of development. A
55. Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the A. self-reference phenomenon. B. defense mechanism. C. collective unconscious. D. psychosexual stages. C
56. Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development? A. Jung B. Adler C. Horney D. Maslow A
57. Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that A. much of our mental functioning is unconscious. B. people often struggle with conflicting wishes. C. childhood experiences influence our adulthood relationships. D. sexual drives are central to personality development. D
58. Contemporary psychodynamic theorists assume that childhood experiences have long-term consequences for our A. Electra complex. B. collective unconscious. C. social attachment styles. D. erogenous zones. C
59. Projective tests are most closely associated with the ________ perspective. A. socialcognitive B. psychoanalytic C. humanistic D. trait B
60. The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n) A. factor analytic test. B. projective test. C. personality inventory. D. empirically derived test. B
61. The Thematic Apperception Test requires people to respond to A. incomplete sentences. B. ambiguous pictures. C. unfamiliar melodies. D. meaningless inkblots. B
62. The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to A. frightening pictures. B. ambiguous stories. C. meaningless inkblots. D. incomplete sentences. C
63. The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that A. no computer-aided tool has been designed to facilitate scoring of the test. B. only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity. C. the test discourages individuals from communicating openly in clinical interviews. D. the test can be used effectively only with individuals who are severely maladjusted. B
64. Contemporary psychologists are LEAST likely to agree with Freud's belief that A. conscience and gender identity form during the process of resolving the Oedipus complex. B. conscious awareness of our own mental processes is very limited. C. memories are often distorted and incomplete. D. defense mechanisms help protect individuals from anxiety. A
65. Freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the A. fixation of repressed sexual desires. B. projection of repressed fears. C. recovery of repressed wishes. D. displacement of repressed hostilities. C
66. Survivors' vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of A. fixation. B. repression. C. the Oedipus complex. D. motivational conflict. B
67. Research participants came to anticipate the movements of a character on a computer screen even though they were unable to identify the rule governing its movements. This best illustrates A. unconscious implicit learning. B. the "spotlight" effect. C. projection. D. repression. A
68. Compared with Freud, contemporary research psychologists are LESS likely to think of unconscious mental dynamics as involving A. parallel processing. B. repressive censoring. C. implicit memory. D. right hemisphere activity. B
69. The parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape best illustrates the importance of A. the spotlight effect. B. an internal locus of control. C. unconscious thought. D. the false consensus effect. C
70. People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same. This best illustrates A. the spotlight effect. B. self-transcendence. C. the false consensus effect. D. unconditional positive regard. C
71. Freud's concept of projection is most similar to what today's researchers call the A. spotlight effect. B. false consensus effect. C. inferiority complex. D. Barnum effect. B
72. Terror-management theory emphasizes that anxiety is triggered by an awareness of one's A. impending death. B. erogenous zones. C. reciprocal determinism D. unconditional positive regard. A
73. According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates enhancement of A. self-esteem. B. parallel processing. C. reciprocal determinism. D. an external locus of control. A
74. Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it A. underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality development. B. is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive behavior. C. is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests. D. offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity. D
75. The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of A. projective tests. B. self-determination. C. reciprocal determinism. D. factor analysis. B
76. Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for A. reciprocal determinism. B. an external locus of control. C. self-actualization. D. unconditional positive regard. C
77. Jin is searching for a sense of purpose in life that goes beyond fulfilling her own potential for growth and self- actualization. According to Maslow, Jin is striving for A. identification. B. self-transcendence. C. free association. D. reciprocal determinism. B
78. Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of A. reciprocal determinism. B. an internal locus of control. C. self-actualization. D. the false consensus effect. C
79. Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly A. compassionate. B. religious. C. conforming. D. self-accepting. C
80. Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic? A. Allport B. Rogers C. Freud D. Bandura B
81. Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as A. the spotlight effect. B. unconditional positive regard. C. self-actualization. D. free association. B
82. Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children's feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her approach to parentchild interaction was most explicitly recommended by A. Bandura. B. Allport. C. Rogers. D. Jung. C
83. Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality. A. collective unconscious B. inferiority complex C. Barnum effect D. self-concept D
84. Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between A. manifest content and latent content. B. the collective unconscious and the personal unconscious. C. the actual self and the ideal self. D. an internal locus of control and an external locus of control. C
85. Which psychologists are most likely to criticize standardized personality tests for failing to capture the unique subjective experience of the individual personality? A. psychoanalytic theorists B. trait theorists C. social-cognitive theorists D. humanistic theorists D
86. Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective? A. trait theorists B. humanistic theorists C. social-cognitive theorists D. terror-management theorists B
87. Maslow's description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he A. selectively studied people with qualities he admired. B. interpreted their flattering self-descriptions as a self-serving bias. C. overemphasized the value of their loyalty to cultural norms. D. used projective tests to assess their motives. A
88. Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of A. an internal locus of control. B. self-serving bias. C. social obligations. D. the spotlight effect. C
89. Humanistic theorists have been criticized for A. overestimating the impact of childhood experiences on adult personality. B. underestimating the inconsistency of behavior from one situation to another. C. overestimating the degree of similarity among people. D. underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors. D
90. Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as Allport is to the ________ perspective. A. behavioral B. humanistic C. trait D. socialcognitive C
91. Characteristic patterns of behavior and conscious motives are called A. manifest content. B. fixations. C. projections. D. traits. D
92. A consistent tendency to be shy is best described as a(n) A. trait. B. projection. C. Oedipus complex. D. false consensus effect. A
93. Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it. A. predicting; assessing B. describing; explaining C. changing; analyzing D. interpreting; observing B
94. The MyersBriggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by A. Gordon Allport. B. Carl Jung. C. Albert Bandur B
95. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator labels a person who is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful as a(n) ________ type. A. thinking B. judging C. feeling D. intuitive C
96. Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic A. self-serving biases. B. defense mechanisms. C. personality traits. D. psychosexual stages. C
97. Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as A. unstable-introverted. B. manic-depressive. C. external-dependent. D. passive-aggressive. A
98. A frontal lobe area involved in ________ is ________ active in extraverts than in introverts. A. restraining behavior; less B. addictive cravings; more C. empathy; less D. aggression; more A
99. People respond to stress with greater anxiety if they have A. a weak superego. B. an internal locus of control. C. unconditional positive regard. D. a reactive autonomic nervous system. D
100. By selective breeding, researchers can produce bold or shy birds. This best illustrates that some personality differences among birds are A. fixations. B. empirically derived. C. genetically influenced. D. defense mechanisms. C
101. Personality inventories are designed to assess several ________ at once. A. possible selves B. defense mechanisms C. attributional styles D. traits D
102. The MMPI is an example of a(n) A. projective test. B. personality inventory. C. inkblot test. D. self-esteem test. B
103. Which of the following tests was empirically derived? A. TAT B. Rorschach inkblot test C. MMPI D. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator C
104. A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is a(n) ________ test. A. factor analytic B. self-report C. projective D. empirically derived D
105. Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose? A. MMPI B. Rorschach C. TAT D. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator A
106. People who take personality inventories can lie in order to create a good impression. This best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee that they A. have validity. B. are empirically derived. C. assess several different traits. D. have been subjected to factor analysis. A
107. The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as A. the Barnum effect. B. projection. C. the spotlight effect. D. unconditional positive regard. A
108. Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates A. the false consensus effect. B. the Barnum effect. C. the spotlight effect. D. an external locus of control. B
109. Assessing an individual's standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a ________ personality description. A. fixated B. flattering C. psychosexual D. comprehensive D
110. The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of A. the MMPI. B. free association. C. projective tests. D. factor analysis. D
111. A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of A. neuroticism. B. extraversion. C. openness. D. conscientiousness. D
112. Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of A. openness. B. neuroticism. C. agreeableness. D. conscientiousness. B
113. Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of A. extraversion. B. openness. C. neuroticism. D. conscientiousness. B
114. People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ________ during their twenties. A. conscientiousness B. extraversion C. openness D. emotional instability A
115. People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to earn better high school and university grades. A. extraversion B. neuroticism C. agreeableness D. conscientiousness D
116. The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior. A. self-concept; self-esteem B. optimism; pessimism C. environments; traits D. the real self; the ideal self C
117. Arguments as to whether people's behavior is more strongly influenced by temporary external influences or by enduring inner influences best characterize the A. psychoanalytic perspective. B. person-situation controversy. C. self-serving bias. D. biopsychosocial approach. B
118. Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation? A. social-cognitive B. psychoanalytic C. humanistic D. trait D
119. Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior. A. repression B. personality traits C. reciprocal determinism D. unconditional positive regard B
120. Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many class discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen's behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________ on behavior. A. personality traits B. self-actualization C. reciprocal determinism D. defense mechanisms A
121. People's scores on a test of extraversion are likely to be most strongly correlated with the number of social conversations they initiate during the course of a single A. hour. B. day. C. week. D. month. D
122. Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as A. extraversion. B. openness. C. neuroticism. D. conscientiousness. B
123. Social cues are especially likely to influence our behavior in ______ settings, and personality traits are especially likely to influence our behavior in ______ situations. A. unfamiliar; informal B. unfamiliar; formal C. familiar; formal D. familiar; informal A
124. The stability of personality traits is best illustrated by the consistency of A. the false consensus effect. B. reciprocal determinism. C. expressive styles. D. unconditional positive regard. C
125. The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our A. temperaments. B. situations. C. fixations. D. self-concepts. B
126. The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the socialcognitive perspective is to A. Allport. B. Rogers. C. Adler. D. Bandura. D
127. According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among A. thoughts, emotions, and actions. B. behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events. C. id, ego, and superego. D. self-concept, self-actualization, and self-transcendence. B
128. Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of A. self-serving bias. B. the Barnum effect. C. reciprocal determinism. D. the false consensus effect. C
129. Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by A. reaction formation. B. the spotlight effect. C. external locus of control. D. reciprocal determinism. D
130. Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by A. an external locus of control. B. reciprocal determinism. C. the self-serving bias. D. the Barnum effect. B
131. Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as A. unconscious information processors. B. biopsychosocial organisms. C. demonstrating self-serving bias. D. possessing enduring traits. B
132. An integrated understanding of Tara's consistent cheerfulness in terms of her supportive peer relationships, her calm temperament, and her perceived internal locus of control best illustrates A. factor analysis. B. self-serving bias. C. a biopsychosocial approach. D. a humanistic perspective. C
133. The process by which people learn a sense of personal control or personal helplessness has been most strongly emphasized by the A. psychoanalytic perspective. B. trait perspective. C. humanistic perspective. D. social-cognitive perspective. D
134. The perception that your fate is determined by luck reflects A. reciprocal determinism. B. selfserving bias. C. an external locus of control. D. the spotlight effect. C
135. Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates A. reciprocal determinism. B. the false consensus effect. C. an external locus of control. D. the spotlight effect. C
136. Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of A. free association. B. unconditional positive regard. C. the spotlight effect. D. an external locus of control. D
137. Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates A. reciprocal determinism. B. unconditional positive regard. C. reaction formation. D. an internal locus of control. D
138. Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to A. be introverted personalities. B. give others unconditional positive regard. C. conform to social pressure. D. cope effectively with stress. D
139. Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following A. an exertion of energy. B. free association. C. the spotlight effect. D. unconditional positive regard. A
140. After expending willpower by stifling prejudice during laboratory tasks, research participants were temporarily less A. hungry. B. aggressive. C. pessimistic. D. sexually restrained. D
141. In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in A. unconditional positive regard. B. self-transcendence. C. the spotlight effect. D. self-control. D
142. Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with A. self-serving bias. B. an external locus of control. C. the false consensus effect. D. unconditional positive regard. B
143. Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed A. a fixation. B. a reaction formation. C. learned helplessness. D. the false consensus effect. C
144. After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates A. an inferiority complex. B. the spotlight effect. C. learned helplessness. D. an internal locus of control. C
145. Compared with those who made a purchase choice from among 30 different brands of jam or chocolate, those who chose from among just 6 brands expressed A. less self-esteem. B. more satisfaction with their choice. C. less unconditional positive regard. D. more learned helplessness. B
146. When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often experience the discomfort of A. self-serving bias. B. the false consensus effect. C. information overload. D. the spotlight effect. C
147. Learned helplessness is most likely to promote A. unconditional positive regard. B. an internal locus of control. C. self-serving bias. D. pessimism. D
148. The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her A. ideal self. B. gender identity. C. attributional style. D. unconditional positive regard. C
149. The body's disease-fighting immune system is most likely to be dampened by A. an internal locus of control. B. the false consensus effect. C. self-serving bias. D. a pessimistic attributional style. D
150. Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it A. denies humankind's capacity for evil. B. focuses more on a person's defense mechanisms. C. emphasizes the use of scientific methods. D. has less application to educational settings. C
151. Compared with European-American students, Asian-American students express a somewhat greater ________ about their future performance, which may help to explain their impressive academic achievements. A. unconditional positive regard B. self-serving bias C. false consensus effect D. pessimism D
152. Sexually active undergraduate women who do not consistently use contraceptives perceive themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than do other undergraduate women. This best illustrates A. low self-esteem. B. displacement. C. the spotlight effect. D. unrealistic optimism. D
153. Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n) A. self-serving bias. B. reaction formation. C. fixation. D. external locus of control. A
154. Our ignorance of what we don't know helps to sustain A. confidence in our own abilities. B. a pessimistic attributional style. C. learned helplessness. D. an external locus of control. A
155. In assessing candidates for spy missions during World War II, U.S. Army psychologists subjected them to simulated undercover conditions. This best illustrates the use of an assessment strategy favored by the ________ perspective. A. trait B. psychoanalytic C. social-cognitive D. humanistic C
156. The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's A. current feelings of personal control. B. specific political goals for the future. C. general feelings of optimism about the future. D. past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities. D
157. The social-cognitive perspective is LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of A. environmental influences. B. unconscious motives. C. personality traits. D. genetic influences. A
158. Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider ________ to be of pivotal importance to personality. A. the superego B. unconditional positive regard C. the sense of self D. the collective unconscious C
159. Larry studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of himself being unable to get a job after graduation. Larry's diligence best illustrates the motivational impact of A. self-transcendence. B. unconditional positive regard. C. possible selves. D. the spotlight effect. C
160. Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called A. external locus of control. B. self-serving bias. C.the spotlight effect. D. fixation. C
161. If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle. A. overestimate; underestimate B. underestimate; overestimate C. overestimate; overestimate D. underestimate; underestimate C
162. Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to A. work persistently at difficult tasks. B. experience an external locus of control. C. dismiss flattering descriptions of themselves as untrue. D. underestimate the accuracy of their own beliefs. A
163. A person whose selfesteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to A. demonstrate an independence from social pressure to conform. B. criticize the shortcomings of others. C. experience an internal locus of control. D. be motivated by a desire for selfactualization. B
164. Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates A. learned helplessness. B. the spotlight effect. C. self-serving bias. D. the Barnum effect. C
165. Research on selfperception indicates that most people A. feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes. B. view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others. C. underestimate the accuracy of their beliefs and judgments. D. are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future. B
166. Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part? A. "I really didn't prepare well enough for that test." B. "I wasn't concentrating as hard as I should have during the test." C. "I lack ability in history." D. "I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing." D
167. Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates A. the spotlight effect. B. reaction formation. C. an external locus of control. D. selfserving bias. D
168. In every one of the 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of A. extraversion. B. the spotlight effect. C. self-serving bias. D. an external locus of control. C
169. Which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with high self-esteem? A. the spotlight effect B. self-serving bias C. an external locus of control D. reciprocal determinism B
170. Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it expresses more A. openness. B. narcissism. C. free association. D. unconditional positive regard. B
171. A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized. A. unlikely; likely B. likely; unlikely C. unlikely; unlikely D. likely; likely D
172. Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates A. the spotlight effect. B. the false consensus effect. C. defensive self-esteem. D. learned helplessness. C
173. Accepting ourselves without undue dependence on the approval of others best illustrates A. reciprocal determinism. B. free association. C. positive psychology. D. secure self-esteem. D
174. Personality is best defined as an individual's A. characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. B. most noticeable characteristics. C. biologically inherited temperament. D. hidden thoughts and emotions. A
175. Mark typically responds to stress in a calm and thoughtful manner. Chandler usually becomes agitated. The reactions of Mark and Chandler indicate that each has a distinctive A. reaction formation. B. collective unconscious. C. self-serving bias. D. personality. D
176. The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed most directly to A. Allport's interest in personality traits. B. Freud's interest in unconscious conflicts. C. Maslow's interest in self-actualization. D. Bandura's interest in personal control. B
177. Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by means of A. hypnosis. B. projective tests. C. psychoactive drugs. D. fixation. A
178. Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients' symptoms? A. factor analysis B. free association C. projective testing D. fixation B
179. Free association is a method designed to A. reduce anxiety. B. explore the unconscious. C. give priority to group goals. D. show total acceptance of another person. B
180. Freud emphasized that effective treatment of psychological disorders involves the A. fixation of repressed sexual desires. B. projection of repressed fears. C. exploration of repressed memories. D. displacement of repressed hostilities. C
181. Freud called his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques A. a humanistic perspective. B. terror-management theory. C. a social-cognitive perspective. D. psychoanalysis. D
182. In suggesting that the mind is mostly hidden, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the A. inferiority complex. B. instincts. C. unconscious. D. psychosexual stages. C
183. According to Freud, thoughts that are too unsettling for people to acknowledge are A. manifest contents. B. self-serving biases. C. repressed. D. inferiority complexes. C
184. Freud believed that censored dream contents were A. fixated. B. free associations. C. repressed. D. traits. C
185. Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders? A. Allport B. Freud C. Bandura D. Maslow B
186. Freud believed that our repressed impulses express themselves in A. dreams. B. slips of the tongue. C. troubling symptoms. D. all of these forms. D
187. Julie reported that she had a dream in which she was chased by a large dog. According to Freud, Julie's account represents the ________ content of her dream. A. latent B. repressed C. manifest D. empirically derived C
188. According to Freud, understanding how the id, ego, and superego interact is essential to grasping the nature of A. the collective unconscious. B. reciprocal determinism. C. motivational conflict. D. an inferiority complex. C
189. According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by A. the reality principle. B. the ego. C. the superego. D. the id. D
190. Katrinka habitually makes nasty, hostile comments about her teachers. Freud would have suggested that her behavior illustrates the powerful influence of the A. spotlight effect. B. superego. C. ego. D. id. D
191. Freud emphasized that the ego operates on the ________ principle. A. pleasure B. self-actualization C. reality D. self-transcendence C
192. The pleasure principle is to the ________ as the reality principle is to the ________. A. id; superego B. id; ego C. Oedipus complex; Electra complex D. conscious; unconscious B
193. Georg often acts on impulse, without taking time to consider the consequences. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Georg shows signs of a A. strong ego. B. strong superego. C. weak id. D. weak ego. D
194. The superego is the part of personality that A. mediates between the demands of biology and the external world. B. operates on the reality principle. C. generates feelings of guilt. D. performs all of these functions. C
195. While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on "wine, women, and song." Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n) A. strong ego. B. weak id. C. Electra complex. D. weak superego. D
196. Jordan feels guilty for hurting his younger brother. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Jordan's A. id. B. superego. C. ego. D. collective unconscious. B
197. Although Garth wants to have sex with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desires might be partially satisfied by Garth's A. ego. B. id. C. superego. D. Oedipus complex. A
198. According to Freud's theory, the ego A. is the executive part of personality. B. operates on the pleasure principle. C. is the major source of guilt feelings. D. operates only on a conscious level. A
199. Freud suggested that pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones as we progress through various A. defense mechanisms. B. psychosexual stages. C. free associations. D. identifications. B
200. According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the A. eyes. B. mouth. C. bowels. D. breasts. B
201. Freud suggested that in the process of development, people pass through A. a genital stage before they enter a latency stage. B. a latency stage before they enter a phallic stage. C. a genital stage before they enter a phallic stage. D. a latency stage before they enter a genital stage. D
202. According to Freud, children develop unconscious sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex during the ________ stage. A. oral B. phallic C. anal D. latency B
203. Four-year-old John is very competitive with his father in trying to gain more attention from his mother. Freud would have suggested that John is going through the ________ stage of development. A. phallic B. latency C. anal D. oral A
204. A boy's sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what Freud called A. reaction formation. B. the Oedipus complex. C. reciprocal determinism. D. an oral fixation. B
205. Boris does not like chemistry, but he has chosen it as his college major simply to prove that he is just as smart as his father, who is an outstanding chemist. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Boris suffers from an unresolved A. oral fixation. B. free association. C. Oedipus complex. D. projection. C
206. Freud suggested that the superego develops through the process of A. fixation. B. free association. C. reciprocal determinism. D. identification. D
207. According to Freud, our gender identity develops most rapidly during the ________ stage. A. anal B. phallic C. genital D. oral B
208. Freud emphasized that unresolved childhood conflicts often lead to A. reciprocal determinism. B. unconditional positive regard. C. an external locus of control. D. fixation. D
209. Ingrid is a married woman who pursues sexual gratification by means of kissing rather than through sexual intercourse. According to Freud, this illustrates a(n) A. Oedipus complex. B. self-serving bias. C. fixation. D. projection. C
210. Byron is always looking to others for advice, approval, and affection. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Byron is most likely fixated at the ________ stage. A. phallic B. anal C. latency D. oral D
211. Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of A. free association. B. unconditional positive regard. C. defense mechanisms. D. learned helplessness. C
212. Freud indicated that defense mechanisms A. increase anxiety by consciously distorting reality. B. reduce anxiety by consciously distorting reality. C. increase anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. D. reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. D
213. According to Freud, the defense mechanism that underlies all others is A. reaction formation. B. projection. C. displacement. D. repression. D
214. Freud suggested that a man's inability to remember his childhood Oedipus complex illustrates A. rationalization. B. repression. C. displacement. D. projection. B
215. Although Camile has detailed memories of her early school years, she remembers very little about the boyfriend who abruptly broke off their marriage engagement. According to psychoanalytic theory, it appears that Camile is using the defense mechanism of A. regression. B. repression. C. displacement. D. projection. B
216. Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier, more infantile stage of development is called A. projection. B. reaction formation. C. regression. D. displacement. C
217. For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of A. an Oedipus complex. B. denial. C. regression. D. projection. C
218. Which defense mechanism involves expressing feelings that are the exact opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings? A. regression B. denial C. reaction formation D. displacement C
219. A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of A. reaction formation. B. projection. C. regression. D. displacement. A
220. As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Amity began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Amity's behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of A. projection. B. displacement. C. rationalization. D. reaction formation D
221. Using the defense mechanism of projection, a person experiences an internal A. threat as if it were an external virtue. B. virtue as if it were an external threat. C. threat as if it were an external threat. D. virtue as if it were an external virtue. C
222. Projection refers to the process by which people A. consciously express feelings that are the opposite of underlying unconscious impulses. B. disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others. C. retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development. D. offer self-justifying explanations in place of real, but unacceptable, unconscious reasons for action. B
223. Although Eduardo has repressed his own homosexual desires, he is distressed by a false suspicion that many men frequently stare lustfully at his body. According to psychoanalytic theory, Eduardo's thinking best illustrates A. displacement. B. projection. C. denial. D. rationalization. B
224. Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused his son's request for money to buy the books he needs for school. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that "parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults." Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of A. rationalization. B. projection. C. displacement. D. reaction formation. A
225. Displacement refers to the process by which people A. consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable, unconscious impulses. B. disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others. C. retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development. D. redirect aggressive or sexual impulses toward less threatening targets. D
226. Children who release unexpressed anger toward their parents by kicking the family pet illustrate the defense mechanism of A. projection. B. displacement. C. regression. D. reaction formation. B
227. Shortly after receiving a traffic ticket for speeding, Fred made numerous hostile comments to his wife about the incompetence of women drivers. Fred's comments illustrate most clearly the defense mechanism of A. reaction formation. B. rationalization. C. identification. D. displacement. D
228. Frank refuses to believe that he is addicted to drugs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. He is most clearly demonstrating the defense mechanism of A. displacement. B. regression. C. projection. D. denial. D
229. Both Karen Horney and Alfred Adler placed greater emphasis than did Freud on the role of ________ in personality development. A. defense mechanisms B. social interactions C. the collective unconscious D. genetic predispositions B
230. Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized that personality development is strongly influenced by feelings of inferiority? A. Jung B. Allport C. Horney D. Adler D
231. Karen Horney emphasized that childhood anxiety is caused by A. an Electra complex. B. the collective unconscious. C. erogenous zones. D. a sense of helplessness. D
232. According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious A. includes memories of our childhood social tensions. B. triggers attempts to achieve superiority. C. contains images derived from our species' universal experiences. D. is a reservoir for our sexual and aggressive motivations. C
233. Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to A. Adler. B. Allport. C. Jung. D. Horney. C
234. Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to emphasize the importance of A. sexual instincts. B. free association. C. latent content. D. oral fixations. C
235. Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called ________ tests. A. empirical B. projective C. multiphasic personality D. factor analytic B
236. Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the A. TAT. B. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. C. MMPI. D. Rorschach test. A
237. Rona was asked by her psychotherapist to describe what she saw in 10 ambiguous inkblots. Rona was most likely responding to a(n) ________ test. A. projective B. Thematic Apperception C. multiphasic personality D. empirically derived A
238. Which of the following personality assessment tools has been the most harshly criticized for lacking validity? A. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire B. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator C. Rorschach inkblot test D. MMPI C
239. Twelve-year-old Cawley demonstrates a strongly masculine sense of self-identity even though he was raised without a father or father substitute. This fact represents the most serious threat to ________ theory of personality. A. Freud's B. Bandura's C. Rogers' D. Allport's A
240. Freud believed that stories of childhood sexual abuse told by his adult female patients originated from his patients' own A. learned helplessness. B. inferiority complexes. C. childhood sexual wishes. D. defense mechanisms. C
241. Which of the following Freudian ideas is most clearly contradicted by contemporary psychological theory and research? A. Conscious awareness of what goes on in our minds is very limited. B. Painful experiences are commonly repressed. C. Memories are often distorted and incomplete. D. Individuals seek to defend themselves against anxiety. B
242. Survivors of traumatic events, such as rape or torture, are often haunted by persistent and vivid memories of this experience. This most clearly serves to challenge Freud's concept of A. free association. B. learned helplessness. C. motivational conflict. D. repression. D
243. Which of the following Freudian ideas is most consistent with contemporary psychological research findings? A. The conscience is largely formed in the process of resolving the Oedipus complex. B. People generally protect themselves by projecting their own undesirable traits onto others. C. Most memory loss results from unconsciously motivated repression. D. Conscious awareness of what goes on in our own minds is very limited. D
244. Implicit learning and implicit memories best illustrate the importance of A. defense mechanisms. B. reciprocal determinism. C. the Barnum effect. D. unconscious thought. D
245. People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of A. displacement. B. reaction formation. C. regression. D. projection. D
246. There is little evidence supporting the idea that defense mechanisms A. reduce anxiety. B. protect self-esteem. C. divert instinctual energy. D. do any of these things. C
247. Which theory proposes that adherence to one's worldview is used to defend against a deeply rooted fear of death? A. trait theory B. object relations theory C. social-cognitive theory D. terror-management theory D
248. Experimental studies of terror-management theory indicate that we defend ourselves against death anxiety by increasing our A. contempt for others and our esteem for ourselves. B. esteem for others and our contempt for ourselves. C. contempt for others and our contempt for ourselves. D. esteem for others and our esteem for ourselves. A
249. Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions? A. humanistic theory B. trait theory C. psychoanalytic theory D. social-cognitive theory C
250. Which perspective on personality emphasizes the importance of our capacity for healthy growth and self- realization? A. psychoanalytic B. social-cognitive C. humanistic D. trait C
251. According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one's potential is the motivation for A. personal control. B. self-actualization. C. self-esteem. D. unconditional positive regard. B
252. According to Maslow, the top-level needs that arise after all other needs have been met include the needs for self-actualization and A. self-esteem. B. self-transcendence. C. self-awareness. D. social acceptance. B
253. Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are especially likely to A. demonstrate the spotlight effect. B. be open and spontaneous. C. avoid political disagreements. D. enjoy many unusually close friendships. B
254. Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to A. have a strong ego. B. have a well-developed superego. C. experience defensive self-esteem. D. have a strong sense of gender identity. C
255. Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from A. his growth-inhibiting environment. B. the collective unconscious. C. inborn personality traits. D. an internal locus of control. A
256. According to Carl Rogers, people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and A. conscientious. B. consistent. C. extraverted. D. empathetic. D
257. Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by A. an external locus of control. B. unconditional positive regard. C. reciprocal determinism. D. free association. B
258. Lamont has frequently been rebellious, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor's attitude toward Lamont is most explicitly recommended by A. Freud. B. Rogers. C. Bandura. D. Adler. B
259. Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience A. a self-serving bias. B. a negative self-concept. C. an external locus of control. D. a weak superego. B
260. In assessing a client's personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between A. the pleasure principle and the reality principle. B. ideal self and actual self. C. the client's values and the therapist's values. D. internal locus of control and external locus of control. B
261. Which personality theorists have most clearly been credited with encouraging the popular belief that a positive self-concept is the key to happiness and success? A. psychoanalytic theorists B. social-cognitive theorists C. humanistic theorists D. trait theorists C
262. Which personality theorists have been criticized the most for encouraging individual selfishness and self- indulgence? A. trait theorists B. social-cognitive theorists C. psychoanalytic theorists D. humanistic theorists D
263. Which theorists have been criticized for underestimating the human predisposition to engage in destructive and evil behaviors? A. trait theorists B. humanistic theorists C. psychoanalytic theorists D. socialcognitive theorists B
264. Sigmund Freud explained personality in terms of unconscious motivations, whereas ________ described personality in terms of enduring traits. A. Gordon Allport B. Carl Rogers C. Albert Bandura D. Hermann Rorschach A
265. Kelsey is consistently optimistic, talkative, and impulsive. Each of these characteristics most clearly represents a A. defense mechanism. B. self-serving bias. C. fixation. D. trait. D
266. An interest in describing and classifying the many ways in which individuals may differ from one another is most characteristic of the ________ perspective. A. social-cognitive B. trait C. humanistic D. psychoanalytic B
267. Which of the following tests characteristically describes personality in complimentary terms? A. Rorschach inkblot test B. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator C. MMPI D. TAT B
268. Which instrument has been used for career counseling and work-team development to help identify individuals' personality types? A. the Rorschach B. the MMPI C. the MBTI D. the TAT C
269. To identify a relatively small number of the most basic personality traits, trait theorists have used A. projective tests. B. free association. C. the MMPI. D. factor analysis. D
270. People who describe themselves as outgoing may also say they like excitement and practical jokes. This cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together reflects a basic A. factor. B. complex. C. hierarchy of needs. D. reciprocal determinism. A
271. Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as A. external-dependent. B. manic-depressive. C. unstable-extraverted. D. passive-aggressive. C
272. Evidence of the impact of biology on personality traits includes the fact that A. extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. B. extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively high. C. introverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. D. introverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively high. A
273. Trait theorists would be most likely to highlight the impact of our biologically inherited ________ on personality. A. erogenous zones B. locus of control C. attributional style D. temperament D
274. Which of the following is true of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory? A. It is an empirically derived test. B. It can be administered and scored only by a trained psychologist. C. It is the most widely used projective test. D. It was designed to assess the personality traits of normal, psychologically healthy individuals. A
275. Over the last few years, Mr. Helmus has been obsessed with bizarre thoughts and has become increasingly agitated and socially withdrawn. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for assessing the nature and severity of his symptoms? A. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator B. TAT C. Rorschach inkblot test D. MMPI D
276. Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale? A. "I am usually fairly happy." B. "I constantly worry about my health." C. "Most people are willing to lie in order to get ahead." D. "I have never disliked anyone." D
277. In some ways, each of us is just like everyone else. This fact enables astrologers to effectively make use of a technique known as A. fixation. B. the stock spiel. C. free association. D. self-transcendence. B
278. In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of A. the spotlight effect. B. the self-reference phenomenon. C. the Barnum effect. D. free association. C
279. As personality descriptions become more positive, the Barnum effect becomes stronger. This best illustrates A. the spotlight effect. B. unconditional positive regard. C. self-serving bias. D. an external locus of control. C
280. The Big Five is the term currently used to refer to basic A. psychosexual stages. B. defense mechanisms. C. trait dimensions. D. sensory modalities. C
281. A person who is helpful and trusting most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as A. extraversion. B. openness. C. agreeableness. D. conscientiousness. C
282. Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most descriptive of an individual who is organized and disciplined in managing his or her work? A. extraversion B. agreeableness C. conscientiousness D. openness C
283. A highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension of A. agreeableness. B. openness. C. extraversion. D. neuroticism. D
284. Being sociable and fun-loving is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of A. openness. B. conscientiousness. C. extraversion. D. emotional stability. C
285. During adulthood, people's level of openness tends to ________ slightly and their level of agreeableness tends to ______. A. increase; increase B. decrease; decrease C. increase; decrease D. decrease; increase D
286. People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to be morning types ("larks") rather than evening types ("owls"). A. openness B. neuroticism C. extraversion D. conscientiousness D
287. The stability of personality traits over time is greatest among A. children. B. college students. C. 30-year olds. D. 60-year olds. D
288. Evidence that our traits persist over time and across different settings is of greatest relevance to A. positive psychology. B. self-transcendence. C. unconditional positive regard. D. the person-situation controversy. D
289. Trait theorists have been criticized for A. underestimating the potential influence of biological factors on personality development. B. underestimating the extent to which people differ from one another. C. overestimating the consistency of behavior from one situation to another. D. overestimating the importance of reciprocal determinism on adult personality traits. C
290. Brenda has never cheated on a psychology test, but she often does so on chemistry tests. She recently stole some merchandise from a local store, but she also returned a lost billfold along with $28 to its rightful owner. This pattern of behavior should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing the consistent impact of ________ on behavior. A. personality traits B. unconditional positive regard C. repression D. reciprocal determinism A
291. People's scores on personality tests often fail to predict their behavior in a real-life situation. This should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________ on behavior. A. traits B. reciprocal determinism C. unconditional positive regard D. self-actualization A
292. Impressions of just a few seconds of a teacher's expressive style are consistent with impressions of the teacher's expressive style over an entire semester. This best illustrates the importance of A. self-esteem. B. traits. C. projective tests. D. self-transcendence. B
293. People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension of ________ tend to use more adjectives in their e-mail communications. A. neuroticism B. conscientiousness C. agreeableness D. extraversion D
294. Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and situations on human behavior? A. trait perspective B. psychoanalytic perspective C. socialcognitive perspective D. humanistic perspective C
295. Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism? A. psychoanalytic B. social-cognitive C. trait D. humanistic B
296. Analena's refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of A. the spotlight effect. B. reciprocal determinism. C. an external locus of control. D. defensive self-esteem. B
297. Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by A. self-transcendence. B. the spotlight effect. C. reaction formation. D. reciprocal determinism. D
298. Within the framework of Bandura's reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control refers to a(n) A. behavior. B. genetic predisposition. C. environmental factor. D. cognitive factor. D
299. Professor Halasa perceives shy, inhibited styles of behavior to be the interactive outcome of cultural expectations, autonomic nervous system reactivity, and unconscious thought processes. The professor's views best illustrate a(n) ________ approach. A. trait B. evolutionary C. biopsychosocial D. humanistic C
300. Because people are biopsychosocial organisms, the study of personality most clearly benefits from the use of A. free association. B. empirically derived tests. C. multiple levels of analysis. D. unconditional positive regard. C
301. Julio believes that no matter how hard he works, the "system" is so biased against his ethnic group that he will be unable to achieve economic success. Julio's thinking most clearly demonstrates A. reaction formation. B. the false consensus effect. C. an external locus of control. D. the spotlight effect. C
302. Corbett refuses to take reasonable precautions to protect his health because he believes good health is just a matter of luck anyway. Corbett's attitude best illustrates A. the Barnum effect. B. an external locus of control. C. self-serving bias. D. the spotlight effect. B
303. The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies A. the Barnum effect. B. the spotlight effect. C. an internal locus of control. D. reciprocal determinism. C
304. Paula expects that diligent study will enable her to earn good grades on her tests. Paula's belief best illustrates A. self-serving bias. B. the spotlight effect. C. unconditional positive regard. D. an internal locus of control. D
305. Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are A. likely to experience low selfesteem. B. extremely introverted personalities. C. likely to be academically successful. D. not easily able to delay gratification of their personal desires. C
306. Compared with those who perceive an internal locus of control, individuals with an external locus of control are A. more likely to feel depressed and more likely to delay gratification. B. less likely to feel depressed and less likely to delay gratification. C. more likely to feel depressed and less likely to delay gratification. D. less likely to feel depressed and more likely to delay gratification. C
307. Practicing ________ has been observed to reduce blood sugar and neural activity associated with mental focus. A. self-serving bias B. free association C. self-control D. unconditional positive regard C
308. Shortly after exercising ________, people become less restrained in their aggressive responses to provocation. A. self-control B. factor analysis C. erogenous zones D. self-serving bias A
309. In the short run, after exercising self-control, people are ________ able to maintain self-control. In the long run, their self-control is ________. A. more; strengthened B. less; weakened C. more; weakened D. less; strengthened D
310. Researchers have observed that the experience of repeated uncontrollable traumatic events contributes to A. the false consensus effect. B. learned helplessness. C. the Barnum effect. D. an internal locus of control. B
311. Veena gets poor grades no matter how hard she studies, so she has simply given up studying. Veena's behavior most clearly reflects A. learned helplessness. B. an internal locus of control. C. an inferiority complex. D. the Barnum effect. A
312. Animals who are able to escape shocks in one laboratory situation learn ________ and easily escape shocks in a new laboratory situation. A. unconditional positive regard B. free association C. personal control D. factor analysis C
313. Shortly before the democratic revolution in the former East Germany, researchers found differences in the body language of working-class men in East and West Berlin bars. This best illustrated the impact of A. the spotlight effect. B. free association. C. self-serving bias. D. personal control. D
314. After picking one of 28 flavors of ice cream, people may regret bypassing some of the remaining flavors. Their regret best illustrates a consequence of A. an external locus of control. B. the tyranny of choice. C. the false consensus effect. D. unconditional positive regard. B
315. The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of A. conditional positive regard. B. free association. C. reciprocal determinism. D. personal control. D
316. Students who perceive that their low test scores are due to their own lack of ability best illustrate A. self-serving bias. B. the false consensus effect. C. the spotlight effect. D. a pessimistic attributional style. D
317. To assess how optimistic or pessimistic your classmates are, you would be best advised to discover A. what grades they anticipate receiving in future courses. B. how they explain their academic failures, financial setbacks, and relationship difficulties. C. how much financial debt they are willing to incur in order to complete their education. D. how many people they consider to be their close friends. B
318. Pessimists are more likely than optimists to experience A. dampened immune system functioning. B. the false consensus effect. C. unconditional positive regard. D. self-serving bias. A
319. Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as A. optimism. B. projection. C. the Barnum effect. D. free association. A
320. Most late adolescents perceive themselves as much less vulnerable than their peers to the AIDS virus. This best illustrates A. repression. B. the spotlight effect. C. reaction formation. D. unrealistic optimism. D
321. Excessive self-confidence is especially likely to be facilitated by the difficulty in recognizing A. personal control. B. free association. C. one's own incompetence. D. unconditional positive regard. C
322. According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the best ways to predict a person's future behavior is to A. identify that person's most central traits by having him or her take a personality inventory. B. observe that person's behavior in various relevant situations. C. assess that person's general level of self-esteem. D. uncover that person's hidden motives, as revealed by projective tests. B
323. According to the social-cognitive perspective, the best predictor of students' academic success in college wouldbe their A. college entrance test scores. B. high school grade-point average. C. personal optimism about the future. D. performance on the MMPI. B
324. A criticism of the social-cognitive perspective has been that it A. overestimates the importance of unconscious factors in personality. B. is inconsistent with research demonstrating the pervasive nature of self-serving bias. C. underestimates the importance of enduring personality traits. D. is inconsistent with the results of contemporary research on learning processes. C
325. Which of the following is said to function as an organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors? A. the self B. the reality principle C. the Big Five D. the empirically derived test A
326. Medical students earn higher grades if they have a clear vision of themselves as successful doctors. This best illustrates the motivational significance of A. possible selves. B. unconditional positive regard. C. self-serving bias. D. the spotlight effect. A
327. Our motivation to achieve success and avoid failure is most directly influenced by our A. Oedipus complex. B. possible selves. C. factor analysis. D. free association. B
328. When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates A. self-serving bias. B. the spotlight effect. C. reaction formation. D. reciprocal determinism. B
329. Self-esteem refers to A. the sum total of all our thoughts about ourselves. B. our concept of what we would like to be. C. our feelings of high or low self-worth. D. all of these characteristics. C
330. People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to A. experience an internal locus of control. B. overestimate the accuracy of their beliefs. C. manifest self-serving bias. D. succumb to conformity pressures. D
331. If children's positive self-esteem is largely a consequence rather than a cause of their successful accomplishments, parents would be best advised to enable their children to A. develop an external locus of control. B. recognize that positive self-esteem inhibits self-serving bias. C. effectively surmount challenges and achieve success. D. experience positive self-esteem regardless of how well or how poorly they perform. C
332. The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one's successes than for one's failures best illustrates A. an external locus of control. B. self-serving bias. C. unconditional positive regard. D. the spotlight effect. B
333. Mr. Carlson is a politician who credits his past election victories to his own effective communication and hard work; he attributes his past election losses to factors beyond his control. His assessments best illustrate A. reciprocal determinism. B. the Barnum effect. C. self-serving bias. D. the spotlight effect. C
334. In national surveys, most business executives say they are more ethical than their average counterpart. This best illustrates A. an external locus of control. B. the spotlight effect. C. self-serving bias. D. reciprocal determinism. C
335. When people compare their personal qualities with those of the average person, they are most likely to experience A. the Barnum effect. B. an external locus of control. C. the spotlight effect. D. high self-esteem. D
336. Research on self-perception indicates that most people A. are more critical of themselves than they are of other people. B. are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future. C. more quickly believe flattering descriptions of themselves than unflattering feedback. D. feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes. C
337. People typically ________ the commonality of their foibles and they typically ________ the commonality of their strengths. A. overestimate; overestimate B. underestimate; underestimate C. overestimate; underestimate D. underestimate; overestimate D
338. Research participants were most likely to react aggressively to criticism of their written essays if they experienced ________ self-esteem. A. unrealistically low B. moderately low C. moderately high D. unrealistically high D
339. Exaggerated feelings of self-importance are most closely linked with A. narcissism. B. extraversion. C. the spotlight effect. D. an external locus of control. A
340. Self-confidence that is easily punctured by criticism is most indicative of A. an external locus of control. B. the false consensus effect. C. defensive self-esteem. D. the Barnum effect. C
341. Jeremiah accepts himself as he is without being strongly affected by how others evaluate him. Jeremiah most clearly demonstrates A. the Barnum effect. B. secure self-esteem. C. the spotlight effect. D. reciprocal determinism. B
Psychology

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